From Online Revolution to Mainstream Evolution: Are We There Yet?Presentation Transcript
Kerry Rice, Ed. D.Associate ProfessorDepartment of Educational TechnologyBoise State University
M.S. in Educational TechnologyMasters in Educational TechnologyEd. D. in Educational TechnologyGraduate Certificates: Online Teaching - K12 & Adult Learner Technology Integration Specialist School Technology CoordinatorK-12 Online Teaching EndorsementGame Studio: Mobile Game DesignGoGo Labs: Learning Technology Design Lab
Adapted from Source: Good Thing http://www.it-is-funny.com/pictures/funny_pictures_of_evolution.php#_self
Evolutionary Timeline Milliseconds Technology Decades Language Danny Hillis Thinking Machine 1994 Brains/nervous Million years systemBillion years Multicellular organisms
The Evolution of Technological Change Autocatalytic = the more it changes the faster it changes TECHNOLOGY Biological Evolution Time
Huh? Nowonder I’m soconfused.
Evolution of Innovation“Crowd accelerated innovation.” Cycles ofimprovement fueled by crowds leads togreater innovations more rapidly.Chris Anderson: How web video powers global innovationhttp://www.ted.com/talks/chris_anderson_how_web_video_powers_global_innovation.html
Evolution of Learning• Surfing: James Seely Brown – the Power of the Pull (video cameras)• Scientific advances: Journal of Visualized Experiments JOVE http://www.jove.com/• Medical Treatments: Cure Together• “Getting Things Done”: Kickstarter, Odesk, Elance, The LogoLoft• Open source: MIT/Harvard edX courses
Evolution of Learning• Thomas Suarez: 12 Year-Old Game Developer http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/thomas_suarez_ a_12_year_old_app_developer.html• 11 year old taking a course on game theory at Stanford http://www.forbes.com/sites/joshuagans/2012/05/0 7/what-my-11-year-olds-stanford-course-taught-me- about-online-education/• Hole in the Wall Experiments, Sugata Mitra. SOLEhttp://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/sugata_ “Education is self-organizing mitra_the_child_driven_education.html system, where learning is an emergent phenomenon” -Sugata Mitra
Where is our evolution of education?“If you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, itll spend its whole life believing that it is stupid.” – Albert Einstein
TECHNOLOGY Biological Evolution Education Time
“Students cannot, and will never, learn unless they are with me in my classroom – period. They can’t learn without me prodding them and being there to get the information from me personally and without me deciding for them what it is that they learn.”Is lecture capture the worst educational technology?http://www.masmithers.com/2011/03/11/is-lecture-capture-the-worst-educational-technology/
“You simply cannot "A teacher that can bereplace a teacher with replaced by a machinea laptop.” should be."http://neatoday.org/2011/04/01/laptops-are-not- http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/sugata_mitra_thteachers/ e_child_driven_education.html
Online Learning Revolution
K-12 Online National Trends 2019 25 million 2016 ½ of all high 2010 5–6 school million** courses 2008 1.8 million*2000 45,000 1,030,000 *US Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2011) **Anthony G. Picciano and Jeff Seaman, Sloan Consortium Report 2009
K-12 Online Learning Continuum
Blended Learning “A formal education program in which a student learns in part through online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control over time, place, path and/or pace. and at least in part at a supervised brick and mortar location away from home.Heather Staker and Michael Horn, Innosight Institute:http://www.innosightinstitute.org/media-room/publications/education-publications/classifying-k-12-blended-learning/
Models of K-12 Online• Full-Time Virtual Schools (usually multi-district) – Connections Education (Acquired by Pearson) – K-12 Inc. (subsumed Kaplan, Insight, IQ Academy, KC Distance Learning) – Advanced Academics – Pinnacle Education• Consortiums and District-Led (VHS, Wisconsin eSchool)• State Supplemental Programs (MoVIP, IDLA, FVS, MVS) – Many are facing defunding with increased private sector and district-led initiatives.
