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Slides used during talk given at Fordham University:

In a world where technology is changing faster than ever it's important not to just keep up with what's currently available, but to be thinking ahead. The New Media Consortium just released their 2013 Horizon Project Short List report that includes 12 coming technology trends in higher education. During the LearnIT, we discussed 6 of the top trends (additional slides to follow).

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LearnIT:  Technology Trends in Education (5/14/13) LearnIT: Technology Trends in Education (5/14/13) Presentation Transcript

  • Technology Trendsin EducationIn a world wheretechnology is changingfaster than everits important not to justkeep up with whatscurrently available,but to be thinking ahead.Kristen A. Treglia, Instructional TechnologistFordham University 5/14/13
  • CitationJohnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., andLudgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education Edition.Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.
  • It should be noted at the outset that the NMC Horizon Report is not apredictive tool. It is meant, rather, to highlight emerging technologies withconsiderable potential for our focus areas of education and interpretation.
  • Taken together, they provided the advisory boarda frame through which to consider the potential impactsof nearly 50 emerging technologies and related practicesthat were analyzed and discussed for possible inclusionin this edition of the NMC Horizon Report seriesof the 50 were chosenthrough successive rounds of ranking;they are detailed in the main body of the report6These trends and challengesare a reflection of the impact of technologythat is occurring in almost every aspect of our livesThey are indicative of the changing nature of the waywe communicate, access information, connect with peers and colleagues,learn, and even socialize
  • 1 – 2 years
  • MOOCs
  • What is a MOOC
  • Coined by Stephen Downes and George Siemens
  • a pedagogy in which knowledge is not a destination but an ongoing activityAt its heart, connectivism is the thesis that knowledge isdistributed across a network of connections, andtherefore that learning consists of the ability to constructand traverse those networks.Knowledge, therefore, is not acquired, as though it were a thing.It is not transmitted, as though it were some type ofcommunication.Connectivism
  • all course materials and the course itselfopen source and freeA key component of the original visionwith the door left open for a feeif a participant taking the course wisheduniversity credit to be transcripted for the work.
  • Yuan, Li, and Stephen PowelTimeline
  • Major PlayersNOTE: Udemy and 2U are two other educational start-ups often associated with MOOCs,but since both charge for access to courses, they are not listed here as true MOOCs.
  • MOOC Growth RateNumber of MOOCs offered
  • MOOC Growth RateNumber of studentsCoursera edX & Udacity2 million½ millionCoursera edX & Udacity
  • One of the most appealingpromises of MOOCs is that theyoffer the possibility for continued,advanced learning at zero cost,allowing students, life-longlearners, and professionals toacquire new skills andimprove their knowledge andemployability.
  • One of the most appealingpromises of MOOCs is that theyoffer the possibility for continued,advanced learning at zero cost,allowing students, life-longlearners, and professionals toacquire new skills andimprove their knowledge andemployability.Critics loudly warn that there is aneed to examine these newapproaches througha critical lens to ensure they areeffective and evolve past thetraditional lecture-style pedagogies
  • current MOOC modelstraditional lecture formats
  • QuestionsWhat does a sustainable, successful model looks like?
