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    Strategija ruralnog turizma Strategija ruralnog turizma Document Transcript

    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Contents 1. Strategy Serbia 2. Strategy Appendix
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe development of the National Rural Tourism Master Plan is one of the key components ofthe Sustainable Tourism for Rural Development UN Joint Programme (JP), which workstowards the diversification of the rural economy in Serbia.Other key activities include a) providing guidance for public investment, which is aimed atcreating national and international partnerships between public, civil and national sectororganizations, b) strengthening the capacities of rural tourism entrepreneurs, tourismorganizations and NGOs, and c) supporting local projects through the Joint UN Fund forSustainable Rural Tourism. The UN JP activities are implemented in four target regions, namelySouth Banat on the Danube, East Serbia, Central Serbia and Lower Danube.Five UN agencies, including UNWTO, FAO, UNDP, UNEP and UNICEF, in cooperation with anumber of Government of the Republic of Serbia national partners, namely the Ministry ofEconomy and Regional Development, the Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and WaterManagement, and the National Tourism Organization of Serbia are implementing the JointProgramme.The Spanish Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDG-F) is providing 4 millionUSD for the implementation of the UN JP, which started in December 2009 and will last untilJune 2012.This report was prepared by the UNWTO with the collaboration of the consulting company,Tourism & Leisure Advisory Services, and its local partners. -2-
    • STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE RURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SERBIAUN Joint Programme „Sustainable Tourism for Rural Development‟ funded by the Spanish MDG Achievement Fund Strategy Report 19 April 2011
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaIndex1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ - 4 -2 Vision and objectives ............................................................................................................................................. - 7 - 2.1 Vision for the Rural Tourism Master Plan ....................................................................................................................... - 7 - 2.2 Objectives of the Rural Tourism Master Plan.................................................................................................................. - 8 - 2.3 Millennium Development Goals (MDG)........................................................................................................................... - 8 - 2.4 EU accession goals....................................................................................................................................................... - 10 - 2.5 Serbian Tourism Goals ................................................................................................................................................. - 10 - 2.6 Rural Tourism Goals ..................................................................................................................................................... - 12 -3 Rural Tourism Positioning.................................................................................................................................... - 17 - 3.1 Rural Tourism positioning strategy................................................................................................................................ - 17 - 3.2 Rural Tourism symbols ................................................................................................................................................. - 19 - 3.3 Rural Tourism attributes ................................................................................................................................................ - 20 - 3.4 The challenge of differentiation ..................................................................................................................................... - 20 -4 Rural Tourism Cluster development strategy....................................................................................................... - 22 - 4.1 Methodology.................................................................................................................................................................. - 22 - 4.2 Strategy for Rural Tourism Clusters development ........................................................................................................ - 24 - 4.3 Strategy for Rural Tourism Clusters prioritisation ......................................................................................................... - 26 -5 Rural Tourism Experience development strategy ................................................................................................ - 30 - 5.1 Rural Tourism Experience strategy ............................................................................................................................... - 30 - 5.2 Rural Activities (products) general strategy .................................................................................................................. - 31 - 5.3 Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) and Rural Activities (products) strategy ........................................................................ - 36 - 5.4 Man-made facilities strategy ......................................................................................................................................... - 43 - 5.5 Rural Accommodation strategy ..................................................................................................................................... - 45 - 5.6 Agriculture sector strategy within the rural tourism sector ............................................................................................ - 49 - 5.7 Special programme for villages and farms in Serbia..................................................................................................... - 50 - 5.8 Special programme for school and children / youth tourism ......................................................................................... - 50 -6 Market development, Promotions and Commercial strategy ............................................................................... - 53 - 6.1 Market development strategy ........................................................................................................................................ - 53 - 6.2 Rural Tourism Branding Strategy .................................................................................................................................. - 60 - 6.3 Online marketing strategy ............................................................................................................................................. - 61 - 6.4 Sales and commercialization strategy........................................................................................................................... - 61 - 6.5 Communication and promotion strategy ....................................................................................................................... - 61 - 6.6 Institutional destination organization strategy ............................................................................................................... - 62 -7 Economic Rural Tourism strategy ........................................................................................................................ - 63 - 7.1 Methodology.................................................................................................................................................................. - 63 - 7.2 Conclusions................................................................................................................................................................... - 64 - 7.3 Tourism and rural tourism projection models ................................................................................................................ - 66 -8 Environmental and Social strategy ...................................................................................................................... - 69 - 8.1 Environmental strategy ................................................................................................................................................. - 69 - 8.2 Social strategy............................................................................................................................................................... - 72 -9 Tourism Support development strategy ............................................................................................................... - 74 - 9.1 Infrastructure development strategy.............................................................................................................................. - 74 - 9.2 Quality development strategy........................................................................................................................................ - 76 - 9.3 Human Resources development strategy ..................................................................................................................... - 79 - 9.4 Private sector development: Micro & Small Enterprises ............................................................................................... - 85 - 9.5 Financial support ........................................................................................................................................................... - 87 - 9.6 Legislative support ........................................................................................................................................................ - 89 - -2-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia10 Organisation framework....................................................................................................................................... - 91 - 10.1 Local, regional, national, trans-national levels .............................................................................................................. - 91 - 10.2 Tourism strategy governance........................................................................................................................................ - 93 - 10.3 Tourism strategy implementation ................................................................................................................................ - 103 - -3-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia1 IntroductionThe objective of this report, Strategy for Rural Tourism in Serbia, is to present the initial strategy forthe development of Rural Tourism in Serbia. The strategy is developed based on the keys findingsfrom the Diagnostic Report, which found that Rural Tourism has a critical role to play in thedevelopment of tourism in Serbia. Furthermore, it found that Rural Tourism can play a leading rolein the diversification of the rural economy and as a mechanism to reduce poverty, improve thequality of life, preserve cultural heritage and protect the environment. The role of the agriculturalsector is particularly important in the development of Rural Tourism.The strategy for the development of Rural Tourism in Serbia fits within the larger framework of thedevelopment of tourism in Serbia. It has an extremely important role to play as it represents a greatopportunity for the further development of tourism and the creation of a strong Rural Tourismdestination in Serbia.The objective of this report is to present the main strategies proposed for the development of RuralTourism in Serbia. It is important to reflect on the key findings of the Diagnostic Report, which haveidentified the high potential for the development of Rural Tourism in Serbia, as well as identifyingthe current gaps in creating social-, economic- and environmental value for Serbia. These keyfindings have been included in the first chapter of this report.It is important to highlight the key role which Rural Tourism can play in supporting the MillenniumDevelopment Goals, EU accession goals, the sustainable development of rural areas of Serbia aswell as the overall Serbian tourism goals. The second chapter of the report defines the Vision