Status of Online Education in the U.S.


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  • Status of Online Education in the U.S.: The view of online education as a disruptive force to more traditional forms of education is coming to fruition as blended and fully online methods of delivery move from early adoption to mainstream in U. S. education. This presentation examines the current landscape of online education in the U.S., insights into where we might be headed, and practical solutions as we face the inevitable dynamic and personalized future of education.
  • Increase productivity through innovation. The need to do more with less Fewer scholarships, more student debt Explain how in the US higher ed is not free. For some based on need or merit, but the vast majority of students finance their education through student loans. Increasing options for affordable education. Not only value in the market for a degree but also the ability combine credits from various learning institutions/formats for degrees and certificates.
  • Increase productivity through innovation Explain the public ed in the US is not the top down system found in Poland. Policy decisions are largely left to the states and local governments. However, federal assistance is often tied to federal policy initiatives. If states want money, they must engage in the programs promoted by the feds. So for example, NCLB
  • Add 200k to 1.8 million (these are full time virtual enrollments not included in the survey) Definition of online learning – offered over the Internet – not Interactive TV, televised courses, etc. According to the Sloan Report – Online learning is distributed as follows – 69% 9-12, 17% 6-8, 14% K-5 Over 6 million students are now enrolled in full-time courses at colleges and universities – this does not include blended content that supports face-to-face courses – 10 – 20 % yearly increase Keep in mind that this 2 million number is out of a nationwide 49 million public school students – we are early – this is still developing. The Sloan group is predicting 5-6 million online enrollments by 2016 – this would mean that over 10% of students nationally would be taking an online course Think about your class, your school or your district – how does this align with what you are doing? Online Learning will disrupt traditional educational systems by the year 2019 Higher Ed: Revenue growth is increasingly cannibalistic and comes from reduced enrollment in traditional classes rather than new student enrollment. Source: Primary Research Group 2012-13 Edition of The Survey of Distance Learning Programs in Higher Education
  • State authorizations University of Phoenix attained a peak enrollment of almost 600,000 students in 2010, a 30-percent enrollment drop in 2011 was attributed to operational changes amid criticism of high debt loads and low job prospects for university students. [4] These changes included allowing students to try classes before officially enrolling and recruiter training programs that are designed to improve student retention and completion rates For-profit enrollment increased from 0.2 percent to 9.1 percent of total enrollment in degree-granting schools from 1970 to 2009, and for-profit institutions account for the majority of enrollments in non-degree-granting postsecondary schools. The large national chains in the study are American Public Education, Apollo Group, Bridgepoint Education, Capella Education, Career Education, Corinthian Colleges, DeVry Inc., Education Management, Grand Canyon Education, ITT Educational Services, Lincoln Education, Strayer Education, and Universal Technical Institute. As the authors point out, the time since 2000 is "a period when enrollment in the for-profit sector tripled while enrollment for the rest of higher education increased by just 22 percent. The solid dark line shows that the fraction of fall enrollments accounted for by the for-profits increased from 4.3 percent in 2000 to 10.7 percent in 2009." They point out that "almost 90 percent of the increase in for-profit enrollments during the last decade occurred because of the expansion of for-profit chains," where a "chain" is defined as an institution that operates across states or has more than five branches within a state."  Along with the flexibility to expand enrollments, for-profit higher education has shown considerable flexibility in teaching groups not well-served by traditional higher education. "African Americans account for 13 percent of all students in higher education, but they are 22 percent of those in the for-profit sector. Hispanics are 11.5 percent of all students but are 15 percent of those in the for-profit sector. Women are 65 percent of those in the for-profit sector. For-profit students are older: about 65 percent are 25 years and older, whereas just 31 percent of those at four-year public colleges are, and 40 percent of those at two-year colleges are." In addition, for-profits are typically non-selective institutions, requiring only a high school diploma or a GED certificate.
  • Niche program Globally aggregated demand
  • Model best practice through Community EDTECH Website Moodle Course Site and News Forum Edtech Island in Second Life Facebook Twitter CoolTeacher Podcast YouTube
  • Open, distributed, networked, An event around a structured topic. No payment for participating in course. All work is shared and negotiated in the open.