  • What does a sustainable, successful model looks like?Are MOOCs developing at a pace thatis too rapid for genuine analysis?Questions
  • What does a sustainable, successful model looks like?Are MOOCs developing at a pace thatis too rapid for genuine analysis?Are MOOCs not as disruptive of a technology as initially touted?Questions
  • Time will settle those questions, but there is no doubt that MOOCs have already had a significantinfluence on the future course of online learning, and deserve close attention, study, andcontinued experimentation.What does a sustainable, successful model looks like?Are MOOCs developing at a pace thatis too rapid for genuine analysis?Are MOOCs not as disruptive of a technology as initially touted?Questions
  • Freethough institutions arebrainstorming ways to monetize them, such as chargingfor special certifications
  • Free40%of studentsenrolled at four-year universitiesdo not get their degreein under six years
  • As MOOC projects proliferate,the hope is that they will invent new innovative and informalways for learners to demonstrate their knowledge at scalePeer review systems, student gurus, badges,and other forms of assessment are currently being explored,but there is no real verdict yet on what is most effectiveTo continue to gain traction, MOOCs will need to strike a finebalance between automating the assessment process whiledelivering personalized, authentic learning opportunities
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryAs new pedagogies emphasize personalized learning, there is a growingdemand for learner centered online courses for the masses;MOOCs, when designed effectively, have the potential to scale globallyMany MOOCs allow learners of all ages, incomes, and levels of educationto participate in a wide array of courses without being enrolledin the physical institutionMOOCs make creative use of several educational technologies andemerging instructional approaches, including blended learning,video lectures, and badges
  • TabletComputing
  • of U.S. online adultsnow own a smartphoneSome StatsSources:Nielsen/Forrester50%
  • Tablets vs. Smartphonesindependent and distinct from othermobile devices such as smartphones, e-readers, or tablet PCs05101520253013-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+Series1Series2PercentOwnedTabletSmartphonecomScore TabLens and comScore MobiLensJune 2012
  • Some StatsSource: Linchpinseoideal tools for sharing content, videos, images, and presentationsbecause they are easy for anyone to use, visually compelling, and highly portable
  • Some StatsSource: Linchpinseoideal tools for sharing content, videos, images, and presentationsbecause they are easy for anyone to use, visually compelling, and highly portable
  • Some StatsSource: Linchpinseoideal tools for sharing content, videos, images, and presentationsbecause they are easy for anyone to use, visually compelling, and highly portable
  • Some StatsRanking by adoption of new media technologyZenithOptimedia
  • Some StatsRanking by adoption of new media technologyZenithOptimedia
  • BYOD & Portabilityuniversities arerethinking the need forcomputer labs,or even personal laptops
  • Productivity apps, including Cheddar, TagMyDoc,Dropbox and many more enable learners to take andshare notes, create to-do lists, store all of their files,and organize their academic schedules.Examples
  • The advent of services such as iBooks Author is alsohelping universities formulate strategies for textbooksand reading assignments.The Learning Studio at Abilene Christian University,for example, worked with key faculty to developprototypes of learning resources in iBooks Author.The process helped identify strategic opportunities inmulti-touch book.Examples
  • Mobile apps are also tightly integrated with social networks, making tablets effectivetools for collaborating and sharing. Many note-taking and annotation apps enableusers to immediately email content to peers or post insights to their social networks.Students who use Evernote, for example, can share digital notebooks and see eachother’s text, picture, or video updates in real-time.An increasing number of educators are also turning to Edmodo’s to communicatewith students about assignments and schedule updates.Examples
  • At the College of Wooster in Ohio,geology students are using iPads to take and annotate photos of Icelandic terrainExamplesBecause of their portability, large display, and touchscreen, tablets are also ideal devices for fieldwork
  • Similarly earth science students at Redlands College in Australia are using themto collect and share data on indigenous rocksExamplesIn these scenarios, the immediate accessto recording and analytical tools enables directand active learning in the field
  • The Geisel School of Medicineat Dartmouth College hasadopted this type of programwith iPads and is sharing theirfindings and resources as theygo, via a special websiteExamplesIn the past two years, more colleges and universitieshave launched one-to-one pilot programs in whichthey have provided every student on campus (or thoseenrolled in a specific program) with their own tablet.Each tablet comes pre-loaded with course materials,digital textbooks, and other helpful resources.
