PCMCIA Presents                           ExpressCard™                           TechnologyPCMCIA is a non-profit tradeass...
IntroductionPCMCIA developed the ExpressCard™ standard tocarry forward the benefits of ‘plug-in’ I/O cards to thenext gene...
http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/Native BusConnectionsThe ExpressCard standard supports both the USB 2.0and PCI Express inte...
http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/     PCMCIA Membership     Benefits of Membership                                Five conta...
The ExpressCard™ Compliance Program                                           A Brief Overview of the ExpressCard Complian...
Compliance Test Fixtures                                                     Third-Party Test Houses PCMCIA will make the ...
ExpressCard™ Technology                                                     The New Standard for High-Performance, Low-Cos...
The ExpressCard™ Standard – The Next Generation PC Card TechnologyOctober 2003 – Copyright PCMCIAIn 2004 a new generation ...
The ExpressCard Standard - The Next Generation PC Card TechnologyThe ExpressCard Standard also allows extended module form...
The ExpressCard Standard - The Next Generation PC Card TechnologyThe InterfaceEach slot of the ExpressCard host interface ...
The ExpressCard Standard - The Next Generation PC Card Technology                               ExpressCard module power s...
http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/  September 2003 WHITE PAPER                                                               ...
http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/www.dell.com/r&d                                                                          I...
http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/September 2003                                                          platforms, includin...
http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/www.dell.com/r&d                                                                           ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

Express Card


Published on

Express Card

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Express Card

  1. 1. PCMCIA Presents ExpressCard™ TechnologyPCMCIA is a non-profit tradeassociation foundedin 1989 to establishtechnical standardsfor modularperipherals and topromoteinterchangabilityamong computersystems.PC Card technologyis already a featurein almost everynotebook computer,empowering usersto configuresystems and createunique, integratedsolutions to meettheir computinginterconnect needs.Based in San Jose,California, the • A Smaller & Faster PC Card Solutionassociation hasmore than 100 • Suitable for Mobile and Desktop Systemsmember companiesworldwide. • Supports USB 2.0 and PCI Express Applications • Lower System and Card Complexity http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  2. 2. IntroductionPCMCIA developed the ExpressCard™ standard tocarry forward the benefits of ‘plug-in’ I/O cards to thenext generation of personal computing devices.The standard was developed by a large number ofPCMCIA member companies including technologyleaders, system manufacturers, card manufacturers,and representatives from all other parts of the PC Cardindustry.Module SizesTo support the broadest range of support those technologies which require aapplications there are two sizes of module. physically larger module. In this space weBoth are smaller that today’s CardBus card. will see devices such as smartcard readers, CompactFlash adapters, and 1.8” hardThe smallest card, the ExpressCard/34 drives.module, is almost half the size of a CardBuscard. We expect this size to be well suited All ExpressCard modules are 5mm thick butto a very broad range of applications the standard also allows for cardcovering communications, media, and developers to build longer ‘extended’general purpose add-ins. modules. These can have thicker portions which project beyond the envelope of theThe standard also specifies a wider card host system.called an ExpressCard/54 module. This is to 22 mm CardBus PC Card 85.6 mm 75 mm 75 mm 54 mm 54 mm 34 mm http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  3. 3. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/Native BusConnectionsThe ExpressCard standard supports both the USB 2.0and PCI Express interfaces.Card manufacturers are able to choose whichever busis appropriate to their application; the performance ofPCI Express, or from the wide range of solutionssupported by USB.All host PC ExpressCard slots will support cards usingeither interface. The host platform no longer needs toincorporate a bridge chip between the chipset and thesocket. PCI Express and USB 2.0 are fully hot-pluggable.Host System SlotsMobile and Desktop host systems can provideExpressCard/34 slots when space is at a premium, orthe wider Universal ExpressCard slot to accommodateboth module sizes.The Universal ExpressCard slot has a novelguidance feature to ensure that theExpressCard/34 modules are alwayscorrectly inserted.
