MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
MDG- commonly described as a “roadmap for world development by 2015”. They embody the
core co...
Goals, Targets and Indicators of MDG
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals tha...
The MDGs were developed out of several commitments set forth in the Millennium Declaration,
signed in September 2000. Ther...
 Target 5A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal
mortality ratio
o Maternal mortality ratio
o Pr...
 Target 7C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable
access to safe drinking water and basic ...
 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their
GDP
 Proportion of ODA provided to help build t...
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Mdg

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Mdg

  1. 1. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MDG- commonly described as a “roadmap for world development by 2015”. They embody the core content of the current development agenda of “global governance”. They are treated as the current framework of international development cooperation, to which there would allegedly be no alternative. All countries and development agents have so far proven to comply with this framework, reasoning and operating “inside the box”. The MDG framework will remain valid until at least 2015, the “target date” established for its implementation. Although not a legally binding instrument, nor even a formal UN resolution, the MDG framework has in practice acquired a politically and morally compelling character. What is the origin and history of the MDGs? In the 1990s, UN member states went through an intense, historically unprecedented UN conference process, aimed at “building consensus” on development priorities for the 21st century. A consensus was proclaimed, even if the acrimonious debates that marked some of the conferences (1994 Cairo conference on population and 1995 Beijing conference on women in particular) were proof of the fakeness of the consensus. At the end of the 1990s, governments experienced “conference fatigue”, and those actors at the rudder of global governance feared the process launched by the conferences was losing steam. The year 2000 was an opportunity the UN did not want to miss to reengage governments. Under the influence of the UN Secretariat, at the Millennium Summit held in New-York in September 2000, 189 UN member-states adopted the Millennium Declaration – a declaration which ideologically builds on the conference process of the 1990s. The Declaration, signed by 147 heads of states, substantially draws from the UN Secretary General Millennium Report published in April 2000, We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century. The history of the intergovernmental Declaration reveals the key role played by the UN Secretariat in the drafting process, which raises the question: does the Declaration express the views of sovereign governments and the will of the people these governments represent, or those of the experts consulted by the UN Secretariat? A year later, in August 2001, the UN Secretariat published the 8 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The goals were devised, not by governments through an open debate as would have been desirable, if the goals were to express the will of the people in developing countries, but by a “working committee drawn from a range of UN bodies, including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, UNICEF, the Population Fund and the World Health Organization, as well as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development” (1). The goals were not the object of a formal resolution of the UN General Assembly, but it was taken for granted that they reformulated the intergovernmental Declaration and were to frame international development cooperation until 2015. The history of the goals’ origin makes it clear that they are not, strictly speaking, an intergovernmental product, but an initiative driven by the UN Secretariat and its “experts”: a fuzzy, “formal-informal” situation.
  2. 2. Goals, Targets and Indicators of MDG The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 189 United Nations member states at the time (there are 193 currently) and at least 23 international organizations committed to help achieve the following Millennium Development Goals by 2015: 1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. To achieve universal primary education 3. To promote gender equality and empower women 4. To reduce child mortality 5. To improve maternal health 6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7. To ensure environmental sustainability 8. To develop a global partnership for development Each goal has specific targets and dates for achieving those targets. To accelerate progress, the G8 Finance Ministers agreed in June 2005 to provide enough funds to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the African Development Bank (AfDB) to cancel $40 to $55 billion in debt owed by members of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) to allow them to redirect resources to programs for improving health and education and for alleviating poverty. Criticisms accompanied the MDGs, focusing on lack of analysis and justification behind the chosen objectives, the difficulty or lack of measurements for some goals and uneven progress, among others. Although developed countries' aid for achieving the MDGs rose during the challenge period, more than half went for debt relief, with much of the remained going towards natural disaster relief and military aid which do not further development. As of 2013 progress towards the goals was uneven. Some countries achieved many goals, while others were not on track to realize any. A UN conference in September 2010 reviewed progress and concluded with the adoption of a global plan to achieve the eight goals by their target date. New commitments targeted women's and children's health and new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty, hunger and disease. Among the non-governmental organizations assisting were the United Nations Millennium Campaign, the Millennium Promise Alliance, Inc., the Global Poverty Project, the Micah Challenge, The Youth in Action EU Programme, "Cartoons in Action" video project and the 8 Visions of Hope global art project.
  3. 3. The MDGs were developed out of several commitments set forth in the Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000. There are eight goals with 21 targets, and a series of measurable health indicators and economic indicators for each target. Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger  Target 1A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people living on less than $1.25 a day o Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] o Share of poorest quintile in national consumption  Target 1B: Achieve Decent Employment for Women, Men, and Young People o GDP Growth per Employed Person o Employment Rate o Proportion of employed population below $1.25 per day (PPP values) o Proportion of family-based workers in employed population  Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger o Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age o Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education  Target 2A: By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys o Enrollment in primary education o Completion of primary education Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women  Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 o Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education o Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector o Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rates  Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate o Under-five mortality rate o Infant (under 1) mortality rate o Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles Goal 5: Improve maternal health
  4. 4.  Target 5A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio o Maternal mortality ratio o Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel  Target 5B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health o Contraceptive prevalence rate o Adolescent birth rate o Antenatal care coverage o Unmet need for family planning Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases  Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS o HIV prevalence among population aged 15–24 years o Condom use at last high-risk sex o Proportion of population aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS  Target 6B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it o Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs  Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases o Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria o Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets o Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti- malarial drugs o Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis o Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course) 2013 educational improvement Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability  Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources  Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss o Proportion of land area covered by forest o CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) o Consumption of ozone-depleting substances o Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits o Proportion of total water resources used o Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected o Proportion of species threatened with extinction
  5. 5.  Target 7C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (for more information see the entry on water supply) o Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural o Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation  Target 7D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers o Proportion of urban population living in slums Goal 8: Developa global partnership for development  Target 8A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system o Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally  Target 8B: Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) o Includes: tariff and quota free access for LDC exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA (Official Development Assistance) for countries committed to poverty reduction  Target 8C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States o Through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly  Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term o Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States. o Official development assistance (ODA):  Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ GNI  Proportion of total sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)  Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied  ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs  ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs o Market access:  Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs, admitted free of duty  Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries
  6. 6.  Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP  Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity o Debt sustainability:  Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)  Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative, US$  Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services  Target 8E: In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries o Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis  Target 8F: In co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications o Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population o Personal computers in use per 100 population o Internet users per 100 Population

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