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Ancient Athens

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  1. 1. Athens Northeast of Sparta on the Aegean Sea
  2. 5. Naming Athens <ul><li>King Akteos = Polis named =Akte / Aktike </li></ul><ul><li>King Kekrops = Polis named =Kekropia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Married Aketos daughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dragon Body </li></ul></ul>
  3. 6. Naming Athens <ul><li>The Final Naming </li></ul>Kekrops
  4. 7. Naming Athens <ul><li>Gods compete for the polis’s favor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poseidon – saltwater spring and the first horse (favored by men of the polis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athena – olive tree (favored by women of the polis) </li></ul></ul>Who Wins??
  5. 8. Athena = Athens <ul><li>WHY??? </li></ul><ul><li>An extra </li></ul><ul><li>woman </li></ul>
  6. 9. Kodros <ul><li>Athens originally ruled by Kings </li></ul><ul><li>Last King of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>A heroic sacrifice (Oracle) & no more kings (Spartan & Megarans) </li></ul>
  7. 10. A Change in the Government <ul><li>600BCE- </li></ul><ul><li>Oligarchy (power in the hands of a few) </li></ul><ul><li>Rich landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Poor owed the rich and rebelled </li></ul>
  8. 11. A New Type of Government <ul><li>Draco “Drakon” (624BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written Laws (aristocrats not want because easy to interpret unwritten to their advantage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write laws in marble placed in agora so all can see them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fail because the laws were too CRUEL! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. A New Type of Government <ul><li>Solon – (638-559 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salamis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take away upper class power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set limits on land owned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erase all debts & free any </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enslaved because of debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All people can take part in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government (assembly & law court) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer citizenship to non-Athenians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All boys can be taught a trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade increases </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. A New Type of Government <ul><li>Solon Continued </li></ul>You can please some of the people some of the time, but you can't please all of the people all of the time -- Abraham Lincoln What does this mean for SOLON?
  11. 14. A New Type of Government <ul><li>Peisistratus – (608-527 BCE)) </li></ul><ul><li>Solon’s cousin </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by lower class </li></ul><ul><li>Divide large estates so all can </li></ul><ul><li>own land </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t need land to be a citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage sculpture and other arts to beautify Athens (created jobs for the poor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Larger roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Greek Library for literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fix economy with his own money (loaned his own $$) </li></ul>
  12. 15. Beginning of Democracy <ul><li>Peisistratus’s two sons take over (one helps kill the other and then runs away) </li></ul><ul><li>Cleisthenes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of Athens Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st democratic constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All people have a right to freedom of speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which Amendment is this? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. The Parts of Cleisthenes’ Government <ul><li>Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>All males </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone can vote </li></ul><ul><li>Debate matters openly </li></ul><ul><li>Hear court cases </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint 10 generals (army, navy, city judges, and commander-in-chief) </li></ul>
  14. 17. The Parts of Cleisthenes’ Government <ul><li>Council </li></ul><ul><li>500 men </li></ul><ul><li>All males </li></ul><ul><li>Propose Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with Foreign Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Oversee the Treasury and how money is spent </li></ul>
  15. 18. The Parts of Cleisthenes’ Government <ul><li>Council </li></ul><ul><li>Every citizen is on the council for two years (pick out of a pot) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you wish to be in the council that year you write your name on a piece of pottery and drop it in the pot </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. The Parts of Cleisthenes’ Government <ul><li>Why is this fair?? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are there no elections? </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has a chance to win and serve their government </li></ul><ul><li>If there was an election the rich would have an unfair advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>WHY?? </li></ul>
  17. 20. Non-Citizens <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Born men </li></ul>
  18. 21. Athens Vs USA <ul><li>Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul>Direct Representative WHY??
  19. 22. Athens Culture - Boys <ul><li>All boys are educated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 – 18 years old go to private school or tutor no public school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Play Sports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sing & Play instruments </li></ul></ul></ul>Well Rounded!
  20. 23. Athens Culture - Boys <ul><li>18 years old become a citizen with an oath in front of Zeus, family, and friends </li></ul>I promise to make Athens better in war, uphold their constitution and respect their religion
  21. 24. Athens Culture - Boys <ul><li>After 18 – What do they do?? </li></ul><ul><li>Morning- Work </li></ul><ul><li>Evening – Exercise and attend public meetings </li></ul>
  22. 25. Athens Culture – Girls <ul><li>Stay at home where they learned household duties such as how to spin and weave thread </li></ul><ul><li>If a girl is wealthy she is educated by a private tutor (read, write, & lyre) </li></ul>
  23. 26. Athens Culture – Girls <ul><li>At the age of 14 –15 they are married </li></ul><ul><li>Duties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take care of the house & kid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich – servants take care of the house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor – work in the field with their husbands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rarely leave the house without a male chaperone </li></ul>
  24. 27. Athens Culture – Girls <ul><li>Can’t Own Property </li></ul><ul><li>Women answer to men (like Meso) </li></ul>
  25. 28. Athens Culture – Girls <ul><li>Some women were completely free!! </li></ul><ul><li>Aspasia </li></ul><ul><li>Not Athenian </li></ul><ul><li>Free </li></ul><ul><li>Taught public speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Plato & Pericles came to her for advice </li></ul>