Models of K-12 Online• Post-Secondary and Dual Credit – Missouri-Columbia University High School – Indiana University High School – Minn. Learning Commons – George Washington University & K12 Inc. – Private college preparatory HS – American Public University & CA - Dual degree HS/AA - success measured by completion (not seat time)
Key Trends in K-12 Online (2010-2011)• Single district programs fastest growing segment. Most are blended.• Full-time multi-district online schools continue growth. (25% increase)• New online learning legislation in 5 states.• Common Core fuels consistent curriculum creation.• State virtual schools (supplemental programs) depend on funding for sustainability. (19% increase) In our efforts to be innovative, we may be losing sight of the value of proven “traditional” full-time and online programs in our search for the next best thing. Continued growth in enrollments suggests there is still unmet demand for tens of thousands of students. Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning, 2011 http://kpk12.com
Transformations• Policy• Schools• Teaching Practice
Transforming Policy• Flexibility in how we view time (carnegie unit) “Students should be encouraged to go as far and as fast as they can.”• Innovation for competency-based models that are outcome-based.• Just-in-time summative assessments (NCLB).• Consistent data collection and accountability systems.
Transforming Schools• Establish a one to one computer ratio in high school.• Give teachers classroom tools.• Provide teacher training. • Increased Access - Idaho Education Network
… "online course" means a course which delivers asequential program of synchronous and/orasynchronous instruction primarily through the use oftechnology, in which the instructor is not physicallylocated at the school or place in which the student isreceiving instruction. Nothing in this definition shallprohibit a blended course that includes face-to-face, inperson instruction, provided that a majority of theinstruction is delivered as stated herein.”
Transforming Teaching PracticeFocus on Student-CenteredLearning – More emphasis on authentic learning experiences (PBL). – Rethinking accountability for learning (badges). – Increased student participation in their own learning (co-design). – Adaptive learning management systems that use data to drive personal learning plans.
Transforming Teaching Practice
Transforming Teaching Practice Leveraging Technology for Learning Educator (vs.Teacher) Assign Learning Tasks Assess Guide dev. of PLP’s Curriculum Dev. Course Design Changing Role of the Teacher
LCP’s PBL Best Practice Collaboration Active and Participation Community Building Learner Authentic Autonomy Assessment PBL 21st Century Skills
Learner Active Active Autonomy Participation Participation 21st Century SkillsCollaboration and Authentic Community Assessment Building
LearnerAutonomyVirtual Schoolhouse Bridges Project NASA: Communications and the Lunar Outpost
Collaboration and Community Building
Collaboration and Community Building
Active Participation• Live presentations and lectures• Guest speakers• One-on-one tutorials and mentoring• Group discussions and activities• Informal chat sessions• Question and answer sessions
“I started making this website because I had theIdea of instead of just doing a project paper for my Authenticclass I could spread my information around the Assessmentcontinents...”
• Global awareness • Communication and• Digital, information, media collaboration and social literacy • Flexibility and adaptability• Financial, business and • Initiative and self- economical literacy direction• Creativity • Leadership and• Critical thinking and responsibility problem solving • Productivity and accountability 21st Century Skills
A Flippin’ Framework for Strategy Development STRATEGY CLASSROOM/SCHOOL/DISTRICT SUPPORTS EXAMPLE TOOLS Blending Internet resources (Global Collaborations, Computers, open access, bandwidth, asset or Collaborate in descriptive writing on the Monster Google Docs, Google Sites, Trailmeme,Beginner (10% - 25%) Scavenger Hunts) content management system (My Big Campus), Exchange learning community. Other useful sites Grabbabeast, Phet, Zoom KitchenDigital Classroom include virtual math manipulatives, simulations, Chemistry, National Library of Virtual games, tutorials, remediation. Manipulatives Shared resource respositories Computers, bandwidth, open access Preload Diigo with