  • Where one-to-one learning is not yet possible, many institutions, including theCommunity College of Aurora in Colorado, the University of Richmond, andthe University of South Carolina, have also made tablets available via check-outsystems to students who may not have one, in which students can borrow tabletsto do coursework that is specifically designed to be completed with the devices.Examples
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryTablets are easily adaptable to almost any learning environment, with tensof thousands of educational applications emerging as part of a newsoftware distribution modelAs a one-to-one solution, tablets present an economic, flexible alternative tolaptops and desktops due to their lower cost, greater portability, and accessto appsTablets are conducive to learning outside of the classroom, with a suite oftools for capturing data in real-time and collaborating on projects
  • in PracticeDuke University has been exploring the use of the iPad as an efficient wayto collect global health research in the field. They have allowed students inlow-resource settings to capture data using just one device: go.nmc.org/fqxpmIn organic chemistry laboratories at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, wall mounted iPads contain an app that delivers video reviewsof lab techniques: go.nmc.org/hjjviSeton Hill University’s “iPad on the Hill” program allows all full-timestudents and faculty to receive their own iPad to use both on and offcampus: go.nmc.org/seton
  • 2 – 3 years
  • Game BasedLearning
  • vs.Educational games immersethe student in the game, wherecontent and curricula aredelivered or juxtaposed.Gamification aims toincorporate elements ofgames, such as levels andbadges (but also via questsand other strategies) intonon-game activities.Games Gamification
  • The gamer culture is growing to include a substantial sector of the world’spopulation, with the age of the average gamer lowering eachpassing year. A 2012 survey conducted by the EntertainmentSoftware Association showed that the age demographic ofgame players in the U.S. is split in almost equal thirds withpeople ages 18-35 representing 31% of gamers.Some Stats
  • When the games industry began toincorporate network connectivity intogame design, they revolutionizedgame-play by creating a vast virtualarena, where users from all over theworld could connect, interact, andcompete.Connectivity
  • The Internet offers gamers the opportunity to join massively multiplayer online(MMO) role-player games, such as “World of Warcraft,” and to build onlinereputations based on the skills, accomplishments, and abilities of their virtual avatars.Whatever the scenario, online games enables strangers to build camaraderieand social networks in mere minutes, and to compete in a public forum whererecognition is highly desirable.MMO
  • Advancements in mobile technology further expand opportunities for game-play, allowingparticipants to engage any time from any place. Anyone who owns a smartphone or tabletcan become a gamer. Free mobile games abound, and the most popular have becomewidely used outlets for social interaction and connecting family and friends, such asWords with Friends” — a modern take on Scrabble. Social networking features of mobilegames support the prevalence of game play in a culture that is increasingly concerned withstaying in touch and being connected all of the time; in this sense, the appeal of onlinegames is not just about who is playing, but who in one’s personal network is playing —and winning.Words with Friends
  • Gamification, or the notion that game mechanics can be applied to all manner ofproductive activities, has been employed successfully by a number of mobile app andsocial media companies; one of the most well known is Foursquare — its rewardsystem encourages people to check into locations and accumulate points.Foursquare
  • Ultimately the goal is to collect enough points to be recognized through badges like“Super User,” “Local,” and “Mayor,” which are public-facing distinctions that canbe posted on social networking sites, such as Facebook.Foursquare
  • The notion of incentivizing users is nothing new; reward programs were initiallyimplemented by the airline and hospitality industries, and continue to be huge drawsthat attract and retain consumers.Foursquare
  • It is not uncommon now for major corporations and organizations, includingthe World Bank and IBM, to consult with game experts to inform thedevelopment and design of large-scale programs that motivate workers throughsystems that incorporate challenges, level-ups, and rewards. While somethought leaders argue that the increasing use of game design in theworkplace is a short-lived trend that yields short-term bursts of productivity,companies of all sizes in all sectors are finding that workers respond positivelyto gamified processes.Workplace
  • Game-like environments transform tasks into challenges, reward people fordedication and efficiency, and offer a space for leaders to naturally emerge,which lends itself to myriad applications in higher education.Game Theory
  • Game-like environments transform tasks into challenges, reward people fordedication and efficiency, and offer a space for leaders to naturally emerge,which lends itself to myriad applications in higher education.Game Theory
  • Game Theory
  • Research has long indicated that video games help stimulate the production ofdopamine, a chemical that provokes learning by reinforcing neuronal connectionsand communications.Research
  • Educational gameplay has proven toincrease soft skills in learners, suchas critical thinking, creativeproblem-solving, and teamwork.This idea is the basis of therelationship between games andeducation. By exploring the waypeople engage with games — theirbehaviors, mindsets, andmotivations — researchers aregetting better at designing adaptivegames and effective gameframeworks that transform learningexperiences.Research
  • At the IE Business School in Madrid, for example, studentsare learning the complexities of global economic policy through a game called“10 Downing Street” (go.nmc. org/street). In this simulation, students take on therole of the British prime minister and work with key figures including PaulKrugman, Margaret Thatcher, and Milton Friedman to come to an agreementthat will affect the well being of the national economy. In teams of six, studentsengage in debates to determine the most viable policy option, which is then putinto practice after a general election. Scenarios like this one demonstrate thepower of games to mimic pressing issues, requiring students to do higher-levelthinking and exercise skills pertinent to their area of study.Economy Simulation
  • BadgesAnother feature of games universities areexperimenting with is badging, a system ofrecognition that allows students to accumulatedocumentation of their skills, achievements,qualities, and interests in a visual public facingformat. Launched in September 2011, MozillaFoundation’s Open Badges project is a free onlineplatform for designing and collecting badges inportfolios that can be viewed by peers, professors,and potential employers. Mozilla’s Open Badgeshas sparked considerable discussion about how torecognize informal learning experiences,especially since Game play has traversed the realmof recreation and has infiltrated the worlds ofcommerce, productivity, and education, proving tobe a useful training and motivation tool. Thosethat cannot typically be conveyed through credithours or grade point average.