andObjectives of the Rural Tourism strategy and highlights the role which Rural Tourism should play inmeeting the wider objectives for Serbia.The third chapter defines the Rural Tourism positioning for Serbia. This is followed by the fourthchapter which defines the territorial strategy for the development of Rural Tourism as well as theprioritisation strategy.The fifth chapter defines the strategy for the development of the Rural Tourism experience inSerbia. The strategy is comprised of a holistic perspective of Rural Tourism which incorporates therural activities and rural accommodation strategies. The sixth chapter defines the economicstrategy and estimates the economic value of the development of Rural Tourism. The seventhchapter defines the environmental and social strategy.The eighth chapter defines the market development strategy, as well as the promotions andcommercialisation strategies. The ninth chapter defines the tourism support strategy, which isfollowed by the final chapter, the organisational framework strategy.The preliminary Strategy report is the third deliverable of the project, and will be followed by PhaseIII: the Rural Tourism Action Plan. -4-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia1.1 Key conclusions from Diagnostic ReportThe key conclusions of the Diagnostic Report show that there are strong opportunities for thedevelopment of Rural Tourism in Serbia. However, it found that there are weaknesses which needto be addressed as a high priority. The main conclusions from the Diagnostic Report are asfollows: Most of the Serbian territory is rural with a large and diversified number of nature and culture- based assets, spread out throughout the country. These resources are highly attractive for the development of a holistic Rural Tourism experience. Furthermore, the majority of these resources have not been developed for Rural Tourism although they have high potential for development. The Rural Tourism concept is an integrated rural experience based on the interaction of rural activities and rural accommodation. Rural Tourism is highly correlated with many different products which are already developed by TOS. The Serbian rural values and symbols are already highlighted by the “Village life” product of TOS and other products such as Nature and Earth Tourism and Cultural Tourism. Rural Tourism can support the further development of these products and can further enhance them. Rural Tourism has already been developed in some areas of Serbia. Most important areas are Western Serbia, Vojvodina and Central Serbia. Rural Tourism has a key role to play in the protection and enhancement of the natural environment of Serbia. The natural environment is one of Serbia´s strongest resources and it should be protected. Furthermore, Rural Tourism is already playing an important role in rural Serbia and is generating a significant level of income. Rural Tourism is an emerging reality in Serbia supported by the more than 32,000 beds (registered and non-registered) in rural areas1, from which 10,000 beds are exclusively rural. It is estimated that these total beds are generating yearly more than 5 billion RSD of accommodation incomes and contributes approximately 5 billion RSD more direct incomes for the tourism sector.  These more than 10 billion RSD incomes do not take into account visitors that do not stay at least for one night or stay with friends or relatives, although they also spend money in tourism services and others and therefore generate additional incomes for the rural areas. The 10 billion figure do not either account for the indirect contribution to the local economy in terms of incomes and employment.  Just for the purpose of giving an order of magnitude, these estimated total 10 billion RSD incomes would represent 16% of the Direct Travel and Tourism GDP calculated by WTTC (World Tourism and Travel Council) in Serbia for 2010 which sums up 62.4 billion RSD. In terms of the Rural Tourism Sector, besides these figures, it is clear that there are many gaps in most units, such as tourism assets, leisure and entertainment activities, restaurants, handicrafts, agricultural products used directly or indirectly by the tourism sector, etc. From a positive point of view, these gaps represent opportunities that can be taken to generate businesses, especially micro and medium enterprises, as well as employment. Rural Tourism can play a key role in Serbia in terms of diversifying the rural economy, thereby, creating employment opportunities which will generate additional incomes for rural households, reduce unemployment (specifically among women and young people) and can help to maintain or repopulate villages. Furthermore, the development of Rural Tourism will empower small1 Refer to the Diagnostic Report for full details on calculations -5-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia scale farmers by giving them the possibility to directly offer their high quality products to the tourists. It is expected that Rural Tourism will also play a significant role in the preservation of traditional farming practicesThere is, therefore, an opportunity to use Rural Tourism as a support to the general tourismdevelopment is Serbia. However, there are also many gaps and barriers that need to be addressedand removed, among others the following major ones identified in the Diagnostic Report: Road infrastructure in rural areas and particularly between rural tourism resources need to be improved. Need for structured Rural Tourism experiences which include activities, accommodation and man-made facilities. High seasonality issues that are affecting the use of rural areas and the occupancy of tourism accommodation which is extremely low (average 4% yearly occupancy for rural units and 21% for other accommodation units). Lack of international standards and quality guarantees throughout the Tourism Sector, especially accommodation facilities. Human resource awareness and development in order to understand and use the opportunities provided by rural tourism in a sustainable way. Organization between the national, regional and local stakeholders (public and private sectors, civil society) in order to manage rural tourism development in an efficient and