resources. Students use the Diigo, CiteULike, Pinterest, Delicious, annotation tool to highlight and explain structure only2clicks, symbaloo and context of materials. Lecture Capture (for remediation or absent Central LMS or asset/content management system Record class lectures using a lecture capture LMS (Blackboard, Moodle, Brain Honey), students) tool. Upload to a central location for access when CMS (My Big Campus) needed. Classroom Group Open access Communicate with parents Google Groups, Yahoo Groups, Facebook, Blog, Wiki Collaborative Brainstorming Computers, open access, bandwidth Teacher directed collaborative brainstorming Bubbl.us, GliffyIntermediate (25% - 50%) Internet Integration activities (WebQuests, Computers, open access, small class sizes Students work in small groups to complete a Google Sites, LMS, Virtual Field TripDigital Classroom Virtual Field Trips) Webquest (Groups of students work in groups websites around a single computer.) Collaborative document creation Computers, broadband capacity, open access Students work in small groups using online Google Docs collaboration tools. (Students work at their own computer but belong to a group.) Online discussions Computers, open access, broadband capacity, Practice language skills with others from the LMS, Voicethread, Skype, My Language microphone or headset country of origin. ExchangeAdvanced (> 50%) Digital Video resources (for delivery outside Computer access (one-to-one, after school labs, Khan Academy YouTube, WatchKnow, TeacherTubeBlended Classroom the classroom) laptop checkout) Digital Media Creation Computer access (one-to-one, after school labs, Teacher created videos explaining a complex SnagIt, Jing, Camstudio, Camtasia, laptop checkout) concept using examples and materials from Screenr, Screencast, microphone, everyday life. Webcam Mobile Learning Mobile device access Situated Simulations that superimpose historical Smartphone, iPad, elements over real-time locations. Gaming Computer access (one-to-one, after school labs, Embed gaming elements into learning goals 3-D GameLab quest-based learning laptop checkout) (badges, achievements, self-selection, leveling) management system https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0Ai3yKZKvaKCDdE5kZWZJeTVtZkxtNkR3Zkw5aGxZWFE
Image created using wordle: http://www.wordle.net/
In a review of empirical studies, the U.S. Department ofEducation concluded, “...on average, students in online learningconditions performed better than those receiving face-to-faceclasses.” (Evaluation of Evidence-based Practices in OnlineLearning, May 2009)Key Findings The effectiveness of online learning is tied to learning time, curriculum, pedagogy, and opportunities for collaboration. Online learning can be enhanced by giving learners control of their interactions with media. Online learning can be enhanced by prompting learner reflection.
Accountability• “Florida Connections Academy 2009 State Test Scores Exceed Overall State Results” (Connections Academy)• “Newly released state data reveal that e-schools perform better academically than Big 8 districts at lower cost “ (Ohio Alliance for Public Charter School)• Minnesota, Colorado, California have noted smaller gains in online programs than in brick and mortar. Let’s get pastBest Practices in K-12 Online: comparisonsIdentify those online deliverymethodologies that seem to produceexceptional educational results.
Going Virtual! Research Series
Going Virtual! Research Series2007: The Status of Professional Development• Who delivered/received PD?• When and how PD was delivered?• Content and sequence of PD?2008: Unique Needs and Challenges• Amount of PD?• Preferred delivery format?• Most important topics for PD?2010: The Status of PD and Unique Needs of K-12 Online Teachers• Revisit questions from 2007 & 2008• What PD have you had? What do you need?2011: Development of an Educational Data Mining model• Pass Rate Predictive Model• Engagement• Association Rules
Summary of Findings• Teachers highly • Who provides PD? experienced – workplace (89%) – 99% credentialed – university (27%) – 60% Master’s degree+ • PD is …• 12% of new online – Dependent on the teachers have never organization taught f-2-f – Driven by context – Online• 25% of brand new – Ongoing online teachers received no training – Focused on skills