  • As game play continues to be a major focal point of discussions among educators,some believe that gamified learning is merely a trend, and carries the danger ofimmediately disenchanting students if executed poorly. To negate this challenge,more universities are partnering with organizations and companies skilled in gamedesign to develop and integrate games that are relevant to the curriculum and tostudents’ lives. Games and gamification in education include a broad set ofapproaches to teaching and learning, and when implemented effectively, can helpwith new skill acquisition while boosting motivation to learn.Challenges
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryDiscovery-based and goal-oriented learning are often inherent ineducational games, fostering opportunities for collaboration and thedevelopment of teambuilding skillsEducational games can be used to teach cross-curricular concepts that touchon many subjects in a more engaging way than traditional methodsSimulations and role-playing games allow students to re-enact difficultsituations to try new responses or pose creative solutions
  • The Global Social Problems, Local Action & Social Networks for Changeproject at St. Edward’s University positioned learners in the role ofsuperheroes to tackle large-scale global social problems at local levels:go.nmc.org/cjqogMcGill University’s Open Orchestra simulation game uses high definitionpanoramic video and surround sound to provide musicians with theexperience of playing in an orchestra or singing in an opera: go.nmc.org/canarThe University of Bahias Games and Education initiative supportscollaborative, scholarly research and publications about educationalgaming: go.nmc.org/gamesain Practice
  • LearningAnalytics
  • Learning analytics is the field associated with deciphering trends and patterns fromeducational big data, or huge sets of student-related data, to further the advancementof a personalized, supportive system of higher education.Definition
  • Preliminary usesPreliminary uses of student data were directed toward targeting at-risk learners inorder to improve student retention. The widespread adoption of learning and coursemanagement systems has refined the outcomes of learning analytics to look atstudents more precisely. Student-specific data can now be used to customizeonline course platforms and suggest resources to students in the same way thatbusinesses tailor advertisements and offers to customers. Universities are alreadyemploying analytics software to make the advising process more efficient andaccurate, while researchers are developing mobile software to coach students towardproductive behaviors and habits that will lead to their success.
  • Big DataLearning analytics, in many ways, is “big data,” applied to education. The term owesits beginnings to data mining efforts in the commercial sector that used analysis ofconsumer activities to identify consumer trends. The rise of the Internet triggered ahuge transformation in the field of market research and metrics as web tracking tools(web analytics) enabled companies to keep track of customers and their purchases.
  • Big DataWith the avalanche of data derived from consumers, businesses began to seek outanalysts who could decipher meaning from gigantic sets of data and develop modelsand predictions about consumer behavior to support marketing strategies. Similarly,educational institutions are embarking on their own explorations of the science oflarge data sets, with the aim of improving student retention and providing ahigher quality, personalized experience for learners.
  • Big DataSimilarly, educational institutions are embarking on their own explorations of thescience of large data sets, with the aim of improving student retention and providingahigher quality, personalized experience for learners.
  • Emerging FieldPositioned in the same two-to-three year adoption timeframe as it was last year,learning analytics continues to be an emerging field, one that is growing quickly, butis still just out of reach for most educators. This year, the rise of big data was thesubject of discussions across many campuses, and educational data scientists allover the world are beginning to look at vast sets of data through analytical methodspioneered by businesses to predict consumer behaviors. In the same way thatAmazon, NetFlix, and Google use these metrics to tailor recommendations andadvertisements to individuals, educators and researchers involved in learninganalytics envision being able to tailor learning to students’ personal needs andinterests — relying on data to make carefully calculated adjustments and suggestionsto keep learners motivated as they master concepts or encounter stumbling blocks.
