Introductions and Conclusions


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A lesson on writing introductions and conclusions for critical papers.

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  • Nice informative slide its really helpful to build an essay,the explanation of introduction parts and conclusion parts was really good ,share more information so that we get a good start fo writing thanks......
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Introductions and Conclusions

  1. 1. Introductions and Conclusions <ul><li>We’re going to give you a basic formula for introductions and conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>As you become a stronger writer, you can play around with this structure—but you should still include the three basic elements of an intro and conclusion in any paper. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>A good introduction should have 3 parts. </li></ul><ul><li>A hook. </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 main points that are sub-arguments of the thesis statement. </li></ul><ul><li>A thesis statement, or main argument. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hook: Here are some options. <ul><li>1.       Use a contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>2.       Use an interesting observation. </li></ul><ul><li>3.       Make an interesting comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Use a personal anecdote or experience </li></ul>
  4. 4. Main points <ul><li>Main Points : The second part of your introduction should be your 2-4 main points. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Main points: a few notes <ul><li>Note: In a shorter paper (i.e., one to two pages), you may skip this step and move directly into the thesis statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Your main points can come before or after the thesis statement. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main points: a couple of tips <ul><li>Relationship to Thesis : The main points should all be sup-points of the thesis. If, for example, my thesis is that Karl is a big pansy—then my sup-points could be the various subtle ways in which Karl is a big pansy. </li></ul><ul><li>                                                    </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Construction : Use the same grammatical construction for all three points. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;During the summer I love to go hiking, surfing, and soccer is also one of my loves&quot; becomes &quot;During the summer I love to hike, surf, or play soccer.&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 7. Thesis Statement <ul><li>The third part of your introduction is the thesis statement: a strong argument that will unify your paper. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Common problems with thesis statements: <ul><li>Too general or broad.             </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks an argument (offer facts and not ideas).               </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks supporting evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Too obvious. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conclusions <ul><li>Conclusions also have three parts to them. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Three parts of a Conclusion <ul><li>Restate the thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Restate the 2-4 main points. </li></ul><ul><li>Give us a “Why should we care?” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Options for the “Why should we Care?” <ul><li>a.       Reach Beyond the Text: Move beyond close textual analysis to consider this: What does it all mean in the larger world? </li></ul><ul><li>Close with an effective quotation. (Be careful here: Dave Matthews Band is not a good source for a formal essay). </li></ul>
  12. 12. More options for the “Why should we care?” <ul><li>-Compare the past to the present. </li></ul><ul><li>-Come full circle. One of the most effective ways of concluding a paper is to reflect back on something in the introduction. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common Conclusion Hazards <ul><li>1. 1. Avoid using transitional words such as &quot;Thus,&quot; &quot;In Conclusion&quot; and &quot;Finally&quot; at the beginning of the last paragraph when readers can plainly see the end of the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Avoid asking any new questions or introducing textual data. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Any questions? <ul><li>Come see Reynolds or Katie! </li></ul>
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