  4. 4. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/ PCMCIA Membership Benefits of Membership Five contacts at each Executive member Executive PCMCIA Membership Associate company receive the PC Card Standard and • Free PCMCIA Standards PCMCIA Update, and may register for Level/Benefits Grid PCMCIA meetings free of charge. As the • Complete access to the ExpressCard driving force behind PCMCIA, Executive Specifications members receive valuable exposure on Access to NEWCARD specifications • Access to all proposals and working PCMCIA’s home page and in all PCMCIA Free PC Card Standard and Updates materials while in progress, before literature. public release 80%+ Discount on additional Standard copies • Committee Minutes Associate Membership PCMCIA Update Quarterly Publication • PCMCIA Update Quarterly Publication ($3500/year) Access to Members-only Web Site • Access to Members-Only Web Site Free access to download PC Card Standard • Use of PC Card Logo Associate Members are the backbone of Use of PC Card logo on products • PlugFest Interoperability Workshops PCMCIA activity. With full voting rights on all Free Permanent Manufacturers Tuple ID • Free Manufacturer’s Tuple ID PCMCIA technical and marketing committees Access to Proposals while in process and four of eleven seats on PCMCIA’s Board • PCMCIA Membership Plaque Annually 5 1 of Directors, Associate membership is perfect # of Contacts (Free meetings, Standards) • Meeting Participation for companies that want to help drive the Listings on the PCMCIA Resource Directory 10 3 (Executive and Associate only) promotion and advancement of PC Card Moblie Advisory Council Membership • Proposal Submission technology. Associate members are also (Executive and Associate only) entitled to submit proposals for changes to Attend Membership Meetings • Free Mobile Advisory Council (MAC) the PC Card Standard. Submit Proposals membership (Executive and Associate Voting rights in Committee only) One contact receives all mailings and Seats on the PCMCIA Board of Directors 7 4 literature, including the PC Card Standard Membership Levels and all updates, and may register for Control of PCMCIA By-laws meetings free of charge. Logo on PCMCIA Web Site Home Page There are three levels of membership in PCMCIA that offer something for any Affiliate Membership company involved in the manufacture, design, or distribution of PC Card products. ($1500/year) Executive Membership Affiliate Membership is ideal for companies that need up-to-date information about PC ($10,000/year) Card technology and want to participate in PCMCIA’s marketing and promotional PCMCIA Executive Members plan the strategic future activities. Affiliate members may not attend of PCMCIA and modular peripheral meetings, but do receive complete meeting Mission Statement technology by controlling the By-laws of results following each meeting, along with PCMCIA and by filling seven of eleven seats access to all of PCMCIA’s marketing activities on PCMCIA’s Board of Directors. Executive To develop and members-only web site. members also enjoy full voting rights on all standards for technical, marketing, and organizational One contact receives all mailings and modular peripherals issues. Executive members are also entitled to literature, including the PC Card Standard submit proposals for changes to the PC Card and all updates. Affiliate member companies and promote their Standard. are entitled to one free product listing on the worldwide PC Card Resource Directory. adoption. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association Executive Members 2635 North First Street Suite 209 • San Jose, CA • 95134 • USA Tel: 408-433-2273 • Fax: 408-433-9558 • Email: office@pcmcia.org Dell Computer Visit our web site: Intel www.pcmcia.org SCM Microsystems © 2003 Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. All rights ExpressCard, the Rabbit symbol and the PCMCIA Ribbon symbol are trademarks of PCMCIA
  5. 5. The ExpressCard™ Compliance Program A Brief Overview of the ExpressCard Compliance Program The ExpressCard Compliance Program is designed to give the consumer the confidence that they can buy host systems Compliance Checklist Coverage or modules bearing the ExpressCard brand knowing that they will work together. This • End user ExpressCard products improvement in the end user experience is - Modules expected to help grow the market for ExpressCard products by - Systems making it feasible for complete novices to add hardware • Components devices to their systems. The improvement is expected to be most apparent on Desktop PCs where adding hardware to the - Slot Power Switch system previously required opening the case to insert a board. - Connectors Establishing the reliability and predictability of products that • Module/System manufacturers to use compliant connectors bear the ExpressCard brand is central to the expanded use of and power switches the technology. - If not using existing components, manufacturers are responsible for also testing those elementsCompliance Program Coverage Category Coverage Source Interoperability Events USB Protocol and electrical