  • Preservice competencies to transformative practices: Performance-Based Assessment for Pre-Service as a Bridge to Online Endorsement All teachers prepared to facilitate a hybrid instruction model and to have an understanding of best practices in instructional technology Performance-Based Assessment for Online Teachers
  • Tell them how you’re going to bore them Bore them Tell them how you bored them
  • "Students are getting a fairly distant education even in a face-to-face setting." 2) Misunderstanding about what online learning is 3) Misrepresentation about what online learning is – has to do with economics and culture.
  • Status of Online Education in the U.S.

    1. 1. Kerry Rice, Ed. D. Associate Professor Department of Educational Technology Boise State University© 2012 Boise State University 1
    2. 2. Agenda • About me • Context and Factors • Online Learning Defined • What the Numbers Say • Models • Sample Program • Emerging Trends • Challenges© 2012 Boise State University 2
    3. 3. © 2012 Boise State University 3
    4. 4. © 2012 Boise State University 4
    5. 5.© 2012 Boise State University 5
    6. 6. College of EducationM.S. in EDTECHMasters in EDTECHEd. D. in EDTECHGraduate Certificates: Online Teaching - K12 & Adult Learner Technology Integration Specialist School Technology CoordinatorK-12 Online Teaching EndorsementGame Studio: Mobile Game Design3D GameLabEDTECH and Cave Island in SLDual Degree Program w/National Univ. of Tainan© 2012 Boise State University 6
    7. 7. About me…© 2012 Boise State University 7
    8. 8. Tightening budgets & Increased demand for Increased competitionIncreasing costs • Workforce training • For-profit • Student loan debt: $956 • Academic currency • Global markets billion • Flexibility • Student mobilityContext © 2012 Boise State University 8
    9. 9. U.S. Federal Policy and Priorities…• Increase college preparedness and graduates by 2020 (→ 60%) – Community College Initiatives (fastest growing sector 46%) – Common Core and College Readiness Standards – Community College to Career Fund ($8 billion) • STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) • Next Gen Learning Grants (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation)• Race to the Top – School reform and Accountability• Access and Innovation – Personalized Learning – Open source, resource repositories, free online courses• Connected Educators – Professional Learning Communities – Online PD (2.5 bill)© 2012 Boise State University 9
    10. 10. Technology pushes boundaries… • Changes the constraints of time and space • Evolves exponentially – the faster it changes the faster it changes… • Democratizes learning • Puts the focus on learning • Is disruptive Online Blended Open Source DIY Oh My!!© 2012 Boise State University 10
    11. 11. Online Learning… “The term online learning can be used to refer to a wide range of programs that use the Internet to provide instructional materials and facilitate interactions between teachers and students and in some cases among students as well. Online learning can be fully online, with all instruction taking place through the Internet, or online elements can be combined with face-to-face interactions in what is known as blended learning”U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Understanding the Implications of Online Learning forEducational Productivity, Washington, D.C., 2012.© 2012 Boise State University 11
    12. 12. Online Learning • Broadens access • Engages students in active learning • Individualizes and differentiates instruction • Personalizes learning • Increases the rate of student learning • Makes better use of teacher and student time • Reduces school-based facilities costs • Reduces salary costs • Realizes opportunities for economies of scaleU.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Understanding the Implications of Online Learning forEducational Productivity, Washington, D.C., 2012. © 2012 Boise State University 12
    13. 13. Online Higher Education National Trends • 2010: 6.1 million online enrollments (31% of all students) • 10% growth rate (2% growth in the overall higher education student population) • 65% believe online learning is a critical part of long-term strategy. • Private, for-profits have the largest proportion of online programs. Allen, E. I. & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the United States, 2011. Babson Survey Research Group. © 2012 Boise State University 13
    14. 14. K-12 Online National Trends• Continued rapid growth (25% - full-time, multi- district)• Legislation requires online courses for graduation. (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Virginia, and West Virginia) *Queen, B., and Lewis, L. (2011). Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary School Students: 2009-10 (NCES 2012-009). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. **Picciano, A. G. & Jeff Seaman. (2010). K-12 online learning: A 2008 follow-up of the survey of U. S. school district administrators. The Sloan Consortium. © 2012 Boise State University 14
