January 5, 2012Objective:• The Greek Army• The Persian Empire tries to take over Greece. How can they be stopped?• And then, predicting what will happen using text and pictures• Homework: – Greek Quiz on Friday….Governments and Sparta V. Athens & where will you live….Sparta or Athens
The Persian Empire An Outsider Invader Threatens the Greek Mainland….
I. Main IdeasA. The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government.B. Both Sparta & Athens played roles in defeating the Persians.
I. Where was the Persian EmpireA. Persia = southwestern Iran today.
II. The Persian Army is Created A. Darius comes to power in 521 B.C.E. B. Creates a professional army!
III. The Persian Wars A. By 500 B.C.E. the Persians controlled Greek colonies in Asia Minor (Turkey). – Greeks want independence!! B. GREEDY!!!!! GIVE ME, GIVE ME!!! The Persians want more!!!!!!!!!!!!!! VS.
Darius’s Infantry (Persians)….
Greek HoplitesHoplite Definition: Ordinary citizens of Greece that were foot soldiers
And then ….
Battle of Marathon In 490 BCE the Persians, under the control of Darius, came to Greece and landed outside of the plains of Marathon. What the Persians didn’t realize was that the Greeks were hiding behind a hill. When the Persians went to re-board their ship and sail on to Athens 1/3 of the hiding Greek army rushed over the hill and started attacking the Persians who were standing in the water.
What really happened? • The Persians had their best warriors on the ships. Once the Persians regained their composure and started to fight back the Greek ran for the hill. The Persians still in the water followed thinking it was a retreat. In truth 2/3 of the Greek army was waiting on the other side of the hill and demolished the Persians who followed. The remaining Persians sailed away. • Greek Victory
VI. City-States Unite! A. Greek city states knew the Persian threat was real. B. SO THEY UNITE TO FIGHT! C. Sparta sends foot soldiers D. Athens provides the navy E. Together they develop a strategy to defeat the mighty Persians!
The Battle of ThermopylaeAfter the loss at Marathon the Persians left the Greeks alone for 10 years. During that time the ruler Darius died and his son Xerxes took over. During these 10 years the Greeks united and Sparta and Athens, although not friends, realize they fight the best if they are together. Sparta with the help of Corinth takes 7,000 soldiers to the tight pass at Thermopylae to slow if not stop the advance of the Persians 200,000 soldiers from reaching Athens. This way Athens could get its naval ships out of port and ready to fight and the Persians wouldn’t be able to burn the Athenian ships. As the Persians walk through the small pass they were ambushed by the Greeks. After the initial ambush King Leonidas (Spartan) sends all of the Corinthians and the Spartan away. He keeps only the best 300 Spartans. In the next instance the 300 Spartans look up and the night is filled from the thousands of Persians arrows. A Spartan soldier says in response…..
What really happened? • “We will fight in the shade!” • The 300 Spartan soldiers will hold of the mighty Persian army until they are betrayed and a traitor shows the Persians a secret passage that enables them to surround the Greeks. • The Spartans will lose but take 30,000 troops with them when they are killed three days later. This also allows the Athenians to successfully get their ships out of Athens in order to fight the Persian navy.
How will the Persian Army get their supplies? So what do the Greeks have to do??
The Battle of Salamis The Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Athenians to get their ships out of Athens and they were ready to help attack the Persian supply ships and the Persian navy. The Persians knew the Athenians had gotten their ships away safely and searched for them, exhausting themselves, while the Athenians rested. When they did meet the Athenians realized that their ships were much smaller while the Persians had huge ships.
What really happened? So the Athenians have to use their brain and their knowledge of the geography of Greece and trick the Persians into the Strait of Salamis What is a strait? The Greeks will battle the Persians in the strait (David V. Goliath) The strait is so narrow the large Persians ships cannot move and the Greek ships slowly destroy the large Persian navy and they literally sail circles around them.
Burn Athens Burn! • Persian Army marches on to Athens after winning at Thermopylae. • When they get there they find an abandoned city and burn it down!
The Battle of Plataea • In 479 BCE the Persians marched to Athens and found it abandoned. The Persians burnt down Athens. At the same time the rest of the Greek poleis got together and formed one massive army. The unified Greek army met up with Persian at Plataea.
What really happened? • With the largest Greek army ever the Greek attacked the Persians in hand to hand combat and defeated the Persians. • The Persians ran back to Turkey (Asia Minor) • By working together the Greeks saved their homeland from invasion
What does the Persian warshow us about teamwork?
Was anything reallyaccomplished from all the battles and death of the Persian War?
What happens when twocultures meet and want the same resources?