  • Tablets vs. SmartphonesThe promise of learning analytics is actionable data relevant to every tier of theeducational system. Conclusions based on analyses of these data sets will havemeaningful implications for administrative and governing bodies as they indicateareas for improvement, allocate resources to targeted issues, and finally, as they assessthe effectiveness of their programs in order to support ongoing efforts.
  • Degree CompassKey outcome of learning analytics pertains to the student on an individual level, andhis or her path in higher education. Administrative databases and online coursesystems are beginning to offer academic advisors a window into the experience ofstudents, identifying both their strengths and areas of improvement. At Austin PeayState University in Tennessee, university advisors use the Degree Compass,software that employs predictive analytic techniques, to help students decide whichcourses they will need to complete their degree along with courses in which they arelikely to be successful. With these insights, advisors and counselors hope toilluminate a student’s best learning path.
  • AssessmentLearning analytics is envisioned as an effective,efficient way to assess student responses, provideimmediate feedback, and make adjustments incontent delivery and format. Those invested in thefield of learning analytics see its potential to fosterpersonalized learning environments that adapt to thelearning behaviors of students.
  • ExampleAdvancements in learning analytics have uncovered interesting applications that getto the heart of student retention and achievement by interacting with the studentdirectly and continuously. Persistence Plus, a mobile app designed by Kauffman LabsEducation Ventures, is rooted in behavioral science, and addresses the lack ofproactive support of students on their way to graduation through a mobileplatform called Small Nudges. This system leverages mobile technology and studentdata to customize insights regarding a student’s progress, their progress in relation totheir team, and references to external resources and strategies that encourage success.
  • Dept. EdAdvancements in big data and learning analyticsare furthering the development of visually explicitstreams of information about any group ofstudents or individuals, in real-time. Ideally, thesedigital dashboards will better inform participantson every tier of the learning system — policymakers, educators, and students. Using thesedashboards, stakeholders of the institution canassess progress and develop strategies for meetingachievement goals. The United States Departmentof Education, for example, has its collection ofdata and statistics in a public-facing dashboard.There, a visitor can find charts and other visualindicators that demonstrate how far the nation hasprogressed toward its goal of having the highestproportion of college graduates in the world by2020.
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryIf used effectively, learning analytics can help surface early signals thatindicate a student is struggling, allowing teachers and schools to addressissues quicklyLearning analytics draws pattern matching and analysis techniques fromscience courses offered at institutions, such as fluid dynamics andpetroleum engineeringThe promise of learning analytics is that when correctly applied andinterpreted, it will enable teachers to more precisely identify students’learning needs and tailor instruction appropriately
  • CourseSmart Analytics tracks students as they read e-books so that theprofessor can monitor and track how students are connecting with thecourse material: go.nmc.org/coanaIn a pilot project at the University of Kentucky, learning analytics were usedto measure and improve collaborative writing for computer sciencestudents: go.nmc.org/xzifkLearning analytics were used at the Graduate School of Medicine at theUniversity of Wollongong to help design a new curriculum with a clinicalfocus: go.nmc.org/zgxnkin Practice
  • AugmentedReality
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryAugmented reality has strong potential to provide powerful contextual, insitu learning experiences and serendipitous exploration as well as thediscovery of the connected nature of information in the real world.Games that are based in the real world and augmented with networked datacan give educators powerful new ways to show relationships andconnectionsStudents visiting historic sites can access AR applications that overlay mapsand information about how the location looked at different points in history
  • Boise State University uses an interactive, online resource calledAnatomyTV, which provides real-time 3D modeling of the human anatomy.More than 7,500 structures produced from medical scan data can berotated, shown in opaque and x-ray, and more: go.nmc.org/anaThe University of Exeter built an augmented reality mobile app thattransforms the campus into a living lab, where users can view scientific dataabout their surroundings: go.nmc.org/llvuvThe University of Washington partnered with Microsoft to developaugmented reality contact lenses that could potentially monitor the vitalsigns of the wearer: go.nmc.org/ixjhfin Practice
  • The Internetof THings
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryAttached to scientific samples, TCP/IP-enabled smart objects already arealerting scientists and researchers to conditions that may impair the qualityor utility of the samplesPill-shaped microcameras are used in medical diagnostics and teaching totraverse the human digestive tract and send back thousands of images topinpoint sources of illnessTCP/IP enabled sensors and information stores make it possible forgeology and anthropology departments to monitor or share the status andhistory of even the tiniest artifact in their collections of specimens fromanywhere to anyone with an Internet connection
  • Engineering graduates are being recruited by General Electric to join theircomputer scientists and software developers in an effort to build and"industrial Internet:" go.nmc.org/rcxipMIT’s Amarino is a toolkit that allows smartphone users to control thelights in a room and detect exposure levels to potentially harmfulenvironmental factors: go.nmc.org/uyllxSigfox created an inexpensive network using ultra narrowband that canenable thousands of low-power sensors and devices to communicate datainstantly: go.nmc.org/sigTwine by Supermechanical is a small, Internet-connected device thatmonitors environments and alerts users to anything from basement floodingto finished laundry: go.nmc.org/twinein Practice
  • 4 – 5 years
  • 3D Printing
  • MakerbotIt has become much more affordable and accessible in recent years in large part dueto the efforts of MakerBot Industries. Founded in 2009, this company has promotedthe idea of openness by offering products that can be built by anyone with minimaltechnical expertise. With MakerBot Replicators selling in the range of $1,500 to$3,000, it now only requires a small financial investment to own a 3D printer.