    15. 15. Blended Learning “A formal education program in which a student learns in part through online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control over time, place, path and/or pace. and at least in part at a supervised brick and mortar location away from home. Single district programs are the fastest growing segment. Most are blended.Heather Staker and Michael Horn, Innosight Institute: © 2012 Boise State University 15
    16. 16. Models • For-Profit • Private and Non-Profit • Public© 2012 Boise State University 16
    17. 17. For-Profit Institutions… • Higher Education • K-12 full-time virtual schools operate as public schools • Constant state of change (mergers, acquisitions, conversions) • Increasing partnerships with mainstream education • Growth, scalability and high profitability of proprietary systemsPrivate, not for-profit © 2012 Boise State University 17
    18. 18. Higher Ed For-Profit 766,000 enrollments in 2001 •2.4 million enrollments in 2010 (about 10% of total enrollments in higher education) •225% growth between 2001 and 2008 (22% for the rest of higher education) Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics,2011 (NCES 2012-001), Chapter 31 Colleges and university campuses ranked by fall 2010 enrollment data.© 2012 Boise State University 18
    19. 19. Blended Charter School•Technology Backbone•Flex Time•Flex Grouping•Flex Space © 2012 Boise State University 19
    20. 20. Public Institutions… • K-12 Consortiums and District-Led (VHS, Wisconsin eSchool) • K-12 State Supplemental Programs (IDLA, FVS, MVS) • Higher Ed programs (EdTech, Penn State, Purdue, Columbia University Teacher’s College, Indiana University, Michigan State University)© 2012 Boise State University 20
    21. 21. © 2012 Boise State University 21
    22. 22. © 2012 Boise State University 22
    23. 23. Program Detail Foundations of Educational Technology YouTube for Educators Theoretical Foundations of Edtech Teaching & Learning in Virtual Worlds Research Methods in Edtech Mobile Teaching and Learning Evaluation Social Network Learning Instructional Design Interactive Courseware Design Instructional Graphic Design Games and Sims Online Course Design Technology Supported PBL Online Teaching (K-12 and Adult) Service Learning Statistics for Educational Technologists Multimedia International Issues in ICT Integrating Games into the K-12 Classroom Blogging in the Classroom Mobile App Design Mobile Game Design Digital Game-Based Learning Service Learning Open Source/MOOCs© 2012 Boise State University 23
    24. 24. Where Edtech Students Live© 2012 Boise State University 24
    25. 25. Online Learning is… • Social • Global • Interactive • Personalized • Engaging • Collaborative • Evidence-Based© 2012 Boise State University 25
    26. 26. Community© 2012 Boise State University 26
    27. 27. Community© 2012 Boise State University 27
    28. 28. Presence © 2012 Boise State University 28
    29. 29. Personalization© 2012 Boise State University 29
    30. 30. Interaction© 2012 Boise State University 30
    31. 31. Technology© 2012 Boise State University 31
    32. 32. Thesis Defense© 2012 Boise State University 32
    33. 33. Standards-Based Demonstrated Learning© 2012 Boise State University 33
    34. 34. Emerging Trends “Experts believe out-of-the-classroom learning will inspire innovation that’s lacking on campuses now.”• Learning Analytics• Crowd sourcing & DIY• Informal vs. Formal learning• Badges• Gaming• Blended• Moocs© 2012 Boise State University 34
    35. 35. cMOOCs • MOOCs (Massively Open Online Course) – The first MOOC – Connectivism 2008 by George Siemens and Stephen Downes © 2012 Boise State University 35
    36. 36. xMOOCs• edX (MIT, Harvard, UC Berkeley, Wellesley, U of Texas)• Coursera – Stanford (33 University partners) 1.6 million students• Udacity – 750k students $100 million investment © 2012 Boise State University 36
    37. 37. Presidential Innovation Lab Gates Foundation: $3 M Association of Public and Land-grant Universities: $270k© 2012 Boise State University 37
    38. 38. Transforming Policy • Flexibility in how we view time (carnegie unit) “Students should be encouraged to go as far and as fast as they can.” • Innovation for competency-based models of learning. • Just-in-time summative assessments (NCLB). • Consistent data collection and accountability systems.© 2012 Boise State University 38
    39. 39. Transforming Policy sedd aase y-BB ccy- tt nn eeee mpp oom CC © 2012 Boise State University 39
    40. 40. Transforming Teaching PracticeFocus on Student-Centered Learning – More emphasis on authentic learning experiences (i.e. flipped classroom) – New modes of instruction (gaming, virtual worlds, mobile learning) – Increased student participation in their own learning (co-design). – Adaptive learning management systems that use data to drive personal learning plans.© 2012 Boise State University 40
    41. 41. Image created using wordle: © 2012 Boise State University 41