elements need USB-IF • Participants are module and system manufacturers Interface to meet the current USB 2.0 test - Connectors and Power controllers tested indirectly standard • Modeled on similar events set up by USB IF PCI Express Functional, protocol and electrical PCI SIG - Held in an "Embassy Suites" style hotel Interface elements meet PCI Express 1.0a - Module manufacturers visit each system manufacturer in turn and complete a predefined set of tests Mechanical Connector and card elements all need Checklist to meet the specified dimensions and - System manufacturers assigned a fixed location tolerances - At end of event, PCMCIA correlates results to determine pass/fail results Durability Friction surfaces must allow for the Checklist number of insertion and removal • Two categories of testing cycles defined in the Standard - Interoperatility checklist: mandatory for compliance submittals Power Host and modules must perform with Checklist - Additional test coverage: does not affect compliance test Supply supplies within range defined in the results, but provides additional value to participants Standard Power Operating range of host slots and Checklist Dissipation modules must be within the thermal Interoperability Coverage range specified in the Standard • Standard defines behavior for the following cases: Inter- Establishing that modules work with Interop 1. Initial module insertion operability systems Event 2. Graceful removal Regulatory Not part of Compliance Program N/A 3. Hot insertion Applications Not part of Compliance Program N/A 4. Surprise removal 5. Cold insertion 6. Sleep/suspend removalCompliance Process 7. Sleep/suspend insertion 1. Complete self-administered checklist for product 8. Hibernation removal - Designed to ensure product meets the ExpressCard Standard 9. Hibernation insertion - Different checklists exist for different product categories • Interoperability checklist intends to verify appropriate behavior for a given module and system combination 2. Attend an interoperability test event - To be scheduled about four times per year - Co-located with either PCI Express or USB event (over) 3. Apply for license to use ExpressCard logo - Proof of successful checklist and interoperability testing 4. Product entered into PCMCIA database and Comp. ID issued - Product may use the ExpressCard logo ExpressCard is a trademark of PCMCIA. * All product and company names herein may be trademarks of their registered owners. 06/04v1 http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  6. 6. Compliance Test Fixtures Third-Party Test Houses PCMCIA will make the following test fixtures available: • Some manufacturers may be unable to attend the 1. Plug-in board for PCI Express desktop systems which interoperability events and/or be unable to self-certify provides a fully functional ExpressCard Slot • PCMCIA is working with commercial test houses to provide - Works in PCI Express CEM slot a "Turnkey" solution for a fee - Supports both PCI Express and USB interfaces - Manufacturer provides test-house with a module or system - Test house executes checklist and interoperablity tests Test Fixture will - Provides manufacturer with a registration/compliance report be available from packet ready for submittal to the PCMCIA PCMCIA, • Details will be published on PCMCIA web site providing a fully functional ExpressCard slot What You Can Do Now • System Vendors: - Prepare your roadmap now for ExpressCard implementations 2. ExpressCard module to support signal integrity testing of - Choose your chipsets PCI Express portion of host ExpressCard implementation - Test your ACPI solutions 3. USB module to support signal integrity testing of USB portion of host ExpressCard implementation - Join PCMCIA and participate • Module Vendors: PCI Express (top) - CardBus and PC Cards - choose your migration path and USB 2.0 - New technologies - PCI Express, USB or both? (bottom) testing modules support - Join PCMCIA and participate signal integrity • Review materials available on PCMCIA web site: testing - www.expresscard.org • Plan to participate in first compliance workshop - Watch www.expresscard.org for detailsSelf Qualification About PCMCIA • Companies may apply to be allowed to self certify The PCMCIA is the leading trade association for plug-in - May be appropriate if they have numerous product releases modular I/O expansion for personal computers and notebooks. & cycles Founded in 1989, the association has over 120 members and • Requirements developed the 16-bit PC Card and CardBus standards. - Ability to maintain and run interoperability test suite - Will include range of systems and ExpressCard modules - Enrollment in similar programs for other industry groups, such as USB self certification • Company still needs to submit registration & passing compliance report for each product to PCMCIA for compliance IDs PCMCIA 2635 North First Street Suite 218 San Jose, CA 95134 • USA Tel: 408-433-2273 • Fax: 408-433-9558 Email: office@pcmcia.org Visit us at: www.pcmcia.org www.expresscard.org ExpressCard is a trademark of PCMCIA. * All product and company names herein may be trademarks of their registered owners. 