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Atmosphere, weather and climate

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  • 1. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate
  • 2. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Layers of Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Troposphere : We live here, where weather occurs
    • Stratosphere : Ozone layer- filters UV radiation
    • Mesosphere : Middle layer, it’s the coldest!
    • Thermosphere : outer edge of atmosphere; HOT!; where satellites and space shuttles hang out.
  • 3.  
  • 4. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Atmospheric Pressure
    • Atmosphere is held in place by Earth’s gravity
    • Air pressure affected by elevation, humidity and temperature
        • Altitude ↑ = air pressure ↓
        • Temperature ↑ = air pressure ↓
        • Humidity ↑ = air pressure ↓
    • Measured using a barometer
  • 5. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Atmospheric Temperature
    • As altitude changes, temperature varies
      • Troposphere: decrease w/altitude
      • Stratosphere: increase w/ altitude
      • Mesosphere: decrease w/ altitude
      • Thermosphere: increase w/ altitude
  • 6. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 7. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Water is constantly cycled throughout Earth in various forms; solid (ice), liquid (water), gas (water vapor/steam)
    The Water Cycle Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 8. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Humidity
    • Relative humidity: % water vapor in air compared to maximum vapor potential at that temp
    • actual H 2 O in air
    • H 2 O potential of air
    • Warm air holds more water
    • Cold air holds less water
    x 100%
  • 9. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Dew Point
    • Temperature which air must be cooled to in order for water vapor to condense into liquid
    • If relative humidity is 100% then dew point = actual temperature
  • 10. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Condensation
    • Process by which a gas turns into liquid
    • Water vapor condenses as air temperatures cool
    • Condensation is visible in the form of CLOUDS
    • Clouds form as warm, moist air rises
  • 11. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Cloud Types
    • Cumulus : puffy, white with flat bottoms (vertical motion)
    • Stratus : layered, low altitude (horizontal motion)
    • Cirrus : thin, feathery, white, high altitude
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 12. Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Clouds and Weather
    • Poor weather:
        • Cumulus and stratus produce precipitation
        • Root word “nimbus” or “nimbo” indicate clouds that produce precipitation
            • Cumulonimbus- thunderstorms and severe weather
            • Nimbostratus- light, long-lasting precipitation
    • Fair weather:
        • Cirrus indicate good weather
  • 13. Global winds
    • Why does air move?
    • Differences in pressure!
    • On global scale, air rises at the equator and sinks at the poles creating high pressure at the poles and low pressure at the equator- Remember convection???
            • Pressure belts every 30 °- bands of high and low pressure
  • 14. Global winds
    • Pressure belts
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy .
  • 15. Global winds
    • Coriolis Effect
    • Coriolis Effect: curving of the path of currents due to Earth’s rotation
        • Both air and water are subject to this
    • Earth’s winds do not blow in straight paths, instead they are deflected.
        • Clockwise in Northern Hemisphere
        • Counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere
  • 16. Global winds
    • Coriolis Effect
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 17. Global winds
    • Types of Global Winds
    • Polar easterlies : wind belts from poles (0 °) to 60 ° latitude in N & S hemispheres (E to W)
    • Westerlies : wind belts found between 30° and 60° in N & S hemispheres (W to E)
    • Trade Winds : wind blowing from 30° to equator in N & S hemispheres (E to W)
  • 18. Global winds Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy .
  • 19. Global winds
    • Jet Streams
    • Act like conveyor belts
    • Current of fast-moving air in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
    • Location of jet stream marks large temperature contrast
    • Winter: strong jet streams
    • Summer: weak jet streams
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 20. Global Winds
    • Climate zones/Biomes
    • Low- latitude: equator- 25 °N & S
      • Rainforest : high humidity, heavy precipitation, constant high temperatures. Ex: Amazon, Congo, Indonesia
      • Savanna : seasonal changes from wet to dry, and hot to slightly cooler. Ex: India, S. Africa, S. America
      • Desert : low humidity, low precipitation, high day temp, lower night temp. Ex: N & S Africa, Mexico, Australia
    Copyright 2008 Worldplanetbiomes.org. Reproduced under educational fair use policy
  • 21. Global winds
    • Climate zones/Biomes
    • Mid-latitude: 30 °-55° N & S
    • Steppe : grasslands, semi-arid, warm/hot summer, cold winter. Ex: Great Plains, Gobi Desert
    • Mediterranean (Chaparral): wet winter, dry summer. Ex: California, Mediterranean, Chile, Cape Town
    • Grasslands : Dry, cold winter, warm summer. Ex: great Basin, interior Europe
    • Deciduous Forest : Huge temp swings from summer to winter, wet. Ex: eastern US, Canada, Korea, Japan, Eastern Europe
    Copyright 2008 Worldplanetbiomes.org. Reproduced under educational fair use policy
  • 22. Global winds
    • Climate zones/ Biomes
    • High-latitude climates
    • Taiga : interior, long frigid winter, short cool summer, little precip., largest temp range of any zone. Ex: Alaska, Canada, N Europe, Siberia
    • Tundra: coastal, long cold winter, short mild season, very little precipitation. Ex: Hudson Bay, Greenland
    • Alpine : cool/cold, mountains/high plateaus, moderate temperatures similar to surrounding zones. Ex: Rocky Mountains, Alps, Himalayas, Andes
    Copyright 2008 Worldplanetbiomes.org. Reproduced under educational fair use policy
  • 23. Global winds
    • Climate zones/Biomes
  • 24. Local winds
    • High Pressure Systems (Anticyclones)
    • Located where measured air pressure is highest compared to surroundings
    • A high pressure center is indicated on a weather map by a blue "H".
    • Winds flow clockwise around a high pressure center in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere
    • Sinking air prevents cloud formation and precipitation- fair weather
  • 25. Local winds
    • Low Pressure Systems (Cyclones)
    • Located where measured air pressure is lowest compared to surroundings
    • A low pressure center is indicated on a weather map by a red "L“
    • Winds flow counterclockwise around a low in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere.
    • Rising air facilitates development of clouds and precipitation
  • 26. Local winds
    • High and Low Pressure Systems on a weather map
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 27.
    • AIR MASSES:
    • Large bodies of air
    • - have similar temperature and moisture
    • properties
  • 28.
    • Five basic types of air masses determine the USA's weather. They can bring anything from scorching heat to bone-chilling cold depending on the type of air mass. These air masses are:
    • Continental Arctic (cA): Extremely cold temperatures and very little moisture.
    • Continental polar (cP): Cool and dry, but not as cold as Arctic air masses.
    • Maritime polar (mP): Cool and moist.
    • Maritime tropical (mT): Warm temperatures with copious moisture.
    • Continental Tropical (cT): Hot and very dry.
  • 29.  
  • 30. Fronts
    • Clashing air masses spark weather events- the boundaries are known as FRONTS
    • Cold front
      • Cold air moves under warm air
      • Moves from NW to SE
      • Air behind cold front is colder and drier than the air it replaces
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 31. Fronts
    • Characteristics associated with Cold Fronts
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 32. Fronts
    • Warm Fronts
    • Warm air moves over cold, dense air
    • Move from SW to NE
    • Air behind warm front is warmer and more humid than air it replaces
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 33. Fronts
    • Characteristics associated with Warm Fronts
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 34. Fronts
    • Cold and Warm Fronts
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 35. Severe Weather
    • Thunderstorms
    • Strong/severe storm that produces lightning and thunder
    • Lightning: electric discharge up to 54,000 °F
    • Thunder: shockwave produced by lightning
    • Also produce hail, high winds, flash floods and tornadoes
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 36. Severe Weather
    • Tornadoes
    • What are they?
      • Spinning column of air with high wind speeds and low pressure that touches the ground
    • How do they form?
      • Funnel cloud pokes out bottom of cumulonimbus cloud
      • Becomes tornado when it touches ground
    • How are they measured?
      • Fujita Scale (1-5) based on damage
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.
  • 37. Severe Weather
    • Hurricanes
    • How do they form?
      • Series of thunderstorms over tropical water
      • Winds in different directions cause storms to spin
      • Wind speeds range from 120-150 km/hr
    • How are they measured?
      • Saffir-Simpson Scale (1-5) based on winds and storm surge
    Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reproduced under educational fair use policy.