Atmosphere, weather and climate

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Atmosphere, weather and climate

  1. 1. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate
  2. 2. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Layers of Earth’s Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Troposphere : We live here, where weather occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Stratosphere : Ozone layer- filters UV radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Mesosphere : Middle layer, it’s the coldest! </li></ul><ul><li>Thermosphere : outer edge of atmosphere; HOT!; where satellites and space shuttles hang out. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Atmospheric Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere is held in place by Earth’s gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure affected by elevation, humidity and temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude ↑ = air pressure ↓ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature ↑ = air pressure ↓ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity ↑ = air pressure ↓ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Measured using a barometer </li></ul>
  4. 5. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Atmospheric Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>As altitude changes, temperature varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troposphere: decrease w/altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratosphere: increase w/ altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosphere: decrease w/ altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermosphere: increase w/ altitude </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  6. 7. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Water is constantly cycled throughout Earth in various forms; solid (ice), liquid (water), gas (water vapor/steam) </li></ul>The Water Cycle Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  7. 8. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Relative humidity: % water vapor in air compared to maximum vapor potential at that temp </li></ul><ul><li>actual H 2 O in air </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O potential of air </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air holds more water </li></ul><ul><li>Cold air holds less water </li></ul>x 100%
  8. 9. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Dew Point </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature which air must be cooled to in order for water vapor to condense into liquid </li></ul><ul><li>If relative humidity is 100% then dew point = actual temperature </li></ul>
  9. 10. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Condensation </li></ul><ul><li>Process by which a gas turns into liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapor condenses as air temperatures cool </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation is visible in the form of CLOUDS </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds form as warm, moist air rises </li></ul>
  10. 11. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Cloud Types </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulus : puffy, white with flat bottoms (vertical motion) </li></ul><ul><li>Stratus : layered, low altitude (horizontal motion) </li></ul><ul><li>Cirrus : thin, feathery, white, high altitude </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  11. 12. Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Clouds and Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Poor weather: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulus and stratus produce precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Root word “nimbus” or “nimbo” indicate clouds that produce precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulonimbus- thunderstorms and severe weather </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nimbostratus- light, long-lasting precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fair weather: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cirrus indicate good weather </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Global winds <ul><li>Why does air move? </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in pressure! </li></ul><ul><li>On global scale, air rises at the equator and sinks at the poles creating high pressure at the poles and low pressure at the equator- Remember convection??? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure belts every 30 °- bands of high and low pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Global winds <ul><li>Pressure belts </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy .
  14. 15. Global winds <ul><li>Coriolis Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Coriolis Effect: curving of the path of currents due to Earth’s rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both air and water are subject to this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s winds do not blow in straight paths, instead they are deflected. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clockwise in Northern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Global winds <ul><li>Coriolis Effect </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  16. 17. Global winds <ul><li>Types of Global Winds </li></ul><ul><li>Polar easterlies : wind belts from poles (0 °) to 60 ° latitude in N & S hemispheres (E to W) </li></ul><ul><li>Westerlies : wind belts found between 30° and 60° in N & S hemispheres (W to E) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Winds : wind blowing from 30° to equator in N & S hemispheres (E to W) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Global winds Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy .
  18. 19. Global winds <ul><li>Jet Streams </li></ul><ul><li>Act like conveyor belts </li></ul><ul><li>Current of fast-moving air in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Location of jet stream marks large temperature contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Winter: strong jet streams </li></ul><ul><li>Summer: weak jet streams </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  19. 20. Global Winds <ul><li>Climate zones/Biomes </li></ul><ul><li>Low- latitude: equator- 25 °N & S </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainforest : high humidity, heavy precipitation, constant high temperatures. Ex: Amazon, Congo, Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savanna : seasonal changes from wet to dry, and hot to slightly cooler. Ex: India, S. Africa, S. America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert : low humidity, low precipitation, high day temp, lower night temp. Ex: N & S Africa, Mexico, Australia </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2008 Worldplanetbiomes.org. Reproduced under educational fair use policy