06/04v1 http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  7. 7. ExpressCard™ Technology The New Standard for High-Performance, Low-Cost I/O Expansion for Desktop and Mobile Systems The ExpressCard standard promises to deliver high- performance, modular expansion to desktop and notebook computers at a lower cost and in a smaller form factor. Consumers will be able to add memory communications and security devices by simply inserting ExpressCard modules into their systems. The new standard supports sealed-box expandability in desktops and thinner notebook design.Key Features • Leverages PC Card technology The ExpressCard system interface supports a direct connection - Reliability and durability to the chipset. The slot configuration supports both card sizes. - Hot plug-n-play and auto-configuration • Roughly half the size of today’s PC Card • Supports both USB 2.0 and PCI Express* in each slot Industry Support - Increased bandwidth while reducing the number of signals 100+ PCMCIA member companies, including Dell, Hewlett • Lower cost Packard, IBM, Intel, Lexar Media, Microsoft, SCM Microsystems and Texas Instruments. - No host controller - New connector technology • Requires less power Availability • Replaces CardBus as the preferred I/O solution Mid-2004Two Sizes Expected Applications ExpressCard/34: 34 mm (W) x 75 mm (L) x 5 mm (H) ExpressCard/54: 54 mm (W) x 75 mm (L) x 5 mm (H) Interface Target Applications PCI Express Wired LAN As compared to CardBus (Type II): 54 mm (W) x 86 mm (L) x 5 Broadband modems mm (H) TV Tuners/Decoders I/O Adapters (e.g. 1394a/b) Magnetic Disk DrivesCard Interfaces USB 2.0 Wired & Wireless WAN Connector Style Wireless PAN Flash Memory • 26 pin beam on blade Flash Card Adapters Security Bandwidth support Legacy I/O (PS2, serial, parallel) • USB 2.0: 480 Mb/s Optical Disk Drives • PCI Express* (x1): 2.5Gb/s/direction GPS Receiver Power available to card (average) • 3.3V: 1000mA • 3.3V aux: 250 mA PCMCIA • 1.5V: 500 mA The PCMCIA is the leading trade association for plug in Max current combined across all power rails: Up to 1750mA modular I/O expansion for personal computers and notebooks. Founded in 1989, the association developed the PC Card 16 and CardBus standards.For More Information www.expresscard.org 10/03v1 ExpressCard is a trademark of PCMCIA. * All product and company names herein may be trademarks of their registered owners. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  8. 8. The ExpressCard™ Standard – The Next Generation PC Card TechnologyOctober 2003 – Copyright PCMCIAIn 2004 a new generation of PC platforms offering higher performance andscalability will be launched. These improvements are due to the introductionof PCI Express as a system bus. In support of this PCMCIA has introduced anew standard for hot swappable system modules which it believes will replace‘CardBus’ as the preferred solution for end user add-ins. This new E x p r e s s C a r dtechnology is designed to allow a broader range of applications at a lower costthan CardBus and has been embraced by both desktop and notebook systemmanufacturers.IntroductionThe ExpressCard standard gives the user a very easy way toadd hardware or media to his system. The ExpressCardmodule can be plugged in or removed at almost any time,and unlike traditional add-in cards for desktop computers, itdoes not require any tools. ExpressCard technologyprovides desktop and mobile computer users a consistent,easy, reliable and non-threatening way to connect devicesinto their systems. Illustrated here are ExpressCard slot and module concepts for both mobile and small-form-factor desktop computing platforms ExpressCard technology replaces conventional parallel buses for I/O devices with scaleable, high-speed serial interfaces. It allows developers to create modules using PCI Express* for their highest performance applications, or to use USB* to take advantage of the wide range of USB silicon that is already available. Irrespective of the bus technology that the module vendor chooses, the end user experience will be the same. There will be no external indications to the end user of which underlying bus the module is using.Module form-factorsThere are two standard formats of ExpressCardmodules: the ExpressCard/34 module which is34 mm wide and the ExpressCard/54 modulecharacterized by its 54 mm width. Bothmodule formats are 5 mm thick, the same asthe Type II PC Card. The standard modulelength is 75 mm, which is 10.6 mm shorterthan a standard PC Card. ExpressCard/34modules and ExpressCard/54 modules both usethe same connector interface. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  9. 