Self - Reported Needs 2010 (sorted by Online Teaching Experience)O Years• Working with students with disabilities in the online classroom (57%)• Managing groups and online collaboration (52%)• Instructional design of online learning (53%)1 - 5 Years• The area of design, including instructional design principles (46%)• Design tools (41%)• Design of syllabi (38%)6 + Years• Psychology of online learning (41%)• Promoting student autonomy (35%)• Student readiness (34%)
Leveraging Data Systems PD Teacher StudentEffectiveness Effectiveness Outcomes Change in Quality teaching Satisfaction practice Self report Self report Quantity AND Quality Usefulness of Engagement Interaction Self report Course Dropout Engagement Design Rate Low-level data Performanc e Low-level data Learning Patterns
Educational Data MiningHung, J., Hsu, Y., Rice, K. (in press). Integrating Data Mining in Program Evaluation of K-12 OnlineEducation. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Special Issue Learning and KnowledgeAnalytics http://www.ifets.info/
Are We There Yet? Early Innovator Mainstream Adopter Reducing the Drag One Inch at a TimeSource: http://icanhascheezburger.com/2011/03/29/funny-pictures-reducing-the-drag/?from=recMap3
Real World Challenges• Access• Learning Management Systems• Content – particularly in difficult subject- areas• Computer Skills ??• Making use of data• Transformative teaching practices• Preservice teacher training• Barriers to innovation• Private vs. Public• “Inversion of Authority” phenomenon
What’s wrong with this picture? “Online education, on the other hand, is often entirely a numbers game. The same lecture is viewed by the hundreds of thousands of people and takes no account of differences in understanding or circumstances. Though online education offers students flexibility on how and when to view a lecture, it offers professors no reciprocal flexibility to tailor their lectures to the unique abilities and interests of the students.”
The (Inevitable) Future of Education TECHNOLOGY Biological Evolution Education Time
How Will Your Classroom be Transformed?Kerry RiceDepartment of Educational TechnologyBoise State Universitykrice@boisestate.edu Questions?
Resources• Queen, B., & Lewis, L. (2011). Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary School Students: 2009–10 (NCES 2012-008). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012008.pdf• Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones., K. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf• Making the Move to K-12 Online Teaching: Research-Based Strategies and Practices www.pearsonhighered.com/rice1e• A Flipping Framework: http://bit.ly/JahtdX• Innosight Institute: http://www.innosightinstitute.org/• Edtech K-12 Online Endorsement Program: http://edtech.boisestate.edu/idaho-k-12-online-teaching- endorsement-program/• ISTE NETS Standards: http://www.iste.org/standards.aspx• Fast Facts About Online Learning: http://www.inacol.org/press/docs/nacol_fast_facts.pdf• 50 Innovative Education Startups for 2012: http://www.onlineschools.com/blog/50-innovative-education- startups• Knewton Adaptive Learning Platform: http://www.knewton.com/adaptive-learning-white-paper/• Crowdsourcing examples: http://crowdsourcingexamples.pbworks.com/w/page/16668404/FrontPage• TED-Ed: http://www.youtube.com/teded
Resources• Clearing the Path: Creating Innovation Space for Serving Over-Age, Under-Credited Students in Competency-Based Pathways http://www.ednewscolorado.org/2011/10/04/25310-analysis-shows-half-of- online-students-leave-programs-within-a-year-but-funding-stays• Cracking the Code: Synchronizing Policy and Practice for Performance-Based Learning http://www.inacol.org/research/docs/iNACOL_CrackingCode_full_report.pdf• It’s Not a Matter of Time: Highlights from the 2011 Competency-Based Learning Summit http://www.inacol.org/research/docs/iNACOL_Its_Not_A_Matter_of_Time_full_report.pdf• Troubling Questions about Online Education: http://www.ednewscolorado.org/2011/10/04/25310- analysis-shows-half-of-online-students-leave-programs-within-a-year-but-funding-stays• Viewpoint: Authorizing Online Learning http://www.inacol.org/research/docs/Vander%20Ark- Patrick%20Cyber%20Learning%20Viewpoint_August%202011.pdf• State Strategies for Awarding Credit to Support Student Learning: http://www.edweek.org/media/23biz- state-1202educreditbrief.pdf• Going Virtual! Research Series: http://edtech.boisestate.edu/goingvirtual/goingvirtual.htm• The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. (2008). http://1.usa.gov/MLJwSF