1. Advertising – Its strengths & limitations
What it cannot do:
- It cannot sell a bad or inferior product.
- It normally will not promote broad trial immediately.
- It will not stimulate repeat buying if the consumer does not like it.
- By itself, it normally cannot gain broad trade distribution on a new product.
- It is not a substitute for a sound marketing program involving a product’s package,
price and promotional support.
What it can do:
- Inform the public of a product’s existence.
- Persuade many people to try the product.
- Tell the product’s story to a vast number of people quickly.
- Build a desirable or prestigious image around the product.
- Act as a strong merchandising force to help gain distribution & display.
2. Major media categories
- Broad reach - Indiscriminate geographically
- Opportunity for frequency - Short message life
- Demonstration possibilities - High out-of-pocket costs
- Immediacy - Limited program availabilities
- Entertainment background - Clutter
3. Major media categories
- Low out-of-pocket costs - No visual impact
- High frequency possible - Short message life
- Immediacy - Use as background sound
- Timing flexibility - Clutter
- Short term commitments
4. Major media categories
- Good reproduction, especially color - Long term advertiser commitments
- Durability of ad message - Slow exposure build-up
- Unit size & treatment flexibility - Less intrusive than TV
- Demographic selectivity - Lack of urgency
- More affluent audience - Long closing dates
- Secondary readership
- Editorial compatibility
- Merchandising possibilitie
- Menu suggestions for foods
5. Major media categories
- News value & immediacy - High cost of broad usage
- Geographic selectivity/flexibility - Little demographic selectivity
- Extensive market coverage - Short message life
- Unit size flexibility - Color limitations
- Merchandising possibilities - Little secondary readership
- Short term advertiser commitment
6. Continuity vs flighting
Frequent purchase pattern
Large volume brands
High level of impulse buying
Budget sufficient to provide effective frequency levels
Rapidly expanding market
Infrequent purchase pattern
Strong loyalty to company’s own brand
Consumption not affected by the duration of hiatus period
Need to support promotion drive periods by field sales force
Strong seasonal or geographic factors
7. Concentration vs media mix
- Greater message value - Limited coverage
- Media dominance - Missing part of target audience
- Greater frequency - Possible distribution problems
- Improved efficiency - Over-concentration of message
Mix of media:
- Greater reach - Reduced frequency
- Synergism effect - Reduction in efficiency
- Greater merchandisability - Greater chance of duplication
8. Media objectives
Media objectives outline the specific goals towards which the media effort is to be directe, and tend
to cover such issues as:
- Who …. Does the media plan want to reach, i.e. heavy users, light users, men vs
women, buyers vs users, etc.?
- Where …. Does the advertising need to be directed, i.e. nationally, in selected markets,
- When …. Should the media be scheduled, i.e. throughout the year, just on weekends, in
the warm summer months, etc.?
9. Concept of positioning
Positioning is a presentation of a product so that consumers will distinguish it from competition in
terms of satisfying an unfilled need. It is the product’s basic selling idea to consumers.
There are two basic component parts to the concept of positioning:
- The selling idea itself …. Upon which the positioning concept is based.
- The execution of the selling idea …. Wherein the positioning concept is translated into an
10. Concept of positioning
The selling idea
In identifying the optimum selling idea to be used as the basic positioning concept of a brand, two
types should be recognized:
Product positioning concepts
This is a presentation in which the unfilled consumer need is satisfied by a unique attribute
inherent in the product itself.
E.g. Ideas that are based on its formula, nutrition, packaging, price, efficiency or
Product or creative positioning concepts
This is a presentation in which the unfilled need is satisfied by the unique manner in which the
consumer perceives the product, regardless of the product’s physical characteristics.
E.g. Ideas that are based on the concepts of life styles, social status, self-perception, etc.
11. Concept of positioning
Product positioning concepts are usually used in support of innovative brands which often enjoy
a clear product advantage over competition in terms of their performance.
Creative consumer positioning concepts are usually used in support of imitative brands which
are often perceived by consumers as being very similar, if not identical, to competitive products
in terms of performance.
A difficult but often effective approach to positioning is to superimpose a consumer positioning
concept on top of a product positioning concept in advertising, thereby creating an exclusive
image for the brand.
12. Advertising campaign concept
The advertising campaign concept is the executional device used not only to communicate the
brand’s unique selling idea, but also to give that idea long term exclusivity and distinctiveness. If it
does not achieve these two functions, the idea probably is not a long term campaign concept.
In practice, client marketing personnel should view suggested copy executions from their agencies
in terms of two distinct component parts:
1) The campaign concept – which in essence is the translation of the positioning concept
reflected in the copy strategy into a unique visual and/or copy campaign idea.
2) The executional environment – which involves all the other supporting elements in the
advertising, such as the opening sequence, demonstrations, etc., used to help
communicate or substantiate the basic campaign concept.
13. Advertising campaign concepts
1) The more innovative the product’s attributes are, the less there is a need to build a
perceived distinctiveness through unique campaign ideas. The more imitative a brand is,
however, the more it is essential to develop a unique and distinctive advertising campaign
2) Though all advertising should both inform and persuade, advertising that lacks a campaign
concept may be informative, but often does not remain persuasive long term. This is one of
the most common reasons why advertising is changed every year.
3) Depending upon the circumstances, therefore, ad agencies may be asked to develop
alternative campaign concepts to the exclusion of all other elements that make up the
executional environment of the advertising.
Campaign concepts always should have long term potential;
Executional environments need only have a short term application and
probably should be changed annually.
14. Criteria for effective advertising campaigns
1) The campaign must consist of a good selling idea (positioning) and a good translation of
the idea (execution) into a distinct, long term advertising campaign concept.
2) In terms of consumer recall, the campaign concept should be the dominant feature of the
advertising and not the executional environment.
3) The advertising should avoid being clever simply for the sake of being clever.
4) The target audience should be able to relate to, or empatize with, the campaign concept.
15. Components of print advertising
In print advertising, creative considerations should interact with media considerations to determine
space requirements. Among these considerations are the following basic options:
Space unite normally available
* Multi-page units * Junior spreads
* Spreads * Half pages
* Full pages * Smaller column units
Color and bleed options
* 4-color * Normal page
* 2-color * Bleed page
* Black & white
* Within same page
* Within the spread