9. The ExpressCard Standard - The Next Generation PC Card TechnologyThe ExpressCard Standard also allows extended module formats (not shown here) to provideExpressCard module developers the facility to integrate features such as LAN and phone lineconnectors, or Antennas for wireless cards into the body of their products.The two sizes of ExpressCard modules give system manufactures a degree of flexibility that theydid not have with earlier module standards. While the ExpressCard/34 device is better suited tosmaller systems, the wider ExpressCard/54 module can accommodate applications that will notphysically fit into the narrower ExpressCard/34 form factor. Examples include SmartCard readers,Compact Flash readers, and 1.8” disk drives. The ExpressCard/54 module also provides extra spacefor components and can dissipate more thermal energy than the smaller module. This may makeit a natural choice for higher performance and first generation applications. However, themodule manufacturer who can fit his application into the narrow module will have the advantagethat that particular module will work in both types of ExpressCard slot.The socket which can accommodate the ExpressCard/54 module can also support anExpressCard/34 device. To improve the ease-of-use this slot includes a novel guidance featurewhich is designed to steer ExpressCard/34 modules into the connector socket. It is also worthpointing out that the dimensions are such that inserting a CardBus card into an ExpressCard slot orvice versa will not damage either part. The ExpressCard architecture is modular and extensible, allowing for multiple slots as illustrated here.In any multi-slot host implementation, all slots provide equivalent I/O interface functionality andthe choice of which slot to use for any given module is irrelevant. Both module formats affordaccess to the same I/O interface performance and source power although the largerExpressCard/54 module provides the application nominally 140% the internal volume and 160%the thermal dissipation capacity of the ExpressCard/34 module.The ConnectorA common beam-on-blade style connector is used for both module and the corresponding hostconnector accommodates the insertion of either module. The blade contacts are located on theExpressCard module and are designed for high durability and reliability. The connectors aredesigned to be capable of 10,000 card insertion and removal cycles.* Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  10. 10. The ExpressCard Standard - The Next Generation PC Card TechnologyThe InterfaceEach slot of the ExpressCard host interface must support a single PCI Express lane (x1) operating atthe baseline 2.5 Gbps data rate, in each direction, as defined by the PCI Express Base Specification1.0a as published and maintained by the PCI Special Interest Group (PCI-SIG). The ExpressCardhost interface must also support the low-, full- and high-speed USB data rates as defined by theUSB 2.0 Specification as published and maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF).Support of both interfaces is a condition for being an ExpressCard-compliant host platform.An ExpressCard module may use one or both of the standard interfaces depending on theapplication requirements. The ExpressCard host interface – List of Signals Signal Group Signal Direction Description PCI Express x1 data interface: PETp0, PETn0 Input/Output 1 differential transmit pair and 1 differential PERp0, PERn0 receive pair PCI Express REFCLK+ PCI Express differential, spread-spectrum Input REFCLK- reference clock PERST# Input PCI Express functional reset Universal Serial Bus USBD+ Input/Output USB 2.0 serial data interface (USB) USBD- SMBDATA Input/Output SMBus SMBus management channel SMBCLK Input/Output PCI Express module detection and power CPPE# Output control System auxiliary CPUSB# Output USB module detection and power control signals Used to indicate when REFCLK is needed (PCI CLKREQ# Output Express-only) WAKE# Output PCI Express function initiated wake event +3.3V Primary voltage source +3.3VAUX Auxiliary voltage source Power & Ground +1.5V Secondary voltage source GND Return current pathTo assist in applications that require special sideband system management features, ExpressCardhost systems may also connect a two-wire SMBus interface to the slot. If available, ExpressCardmodules may provide support for such features as remote alerting and sideband radio control.The following table summarizes the power supply limits for any given ExpressCard module. Forpurposes of the following table, the definition of ‘Average’ is the averaged steady-state maximumcurrent consumption for the given module application. ‘Max’ is defined as the absolute maximumvalue that may be measured outside of the initial in-rush current that is allowed during the powerramp-up period.* Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  11. 