sustainable way. Lack of standardized traditional food products and quantity of such products. -6-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia 2 Vision and objectives The objectives of this chapter are as follows:  To define the vision of development of the Rural Tourism Master Plan of Serbia  To define the strategic objectives of the Rural Tourism Master Plan and to define the role that the Plan should play in supporting other strategic objectives of Serbia 2.1 Vision for the Rural Tourism Master Plan The overall vision of Rural Tourism master plan of Serbia is to develop a master plan for socially, economically and environmentally sustainable rural tourism. It should be emphasised that the vision of sustainable Rural Tourism is a balance of economic sustainability, socio-cultural sustainability and environmental sustainability. Without the interaction and balance of these three components, the benefits of rural tourism will be limited. Furthermore, Serbian rural tourism relies on a large and diversified number of nature and culture based assets which need to be conserved, sustainably used and further enhanced through tourism development. Sustainable rural tourism generates local income and integrates local communities with a view to improving livelihoods and reducing poverty; conserves natural and cultural assets such as biodiversity, cultural heritage and traditional values; supports intercultural understanding and tolerance, aspires to be more energy efficient and climate sound; avoids over consumption of water; and minimises waste. Economic Socio-culturalsiness plan basé sur le cycle de vie et sustainability sustainabilitycoûts et bénéfices à long terme Priorité 3eur ajoutée, marketing des pratiques durables Ruralour économique vs. investissement en capital Tourismûts d’exploitation et d’entretien Environmental sustainability  To lead the differentiation of Serbia against its competitors and for it to become one of the leading destinations Rural Tourism in the Balkans.  To develop a rural tourism plan which supports the overall tourism objectives of Serbia and plays a leading role in supporting the MoERD in achieving these objectives  To support Serbia´s objectives for EU accession  To support the objectives of Serbia´s Millennium Development Goals  To contribute to sustainable rural development of Serbia -7-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia2.2 Objectives of the Rural Tourism Master PlanThe objectives of the Rural Tourism Master Plan are made up different layers which arecomplementary and provide a detailed set of multiple objectives for the master plan. The mainobjectives are summarised in the below diagram: Rural Tourism Goals Serbian Tourism Goals EU accession goals Millenium Development Goals (MDG)2.3 Millennium Development Goals (MDG)The UN MDG Declaration states that tourism has a significant potential to directly support andstimulate local economic development of rural based tourism. The development of rural basedtourism in Serbia is particularly important given the challenges of unemployment, depopulation andthe need to diversify the agricultural economy, which have been highlighted in the DiagnosticReport. The objective of the Rural Tourism Plan for Serbia, therefore, is to support the MoERD, theMAFWM and the United Nations in achieving the Millennium Development Goals for Serbia.Specifically, the Rural Tourism Master Plan should support the MDG goals as follows:2.3.1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (MDG 1)The goals of the Rural Tourism Master Plan of Serbia are to contribute to MDG1 in the followingway: Create employment opportunities by the stimulation of the rural tourism sector. Support and activate the participation of women and young in rural areas in the tourism sector, thereby, creating employment and contributing to the reduction of unemployment. The role of women in the production of hand crafts and maintaining local tradition should be supported and encouraged. Tourism awareness and training will also be needed within the strategic framework of the rural development master plan in order to show opportunities and to provide skills for unemployed people to enter the tourism market.2.3.2 Ensure environmental sustainability (MDG 7)The goals of the Rural Tourism Master Plan of Serbia are to contribute to MDG7 in the followingway: -8-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Sustainable development principles should be included in the rural tourism master plan to ensure that the development of rural tourism protects natural resources and prevents their deterioration. Furthermore, the plan should encourage the revitalising of natural and cultural assets which are not being used to benefit the rural communities. The principles of sustainability should always be the key principle which underlies the development of any tourism activity related to rural tourism. Where possible, the rural tourism master plan should aim to identify ways in which energy can be used in an efficient way.2.3.3 Develop Global Partnership for Development (MDG 8)The goals of the Rural Tourism Master Plan of Serbia are to contribute to MDG8 in the followingway: It should encourage sustainable economic growth and the diversification of the economy in rural areas. It should support the investment in human resource development and the development of human capacity in the rural tourism sector. It should create co-operation structures and mechanisms between the public and the private sectors, as well as the civil society, with special emphasis at the regional and local levels, in order to build long term governance self capacity. Co-operation should also contemplate other dimensions such as between municipalities and regions of Serbia, as well as with other neighbouring countries.The below table summarises the National Development Goal targets addressed by the JointProgramme (JP): 2 MDG targets addressed by JP MDG 1. Eradicate 1.1. Reduce unemployment rate of young by at least one third Extreme Poverty and 1.2. Reduce unemployment rate of persons with disabilities by at least 20% Hunger 1.3. Reduce unemployment rate of women by over 45% 7.1. Integrate sustainable development principles in national documents, stop the loss of natural resources and encourage their revitalisation MDG 7. Ensure 7.2. Adopt and implement national programmes, strategies and laws Environmental governing sustainable development and environmental protection in Sustainability Republic of Serbia by 2015. 7.5. Increase energy efficiency and usage of renewable energy 8.1. Dynamic and sustainable GDP growth based on assumptions MDG 8. Develop a Global established by the National Investment Plan the Strategy of Promotion and Partnership for Development of Foreign Investments and the Strategy for Economic Development Development until 2012. 8.3.Increase Investments in human resources development by 70%2 Source: UNWTO Concept Note, 2010 -9-