    42. 42. In a review of empirical studies, the U.S. Department ofEducation concluded, “...on average, students in onlinelearning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face classes.” (Evaluation of Evidence-based Practices inOnline Learning, May 2009)Key Findings The effectiveness of online learning is tied to learning time, curriculum, pedagogy, and opportunities for collaboration. Online learning can be enhanced by giving learners control of their interactions with media. Online learning can be enhanced by prompting learner reflection.© 2012 Boise State University 42
    43. 43. Accountability • “Florida Connections Academy 2009 State Test Scores Exceed Overall State Results” (Connections Academy) • “Newly released state data reveal that e-schools perform better academically than Big 8 districts at lower cost “ (Ohio Alliance for Public Charter School) • Minnesota, Colorado, California have noted smaller gains in online programs than in brick and mortar.© 2012 Boise State University 43
    44. 44. Learning Analytics Hung, J., Hsu, Y., Rice, K. (2012). Integrating Data Mining in Program Evaluation of K-12 Online Education. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Special Issue Learning and Knowledge Analytics© 2012 Boise State University 44
    45. 45. Challenges “Students cannot, and will never, learn unless they are with me in my classroom – period. They can’t learn without me prodding them and being there to get the information from me personally and without me deciding for them what it is that they learn.” Is lecture capture the worst educational technology?© 2012 Boise State University 45
    46. 46. “Online education, on the other hand, is often entirely a numbers game. The same lecture is viewed by the hundreds of thousands of people and takes no account of differences in understanding or circumstances. Though online education offers students flexibility on how and when to view a lecture, it offers professors no reciprocal flexibility to tailor their lectures to the unique abilities and interests of the students.”© 2012 Boise State University 46
    47. 47. Challenges • Still debating the use of technology in classrooms • Concerns over privatization • Questions surrounding xMOOCs model – purpose? • What exactly is free?? Clarification of “open source” and “open course” • Quality and Accountability • Access© 2012 Boise State University 47
    48. 48. The Future of Education? • Education as a fundamental right • Lifelong learning • Evolution of innovation • Increased productivity and efficiency • Emerging self-support models • Validation of DIY learning • Changing role of the teacher • Learning networks organized by interest rather than location • Joint degrees and global partnerships© 2012 Boise State University 48
    49. 49. Transforming the way we teach AND learn Questions? Kerry Rice Department of Educational Technology Boise State University© 2012 Boise State University 49
    50. 50. Resources • Allen, E. I. & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the United States, 2011. Babson Survey Research Group. • Deming, D. J., Goldin, C., Katz, L. F. (2012). The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(1): 139-64 • Hung, J., Hsu, Y., Rice, K. (in press). Integrating Data Mining in Program Evaluation of K-12 Online Education. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Special Issue Learning and Knowledge Analytics • Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones., K. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. • Picciano, A. G. & Jeff Seaman. (2010). K-12 online learning: A 2008 follow-up of the survey of U. S. school district administrators. The Sloan Consortium. • Queen, B., & Lewis, L. (2011). Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary School Students: 2009–10 (NCES 2012-008). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. • Rice, K. (2012). Making the Move to K-12 Online Teaching: Research-Based Strategies and Practices. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. • Staley, D. J. & Trinkle, D. A. (February, 2011). The changing landscape of higher education. Educause Review Online.© 2012 Boise State University 50
    51. 51. Resources • U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001), Chapter 3 • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Understanding the Implications of Online Learning for Educational Productivity, Washington, D.C., 2012. • Watson, J., et. al. (2011). Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: An Annual Review of • Policy and Practice. Evergreen Education Group. • Clearing the Path: Creating Innovation Space for Serving Over-Age, Under-Credited Students in Competency-Based Pathways • Cracking the Code: Synchronizing Policy and Practice for Performance-Based Learning • It’s Not a Matter of Time: Highlights from the 2011 Competency-Based Learning Summit • Troubling Questions about Online Education: • Viewpoint: Authorizing Online Learning %20Cyber%20Learning%20Viewpoint_August%202011.pdf© 2012 Boise State University 51
    52. 52. Resources • State Strategies for Awarding Credit to Support Student Learning: state-1202educreditbrief.pdf • The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. (2008). • Innosight Institute: • Fast Facts About Online Learning: • 50 Innovative Education Startups for 2012: startups • Knewton Adaptive Learning Platform: • Crowdsourcing examples: • TED-Ed:© 2012 Boise State University 52