11. The ExpressCard Standard - The Next Generation PC Card Technology ExpressCard module power supply limits Supply Limits Notes 1 1000 mA – Average +3.3V Primary supply voltage 1300 mA – Max 250 mA – Average Auxiliary supply voltage; this current is also available during the 1 275 mA – Max power saving D3 state with wakeup enabled +3.3VAUX Auxiliary supply voltage during the power saving D3 state with 5 mA – Average wakeup disabled 500 mA – Average +1.5V Secondary supply voltage 650 mA – Max 1. The average current combined across both +3.3V and +3.3VAUX rails shall not exceed a total of 1000mA. The maximum total current across all power rails combined shall not exceed a total of 1750mA.All ExpressCard modules, independent of the amount of power drawn from the host system, shallnot exceed the thermal power limits defined for modules: 1.3W for ExpressCard/34 modules and2.1W for ExpressCard/54 modules. Thermal limits are based on an assumption of uniformly heatedmodule with a maximum case temperature of 90ºC in a host environment of 65ºC, and considerheating due to adjacent modules.Hot Plug Functionality and Power ManagementExpressCard technology is designed to allow users to install and remove modules at anytime,without having to switch their system off. This hot plug functionality is a well established part ofthe CardBus and USB usage models and is also supported by PCI Express. By relying on the auto-detection and configuration of the native I/O buses (PCI Express and USB 2.0), ExpressCardtechnology can be implemented on a host system without an external slot controller. It simplyneeds a device to control power to the slot based on a simple, wired, module presence detectionscheme.Regarding power management, both PCI Express and USB natively support features that allow formodule applications to be placed in very low power states while maintaining the ability to detectand respond to wakeup requests. Examples of how these features may be used by an ExpressCardapplication include receiving network messages via a wireless communications module that comein while the PC is in a sleep state. Effective use of these features is the key to creating high-performance applications which are both power and thermally efficient.Relationship to the PC Card StandardThe PC Card Standard, which defines the 16-bit PC Card and the popular CardBus™ technology,were the first and second generations of card standards developed by PCMCIA. The ExpressCardstandard represents the third.As host systems move to a PCI Express based architecture, we expect ExpressCard technology toreplace CardBus on the notebook and become broadly available on desktop platforms, especiallythe smaller form factor ‘sealed box’ designs.For More InformationFor more information on ExpressCard technology and becoming a member of PCMCIA pleasecontact:PCMCIA2635 North First Street Suite 209San JoseCA, 95134USATel: 408-433-2273www.pcmcia.org, www.expresscard.org* Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/
  12. 12. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/ September 2003 WHITE PAPER ™ INDUSTRY TRANSITION FROM PC CARD TO EXPRESSCARD TECHNOLOGY Ron Shaw, Technologist, Dell Advanced Platform Engineering ExpressCard technology is a small, Limits of the PC Card modular add-in card designed to re- The PCMCIA was founded in 1989 as an industry trade place the larger PC Card over the association and standards body to develop, maintain, next few years. The ExpressCard and promote a standard for modular cards that are inter- specification was released in Sep- changeable among portable computers. PCMCIA tember 2003. Developed by the membership includes module vendors, system ven-Personal Computer Memory Card International Associ- dors, silicon providers, software providers, andation (PCMCIA), the technology takes advantage of the representatives from associated special interest groupsscalable, high-bandwidth serial PCI Express and USB (SIGs).2.0 interfaces. Systems with ExpressCard slots are ex-pected to ship starting with the introduction of PCI The original PC Card standard addressed the need forExpress in 2004. memory cards, followed by a standard that addressed I/O module requirements. The PC Card standard has fur-ExpressCard technology enables externally accessible ther evolved to accommodate higher-speedslots that can be used for upgrades, new peripherals, applications such as networking and multimedia. Theand new classes of add-in cards (referred to as Express- latest version (v. 8.1) addresses the need for lower-costCard “modules”). ExpressCard technology leverages cards by allowing dedicated interfaces to some of thethe operating system and device-driver support associ- newer, lower-pin-count devices. The latest PC Card con-ated with the industry-standard USB and PCI Express trollers allow a direct connection to USB devices,interfaces. The technology also addresses system de- consumer flash devices, smart cards, and specializedsign and cost issues by removing the specialized silicon I/O devices. The form factor and connector have re-required for the custom interface of the PC Card and by mained the same to ensure compatibility with existingusing smaller connectors with fewer pins. ExpressCard modules. Despite these advances, the limit of the PCtechnology can deliver nearly four times the data trans- Card connector design was reached with version 8.1.fer rate of the PC Card interface by using some of the The connector is a 68-pin-in-socket connector originallylatest I/O interconnect technologies. Finally, an Ex- designed for transfer rates of 10 megabytes per secondpressCard slot is a more cost-effective expansion (MB/sec). With version 8.1, the practical limit of the in-solution than a PC Card slot. This cost advantage will terface has been reached. Its bandwidth is insufficientencourage