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia2.4 EU accession goalsThe goals of the Joint Programme (JP) are to support the government is Serbia´s accession to theEU. Specifically the JP will support the accession by promoting a strategic approach to thesustainable tourism development at a national level 3:2.4.1 National Tourism Master PlanThe goal is to develop a National Rural Tourism Master Plan which will bring together public-private and civil society stakeholders to create a plan that addresses the needs of rural tourismstakeholders, aligning them with the tourist demand and consumers in a national approach. TheMaster Plan will be an opportunity to show the EU how the multiple stakeholders at a national levelcan collaborate in Serbia with the objectives of creating economic-,social and environmental value.2.4.2 National Programme for Rural DevelopmentThe goal is to support the rural planning initiatives to diversify the rural economy, strengthen socialcapital and environmental protection. The JP will facilitate Serbia´s access to the EuropeanCommission funding for environmental action, rural economy diversification and local partnershipdevelopment, with the aim of reducing poverty in rural areas in a sustainable manner.2.4.3 Investment mainstreamingThe goal is to facilitate the initiatives targeting national and international partnerships of public,private and civil society. The lessons learned from the pilot projects as part of the JP should beused to guide public investments in sustainable rural development. It should also support Serbia infuture applications for funding.Furthermore, Serbia´s accession to the EU will give it the opportunity to access special funds forthe development of rural areas. For example, the ERDF: European Regional Development Fund,which aims to support economic development in the European Regions, inclusive of andespecially in rural areas.2.5 Serbian Tourism GoalsThe goals for Rural Tourism development in Serbia fit within the overall goals for Serbian Tourism.The Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia (2007) defines specific Serbiantourism goals and the Rural Tourism Master Plan will play an important role in supporting theseobjectives through the development of Rural Tourism. Specifically, Rural Tourism will support theSerbian Tourism goals in the following ways:2.5.1 Economic supportThe goal for tourism in Serbia is to encourage economic growth and to increase total income fromthe tourism sector4. Different Master Plans have been commissioned and are being adopted3 Ibid - 10 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbiathroughout the Serbian territory in order to consolidate this trend. The further development of allthe units that made up the Tourism Sector can result in a further economic development. Theobjective is that Rural Tourism will contribute to the economic development of Serbia through thedevelopment of economic opportunities in rural areas. In particular, the stimulation anddiversification of the agricultural sector will support these objectives. Furthermore, the RuralTourism Master Plan should support economic development by addressing the gaps in the ruralTourism Sector. It is estimated that Rural Tourism already contributes 5.2 billion RSD ofaccommodation incomes and an estimated total 10.4 billion RSD of direct economic contribution toSerbia5.2.5.2 Facilities and infrastructure developmentThe goal for Serbia is to increase the utilization of existing accommodation facilities by improvingthe overall capacity6. Additionally, the goal is the development of adequate infrastructure andfacilities for tourism products which require long term investments. Above all these includemountain tourism and special interest7. The product development strategy for Rural Tourism willaim to further stimulate and encourage the demand for rural facilities and accommodation. Thedevelopment of infrastructures, particularly rural roads, is important for the development of RuralTourism. Furthermore, the development of Rural Tourism will require investment in man-madefacilities in rural areas.2.5.3 Increase in tourist arrivals and revenuesThe goal for Serbia is to increase the number of tourist arrivals and overnights by 2015 8 at least ata compound annual growth rate least of 3%. The definition of the positioning of tourism in Serbiawill be key in attracting increased domestic and international tourists to Serbia. The development ofthe Rural Tourism products will aim to stimulate increased interest in discovering rural Serbia andwill encourage increased tourist arrivals and overnights, as well as stimulating increased revenues.2.5.4 Increase employment in sectorThe goal for Serbia is to increase direct employment in the tourism sector9. The development of jobopportunities in the tourism sector and support for skills development and training will aim toincrease employment in the sector. Specifically, the development of Rural Tourism should play akey role in the creation of new employment opportunities in rural areas.2.5.5 International standards guaranteeThe goal for Serbia is to increase security and application of international quality standards andtourist consumer protection according to European business practice in order to attract foreigntourists10. The development of Rural Tourism in Serbia can support the overall development ofinternational standards in tourism. The introduction of minimum standards and quality guarantees4 The Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia, 20075 The details of the