  20. 21. Global winds <ul><li>Climate zones/Biomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-latitude: 30 °-55° N & S </li></ul><ul><li>Steppe : grasslands, semi-arid, warm/hot summer, cold winter. Ex: Great Plains, Gobi Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean (Chaparral): wet winter, dry summer. Ex: California, Mediterranean, Chile, Cape Town </li></ul><ul><li>Grasslands : Dry, cold winter, warm summer. Ex: great Basin, interior Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous Forest : Huge temp swings from summer to winter, wet. Ex: eastern US, Canada, Korea, Japan, Eastern Europe </li></ul>Copyright 2008 Worldplanetbiomes.org. Reproduced under educational fair use policy
  21. 22. Global winds <ul><li>Climate zones/ Biomes </li></ul><ul><li>High-latitude climates </li></ul><ul><li>Taiga : interior, long frigid winter, short cool summer, little precip., largest temp range of any zone. Ex: Alaska, Canada, N Europe, Siberia </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra: coastal, long cold winter, short mild season, very little precipitation. Ex: Hudson Bay, Greenland </li></ul><ul><li>Alpine : cool/cold, mountains/high plateaus, moderate temperatures similar to surrounding zones. Ex: Rocky Mountains, Alps, Himalayas, Andes </li></ul>Copyright 2008 Worldplanetbiomes.org. Reproduced under educational fair use policy
  22. 23. Global winds <ul><li>Climate zones/Biomes </li></ul>
  23. 24. Local winds <ul><li>High Pressure Systems (Anticyclones) </li></ul><ul><li>Located where measured air pressure is highest compared to surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>A high pressure center is indicated on a weather map by a blue &quot;H&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Winds flow clockwise around a high pressure center in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Sinking air prevents cloud formation and precipitation- fair weather </li></ul>
  24. 25. Local winds <ul><li>Low Pressure Systems (Cyclones) </li></ul><ul><li>Located where measured air pressure is lowest compared to surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>A low pressure center is indicated on a weather map by a red &quot;L“ </li></ul><ul><li>Winds flow counterclockwise around a low in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Rising air facilitates development of clouds and precipitation </li></ul>
  25. 26. Local winds <ul><li>High and Low Pressure Systems on a weather map </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  26. 27. <ul><li>AIR MASSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Large bodies of air </li></ul><ul><li>- have similar temperature and moisture </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Five basic types of air masses determine the USA's weather. They can bring anything from scorching heat to bone-chilling cold depending on the type of air mass. These air masses are: </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Arctic (cA): Extremely cold temperatures and very little moisture. </li></ul><ul><li>Continental polar (cP): Cool and dry, but not as cold as Arctic air masses. </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime polar (mP): Cool and moist. </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime tropical (mT): Warm temperatures with copious moisture. </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Tropical (cT): Hot and very dry. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Fronts <ul><li>Clashing air masses spark weather events- the boundaries are known as FRONTS </li></ul><ul><li>Cold front </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air moves under warm air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves from NW to SE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air behind cold front is colder and drier than the air it replaces </li></ul></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  29. 31. Fronts <ul><li>Characteristics associated with Cold Fronts </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  30. 32. Fronts <ul><li>Warm Fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air moves over cold, dense air </li></ul><ul><li>Move from SW to NE </li></ul><ul><li>Air behind warm front is warmer and more humid than air it replaces </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  31. 33. Fronts <ul><li>Characteristics associated with Warm Fronts </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  32. 34. Fronts <ul><li>Cold and Warm Fronts </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  33. 35. Severe Weather <ul><li>Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Strong/severe storm that produces lightning and thunder </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning: electric discharge up to 54,000 °F </li></ul><ul><li>Thunder: shockwave produced by lightning </li></ul><ul><li>Also produce hail, high winds, flash floods and tornadoes </li></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  34. 36. Severe Weather <ul><li>Tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>What are they? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinning column of air with high wind speeds and low pressure that touches the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do they form? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funnel cloud pokes out bottom of cumulonimbus cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes tornado when it touches ground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are they measured? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fujita Scale (1-5) based on damage </li></ul></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  35. 37. Severe Weather <ul><li>Hurricanes </li></ul><ul><li>How do they form? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of thunderstorms over tropical water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds in different directions cause storms to spin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind speeds range from 120-150 km/hr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are they measured? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saffir-Simpson Scale (1-5) based on winds and storm surge </li></ul></ul>Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.

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