PC companies to expand the use of Express- for high-performance upcoming requirements such asCard slots in portable computers and a wide range of Gigabit Ethernet network adapters and 1394b cards.other host systems, including small form-factor desk-top platforms and handheld devices. ExpressCard ExpressCard Technologytechnology can also be used in nontraditional personalelectronics and automotive applications. The new ExpressCard interface is smaller, faster, and less expensive than the PC Card interface. The Express-Dell is a strong proponent and supporter of Express- Card connector has just 26 pins and the interface has aCard technology. In this white paper, we explain why potential transfer rate of up to 500 MB/sec (or 250 MB/the PC Card is nearing its end of life and we describe Ex- sec in each direction) using a single-lane (or x1) PCI Ex-pressCard technology. We conclude by describing how press link. In addition, its form factor is up to 40 percentthe industry and customers can transition smoothly smaller than a PC Card, which allows ExpressCard mod-from legacy PC Card to ExpressCard technology. ules to be included in smaller host systems. Read Dell’s technology white papers @ www.dell.com/r&d
  13. 13. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/www.dell.com/r&d Industry Transition From PC Card to ExpressCard TechnologyThe PCMCIA developed the specification with support There are three basic ways that ExpressCard slots canfrom the PCI-SIG and the USB Implementers Forum be implemented in a platform to accommodate these(USB-IF). The ExpressCard specification uses the PCI card sizes.Express and USB I/O interconnect standards of the PCI- • One 34-mm slot — The 34-mm slot is the simplestSIG and USB-IF. During its development, the PCI-SIG host solution. Shown in Figure 2, this type of hostand USB-IF provided guidance and feedback to the slot will only support ExpressCard/34 modules. ThePCMCIA. The resulting ExpressCard form factor lever- advantage of this configuration is its compact size,ages the knowledge base of these organizations and and it will be common on small portable and hand-many of their member companies. The PCMCIA, PCI- held devices.SIG, and USB-IF will also cooperate on ExpressCard cer-tification. Each ExpressCard module will requirecertification, and current plans are to leverage the PCI-SIG and USB-IF certification programs. Leveraging thePCI Express and USB specifications reduces the soft-ware and silicon development effort required toimplement the technology. It also allowed the PCMCIAto concentrate on developing the new form factor. Figure 2. 34-mm ExpressCard SlotAn ExpressCard module can be implemented using ei-ther PCI Express or USB, depending on the bandwidth • One 54-mm slot — The 54-mm slot shown in Fig-required. A USB ExpressCard module is suitable for ure 3 accommodates both ExpressCard/34 and Ex-lower-speed devices such as a Bluetooth™ wireless pressCard/54 modules. The mechanical designcard or a consumer flash memory card. A PCI Express requirements for an ExpressCard/54 implementa-ExpressCard module is suitable for higher-bandwidth tion are more expensive. Its larger size and higherdevices such as 1394b and Gigabit Ethernet cards. To cost have a greater impact on smaller, low-costaccommodate both types of cards, all ExpressCard platforms where the benefit derived from support-slots are required to support both the USB 2.0 and PCI ing both card sizes must be weighed against form-Express (x1 link) I/O interconnects. factor and cost penalties. ExpressCard Modules and SlotsThere are two different ExpressCard module widths: 34mm and 54 mm. These will be denoted on the modulewith the name ExpressCard/54 for the wider modulesand either ExpressCard or ExpressCard/34 for the nar-row module. Figure 1 compares ExpressCard modulesto PC Cards. Figure 3. 54-mm ExpressCard Slot • One 68-mm slot — The third slot size is a dual 34- mm slot in which two 34-mm slots are installed side-by-side. As shown in Figures 4 and 5, the re- sulting 68-mm slot can accommodate one Express- Card/54 module or two ExpressCard/34 modules. Figure 1. ExpressCard Module Sizes
  14. 14. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/September 2003 platforms, including servers, desktops, portables, tablet PCs, and handheld and consumer electronics devices. Portable computers can get smaller or add more slots. Desktops can add external low-cost upgrade slots. Handheld devices can leverage the same modules as portables and desktops. The same ExpressCard mod- ule can be used in all classes of computer as well as noncomputer applications. High Speed Figure 4. 68-mm ExpressCard Slot With Its higher speed enables ExpressCard technology to be Two ExpressCard/34 Modules used for higher-bandwidth consumer applications. For example, ExpressCard modules may include high-defi- nition TV tuners, new LAN solutions, and faster wireless solutions. Users can install these modules by simply in- serting an ExpressCard module into the ExpressCard slot in the same way that a PC Card is inserted into a PC Card slot today. Transition Scenarios The PCMCIA has enabled a transition path from the PC Card to ExpressCard technology. The foundation for Figure 5. 