calculations of the economic impact of Rural Tourism in Serbia can be found in aseparate chapter, Economic Rural Tourism Strategy, in this report.6 The Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia, 2007, states that the objective is to increasetourism capacity to 150.000 beds by 2015.7 The Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia, 20078 Ibid9 The Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia, 2007, states that the objective is to increasedirect employment in the tourism sector to 100.000 workers.10 The Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia, 2007, - 11 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbiain rural areas will help to give tourists and visitors more security in terms of expected levels ofservice and products.2.6 Rural Tourism GoalsThe following objectives are specifically defined for Rural Tourism. These are within the context ofthe other objectives that have been outlined in the above sections of this chapter. Serbian Rural Tourism positioning goals  The objective is to develop a strategy which defines the USPs for Rural Tourism in terms of multiple components and multiple aspects. These are driven mainly by rural activities  Define and develop the multi- and rural accommodation; while at the same time consider layered Unique Selling the tangible and intangible factors that define the rural Propositions (USPs) for Rural destination of Serbia. Tourism in Serbia  The development of the integrated and multiple USPs should always strive to develop and enhance a truly Serbian character of the Rural Tourism experience.  The objective is to create a competitive positioning of Rural Tourism in Serbia by having a holistic strategy for the development of Rural Tourism experiences (integration of rural activities and rural accommodation)  The objective is to build on the natural and cultural strength of Serbia by developing rural activities and at the same time, develop the supporting structures needed to make Serbia competitive.  Create a highly competitive  This objective needs to take into account the position and positioning of Rural Tourism in relationship of rural tourism with regards to other tourism Serbia products of Serbia and also to consider the competitive positioning with regards to other neighbouring countries.  In the short and mid-term the objective is to further differentiate from Romania and Bulgaria, especially through a focus on accommodation and creating options which integrate activities and accommodation.  At the same time the objective is to have comparable advantaged with regards to Hungary and the Czech Republic and to surpass their competitiveness. Serbian Rural Tourism Experience (product) goals  The objective is to create a uniquely Serbian Rural Tourism  Develop a competitive and experience through the integration of rural activities and rural unique Serbian Rural Tourism accommodation. Experience  The aim is to develop the special Serbian elements of the offer so that it is uniquely Serbian.  Leverage the products which are already associated with  Leverage products which are rural tourism to further develop the rural tourism offer already developed in rural Serbia  In parallel, these products should always be developed with a strong Serbian context. - 12 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia  Develop tourism activities in rural areas which are combined  Combine activities and with accommodation in rural areas, to provide an integrated accommodation in rural areas rural tourism experience with a strong Serbian character and with a strong Serbian character context, whenever possible.  The objective is to create packages of experiences which give the visitor an integrated and varied experience of rural  Develop integrated leisure and Serbia. entertainment offers which are  The aim is to create organized activities which are attractive intrinsically Serbian in character to different segments by making use of tourism assets but also creating man-made attractions and activities  The objective is to further develop the attractiveness of existing man-made resources by improvements in the level of quality and services. Thereby increasing the footfall and revenues.  The man-made facilities should – as much as possible -  Develop man- made facilities reflect Serbian value and should further enhance the with a Serbian character positioning of Rural Serbia.  The number of man-made attractors should be increased and is a tool for the dispersion and diversification of the leisure and tourism offer in rural Serbia. This is particularly important in areas with lower natural and cultural attractiveness.  The objective is to increase the number of beds for rural use (this includes rural households and general tourism beds 11 usable for rural tourism .  The accommodation facilities should reflect a truly Serbian  Improve rural accommodation character (which may be expressed in terms of tradition or capacity and character modern Serbia).  The general tourism beds usable for rural tourism should increase to 39,287 in 2013, 42,574 in 2015 and 47,653 in 12 2020 . Rural Tourism Quality goals  Ensure that the quality level meets minimum international standards and provides a quality guarantee.  The objective is to improve the rural accommodation offer by  Standardise the level of quality in ensuring more consistent quality of international standards. rural tourism and differentiate  The rural accommodation typologies should be further through quality labels standardised and defined to allow the development of an authentic and varied Serbian rural tourism accommodation offer. Rural Tourism Economic and tourism demand goals  The objective is increase the number of rural overnights from  Increase the demand for 2.7 million to 4 million in 2013, 4.8 million in 2015 and 7.4 overnights million in 2020.  13 Increase accommodation revenue from 5.2 bn RSD to 6.3  Increase revenues from rural bn RSD in 2013, to 8.2 bn RSD in 2015 and 14 bn RSD in tourism activities 2020.11 The Diagnostic Report refers the rural accommodation supply as rural households and hotels and otheraccommodation (which are close to rural areas and can, therefore, be used by rural tourists).12 Please refer to Rural Tourism projections model for full details13 Bn= billion - 13 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia  Increase the tourism economic direct multiplier from 0.97 to 1 in 2013, to 1.1 in 2015 and 1.6 in 2020  Increase the total economic contribution of rural tourism to the economy of Serbia from 10.4 bn RSD to16.5 bn RSD in 2013, 22.4 bn RSD in 2015 and 45.5 bn RSD in 2020.  