  • ThingiverseWebsites including Thingiverse offer source files that anyone can use to print objectswithout original designs. In an educational context, 3D printing is alreadyimplemented in a number of research and lab settings. Over the next four to fiveyears, 3D printers will be increasingly used in the arts, design, manufacturing, and thesciences to create 3D models that illustrate complex concepts or illuminatenovel ideas, designs, and even chemical and organic molecules.
  • Examples3D printing is already pervasive in a number of fields, including architecture,industrial design, jewelry design, and civil engineering. The earliest known exampleswere seen in the mid-1980s at the University of Texas at Austin, where the SelectiveLaser Sintering was developed, though the equipment was cumbersome andexpensive. The term 3D printing itself was coined a decade later at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, when graduate students were experimenting withunconventional substances in inkjet printers. 3D printing appeared in the very firstNMC Horizon Report, published in 2004, and since then, it has helped the U.S.Department of Defense to inexpensively create aerospace parts, architects createmodels of buildings, medical professionals develop body parts for transplants, andmuch more.
  • ExamplesOne of the most significant aspects of 3D printing for education is that it enablesmore authentic exploration of objects that may not be readily available touniversities. While 3D printing is four to five years away from widespread adoptionin higher education, it is easy to pinpoint the practical applications that will takehold. Geology and anthropology students, for example, can make and interact withmodels of fragile objects such as fossils and artifacts. Through rapid prototyping andproduction tools, organic chemistry students and those studying x-raycrystallography can print out models of complex proteins and other molecules.
  • While it has become easier for faculty and students to work with these models,some of the most compelling progress of 3D printing in higher education comesfrom institutions that are using the technology to invent brand new tools.Researchers at the University of Warwick recently created an inexpensive, 3Dprintable, electrically conductive plastic that enables electronic tracks and sensorsas part of the 3D printed model. The goal is for engineering students to be able todesign and print products with the circuitry system already built into the model.Examples
  • Fab LabAs 3D printing gains traction in higher education, universities are designing dedicatedlaboratories and initiatives to explore creative uses of the technology. The Fab Labprogram, for example, was started in the Media Lab at MIT as a learning and makerspace for digitally-enabled fabrication, equipped with laser cutters, 3D printers, circuitboards, and more, and the project has now scaled to create similar laboratories allover the world.
  • MedicineThe exploration of the 3D printing process from design to production, as well asdemonstrations and participatory access, can open up new possibilities forlearning activities. In medical schools, rapid prototyping has been helpingparticipants produce anatomical models based on the images from MRIs and CATscans. Doctors are able to better strategize surgeries when exploring these models.Medical schools and programs are also in the process of building artificial body parts.Scientists at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, for example, are using human cellsto 3D print artificial liver tissue for laboratory use, which could ultimately makethe testing of new drugs more efficient and reliable than traditional methods by usinghuman organ models instead of live animals (go.nmc.org/artili).