68-mm ExpressCard Slot With this transition is laid in the PC Card version 8.1 specifi- One ExpressCard/54 Module cation, which allows for PC Card form factors that use USB as their native bus. A low-cost USB PC Card can be Advantages of ExpressCard used as a “carrier card” for an ExpressCard/34 module. Technology In this way, an ExpressCard/34 module can be used in a USB PC Card slot or an ExpressCard slot. Figure 6 illus-ExpressCard technology has the following advantages trates this concept. Beginning in 2004, new hostover the PC Card: platforms will implement CardBus/USB controllers that• Complements PCI Express and USB devices can accommodate these USB PC Cards, as well as ex-• Low cost and small size isting non-USB PC Cards. This approach enables a• High speed transition period during which organizations can mi- grate to ExpressCard modules while maintaining Complements PCI Express and USB Devices support for legacy PC Cards.ExpressCard modules provide an alternate PCI Expressor USB form factor that complements PCI Expresscards, which must be plugged into the system board,and USB solutions, which are connected via a USB ca-ble. In contrast, ExpressCard modules are simplyplugged into the external ExpressCard slot, just as PCCards are installed today. Figure 6. USB PC Card as Carrier for ExpressCard/34 Low Cost and Small SizeThe smaller size and lower cost of ExpressCard technol-ogy enables compelling enhancements for all
  15. 15. http://krimo666.mylivepage.com/www.dell.com/r&d Industry Transition From PC Card to ExpressCard TechnologyNative ExpressCard slots may start to appear in 2004 Conclusionwhen PCI Express systems are introduced. A small Dell has taken an active role in developing, promoting,form-factor desktop platform that does not currently and supporting the ExpressCard specification. This in-support an external expansion slot is a good candidate cludes encouraging current PC Card solution suppliersfor a low-cost native ExpressCard slot. However, in the and application developers to move to ExpressCardinitial stages of the industry transition, ExpressCard modules.modules will not be as widely available as PC Cards.During this period, a special ExpressCard module can Dell customers should prepare for the transition to Ex-be used that connects to an external PC Card reader. pressCard technology, which will begin in late 2004.This approach enables a low-cost expansion solution Customers should require that new portable computerthat can accommodate both ExpressCard modules and platforms have CardBus/USB PC Card slots. This capa-legacy PC Cards. bility will enable the new portables to read legacy PC Cards, as well as ExpressCard modules that are insert-During the transition period, some host platforms will ed into low-cost carrier cards. Customers should alsohave a PC Card slot and an ExpressCard slot. This con- plan to procure these carrier cards, which are USB PCfiguration is suitable for large portable computer Card solutions.platforms that have the mechanical volume to accom-modate both slots. The PC Card and ExpressCard slots As more ExpressCard modules become available, theircan be stacked or, on very large platforms, placed side smaller size and increased bandwidth will accelerateby side. the transition. PC Card slots may persist longer in the largest portable platforms, which have the mechanicalAs the industry transition continues, the small size of volume to support ExpressCard and PC Card slots. TheExpressCard slots enables more creative placement. timing of the final removal of PC Card will depend on theOn current portable computers, two PC Card slots must variety of solutions available in ExpressCard modules.be stacked because their large size limits their location.In contrast, a 34-mm ExpressCard slot can fit on either For More Informationside, the back, or on the display of the portable comput- • ExpressCard technology: www.expresscard.orger. The slot can also be located in the docking station. • PCMCIA: www.pcmcia.orgThis design flexibility is not limited to portable plat- • PCI-SIG: www.pcisig.comforms. An ExpressCard slot can be added to a desktop • USB-IF: www.usb.orgplatform by installing a low-cost connector to the sys-tem board. This allows ExpressCard solutionsconsisting of a cable and daughter board to be easilyadded to a system. ExpressCard slots can be placed onthe top, front, back, or side of a desktop system. Ex-pressCard slots can also be located in displays or smallexternal appliances that sit on a desk next to thedisplay.Information in this document is subject to change without notice.© 2003 Dell Inc. All rights reserved.Trademarks used in this text: Dell and the DELL logo are trademarks of Dell Inc.; Bluetooth is a trademark owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and is used by DellInc. under license. Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this document to refer to either the entities claiming the marks and names or their prod-ucts. Dell Inc. disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own.