The objective is to increase the occupancy rates of general  Increase occupancy rates of rural tourism from 21% to 24% in 2013, to 26% in 2015 and 30% accommodation in 2020 and rural tourism occupancy rates from 4% to 12% in 2013, to 17% in 2015 and 30% in 2020  The objective is to increase the number of day visitors, especially from international regional markets.  Increase focus on day visitors  The objective is to increase day visitors from 1.2 million to 1.9 million in 2013, to 2.4 million in 2015 and 3.9 million in 2020. Rural Tourism Social sustainability goals  The objective is to use the wealth of natural, cultural and social resources in rural Serbia to further diversify the rural  Diversify the rural economy and economy by creating new rural employment opportunities. reduce unemployment in rural  The goal is to engage local rural communities in tourism and, areas thereby, reduce unemployment and depopulation in rural areas.  The objective is to develop local markets in order to ease the access to market of local agricultural products, food and non- food products processed locally and in particular those  Support sustainable small scale deriving from small scale farming. Small scale farmers farming initiatives of high natural represent a key element for conservation of rural traditions, and cultural value and further culture and landscapes; and high value nature farming develop local markets practices. Small scale production of high quality products processed traditionally or locally have no chance to compete with conventional products in open markets  The objective is to further develop the natural and intrinsic values of women and other disadvantaged groups in rural Serbia as part of the authentic rural tourism experience.  Activate the participation of  The goal is to further develop local handcrafts and traditional women and disadvantaged methods of production (foods, drinks, clothes, carpets) and groups in rural tourism to develop these as a source of income for rural communities, while at the same time creating a unique tourism experience for the visitor.  The objective is to revitalise the use of rural schools and to bring children back to schools which are suffering from a lack  Revitalise rural schools14 of students. The development of Rural Tourism should encourage the use of rural schools to stimulate active and outdoor learning for groups of children and youth. Rural Tourism Environmental sustainability goals  The objective is to further protect and enhance the natural  Preserve and manage natural and cultural assets in rural Serbia and to provide and cultural assets and development solutions to protect these from degradation and landscapes in a high rural sources of pollution. The preservation and enhancement of environmental quality by the environmental quality is a key-factor for the sustainable minimising environmental risks usage of Rural Tourism as economic driver in rural areas of Serbia14 Objective supported by UNICEF - 14 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia  Reduction of GHG emission –  The aim is to sell agricultural products close to the place of cutting carbon footprint production, thus avoiding transportation for longer distances  Develop infrastructure in rural  The aim is to develop renewable energy sources in rural areas which supports sustainable Serbia which will be closely linked with the development of life styles rural tourism.  The goal is to involve local communities and stakeholders in  Create social awareness and Rural Tourism and instantly. Use Rural Tourism as a tool to involve community in educate the communities in environmental concerns and sustainability initiatives for Rural possibilities to prevent the environmental degradation. Tourism Marketing goals  The objective is to create a clear identity and branding for Serbia as a rural tourism destination.  The brand identity should support the overall positioning of  Clear identity, branding and Rural Tourism in Serbia. differentiation of Rural Tourism in  In the short and mid-term the objective is to further Serbia differentiate from Romania and Bulgaria. At the same time the objective is to have comparable advantages with regards to Hungary and the Czech Republic and to surpass their competitiveness.  The objective is to create a diverse and original rural tourism experience which will be attractive to a local, regional and international market. The aim is to use the proximity to many international regional markets as a key way of attracting  Diversification of the demand by potential visitors. geographic region  The 2015 objective is for the domestic overnights to make up 80% of total overnights in rural areas, and international regional and international “rest of the world” should make up 15 20%  The objective is to create rural tourism products in Serbia, which will combine rural activities with rural accommodation.  Reduce seasonality by creating The use of these activities and accommodation should experiences which are attractive create a diverse and interesting mix of experiences for the throughout the year visitor. The goal is that these rural tourism products are attractive to different markets throughout the year, thereby, reducing seasonality.  The objective is to improve the marketing of rural tourism in  Improve the marketing and Serbia by the development of the rural tourism marketing commercialization of rural strategy. The aim is to further leverage the use of new tourism in Serbia technologies, especially the internet, for both the promotion and sales of the rural products. Partnership and governance goals  Develop and Support  The objective is to create an entrepreneurial environment partnerships and cooperation and cooperation between numerous local farmers, between local farmers, villagers household owners and the tourism sector. Serbian villages15 Please refer to Projections chapter for full details - 15 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia and tourism sector have a small and diverse agricultural production which needs to be coordinated to participate in the tourism sector. Furthermore, rural households are fragmented and many small farms remain isolated from the tourism sector. The development of partnerships between local farmers, rural households and the tourism sector is an important goal for the diversification of the rural economy.  