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryThe exploration of the 3D printing process from design to production, aswell as demonstrations and participatory access, can open up newpossibilities for learning activities.Through replication, 3D printing allows for more authentic exploration ofobjects that may not be readily available to universities, including animalanatomies and toxic materials.Typically, geology and anthropology students are not allowed to handlefragile objects like fossils and artifacts; 3D printing shows promise as arapid prototyping and production tool, providing users with the ability totouch, hold, and even take home an accurate model.
  • The Fab Lab program was started in the Media Lab at MIT as a learningand maker space for digital fabrication, equipped with laser cutters, 3Dprinters, circuit boards and more, and the project has now scaled to createlabs all over the world: go.nmc.org/fablabResearchers at the University of Warwick created an inexpensive, 3Dprintable, electrically conductive plastic that enables electronic tracks andsensors as part of the 3D printed modelgo.nmc.org/3dpThingiverse is a repository of digital designs for physical objects whereusers can download the digital design information and create that objectthemselves: go.nmc.org/thingvin Practice
  • WearableTechnology
  • Wearable devices will increase in impact as enabling technologies, such as augmentedreality Executive Summary 5 and thin film displays, gain traction in the consumermarket. Bendable OLED displays can wrap around furniture and other curvedsurfaces, which makes it easy to imagine computing devices and accessoriesthat meld with the human body.Wearable devices
  • Perhaps the most anticipated wearable technology is Google’s “Project Glass,”augmented reality enabled glasses that operate via voice command, presenting thewearer with an information-laden view of their surroundings.Wearable devices
  • Wearable devices are also proving to be effective tools for research because they usesensors to track data, such as vital signs, in real-time. Although wearable technologyis not yet pervasive in higher education, the current highly functional clothing andaccessories in the consumer space show great promise.Wearable devices
  • ExamplesThe consumer space is brimming with new wearable devices for both productivityand recreation, from Bluetooth necklaces designed to replace unsightly headsets tovests that enable gamers to feel the impact of their actions in video games. In anumber of cases, wearable technology is used to communicate on behalf of the user.Italian denim brand Replay produced a Bluetooth-enabled pair of jeans that canupdate the wearer’s Facebook status.
  • MemotoOne of the latest turns in this category of devices are tiny cameras that clip to a user’sshirt collar or pocket, and take hundreds — even thousands — of photographs oftheir surroundings. Memoto, funded via Kickstarter, is a tiny, GPS-enabled camerathat clips to a user’s shirt collar or button and takes two five-megapixel photographsper minute and uploads them to social media. There is an increasing demand fromusers for all of their special moments to be seamlessly captured, but it is becomingless desirable to have to lug around cumbersome devices. As technologies arecontinuously designed to be smaller and more mobile, wearable devices are anatural progression in the evolution of technology.
  • ClarityWearable technology that communicates with a user’s surroundings often has theability to convey important observations. A team from the Centre for Sensor WebTechnologies at Dublin City University is building a wearable sensor that detectshazardous gases and will immediately alert the user of these. While there are anumber of seminal efforts, like this one, to build new wearable technologies in highereducation, most of the work is currently transpiring in the consumer space.
  • SixthSenseSome current research and development efforts at theuniversity level are related to sensory improvement,such as gloves that enhance responsive feeling whenperforming surgery or interacting with scientificequipment. The MIT Media Lab is taking this notion astep further by allowing users to turn any surface intoan interface with SixthSense, a tool consisting of apocket projector, a mirror, and a camera. Thehardware components inside this pendant-like wearabledevice project information onto any surface, while thecamera recognizes and tracks a user’s hand gestures.
  • Leap Motion
  • Leap Motion
  • Leap Motion
  • Relevance forTeaching, Learning, or Creative InquiryIf used effectively, learning analytics can help surface early signals thatindicate a student is struggling, allowing teachers and schools to addressissues quicklyLearning analytics draws pattern matching and analysis techniques fromscience courses offered at institutions, such as fluid dynamics andpetroleum engineeringThe promise of learning analytics is that when correctly applied andinterpreted, it will enable teachers to more precisely identify students’learning needs and tailor instruction appropriately
  • Smart jewelry or other accessories could alert wearers to hazardousconditions, such as exposure to carbon monoxideWearable devices and cameras can instantly capture hundreds ofphotographs or data about a user’s surroundings that can be later accessedvia email or other online applicationWearable technology can automatically communicate information via text,email, and social networks on behalf of the user, based on voicecommands, gestures, or other indicatorsin Practice