The objective is to develop and support public-private  Develop and support rural partnerships through the development of partnerships tourism public-private between small rural stakeholders, local communities, civil partnerships sector, public services and established businesses (for example resorts which already exists in rural areas).  The objective is to create a governance structure which further extends its support for the development of rural  Improvement of Governance and tourism. institutional capacity to support  The aim is for the coordination, reporting structures and rural tourism funding to have a more integrated and coordinated approach to rural tourism. Rural Tourism Human Capacity development goals  The objective is to create awareness for the local population of what the opportunities are to enter the Rural Tourism  Increase awareness of industry. employment opportunities in  The objective is to create awareness for the general public, Rural Tourism but also to have a special focus on women, youth and disadvantages groups.  The objective is to provide the training and skills required to perform the jobs in Rural Tourism.  Provide training for skills  The objective is to provide skills which are transversal across development different units of the tourism sector, and at the same time to provide specific skills which are needed in particular units of the tourism sector.  Provide ongoing support for  The objective is to provide ongoing support to the people Rural Tourism skills development who are employed in Rural Tourism.  The objective is to provide specific training for small  Special programmes for Micro businesses and to address specific training needs for and Small Enterprises and the governmental institutions public sector Infrastructure and other support goals  The objective is to improve the accessibility to the Rural Tourism sites and between places of interest for tourism.  The objective is to improve the accessibility with motorised  Road infrastructure improvement and non-motorized vehicles of visitors to rural tourism sites and, thereby, also improve the access to rural areas for local communities  The objective is to improve the man-made leisure facilities in  Man-made infrastructure rural areas of Serbia  Furthermore, rural tourism signalisation can play an  Improvement of accessibility and important role in facilitating the arrival of tourists to their signalisation to rural tourism offer destination. - 16 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia3 Rural Tourism PositioningThe competition analysis in the Diagnostic Report, found that there is strong competition in RuralTourism, both in terms of rural activities and rural accommodation. Despite the strong natural andcultural features of rural Serbia, neighbouring countries also offer many of the natural and culturalactivities. However, low differentiation was found in terms of the rural accommodation offer of thecompetition. The positioning strategy will propose how Rural Tourism in Serbia should approachthe challenge of differentiation.The objectives of this chapter are as follows: To define the Rural Tourism positioning for Serbia To define the symbols which should be used to support the positioning To define the attributes of the positioning strategy To define the differentiation strategy for Serbia3.1 Rural Tourism positioning strategyThe positioning strategy of Rural Tourism in Serbia should focus on the following: Create the USPs for Serbia as multi-layered USPs, which combine tangibles, intangibles, rural activities, and rural accommodation, while at the same time always develop the truly Serbian character of these aspects. Create a destination which reflects the authenticity and rural soul of Serbia throughout the territory. Create a Rural Tourism destination which is developed on the foundation of environmental, social and economic sustainability. Create an integrated and holistic Rural Tourism offer which combines rural activities with rural accommodation in an innovative an economical-, social and environmental- sustainable way. Create a highly competitive positioning of Rural Tourism in Serbia by focusing on a holistic positioning of Rural Tourism which will allow Serbia to become more competitive, especially with regards to Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary.The positioning statement should invite the tourist and visitor to discover the unspoilt beauty ofrural Serbia, to uncover its cultural heritage and to go on a personal discovery of the heart of theSerbian people. The positioning statement is, therefore, an invitation to discover and to experiencethe heart of rural Serbia. The Rural Tourism positioning should be within the overall positioning ofSerbia as a destination. The positioning proposed by the President of Serbia, Mr. Tadic, is asfollows: Serbia “Where tradition meets nature16”16 Slogan from UN day in Serbia and recommendation of the President of Serbia, Mr Tadic. Belgrade, 27September 2010 - 17 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe Serbia Rural Tourism positioning statement is proposed as follows17: Discover the soul of Serbia Look at the green forests and mountains, and blue rivers and lakes Listen to her stories of legends Taste the goodness of the earth Smell the purity Feel the heart of rural Serbia and meet her peopleThe positioning strategy for rural Serbia, should combine the physical elements (hardware) with thespiritual elements (software) to create an authentic rural tourism positioning with reflects theessence of the Serbian soul. It is important that these elements are developed in terms of the ruralactivities and rural accommodation strategies.3.1.1 Physical elementsThe physical elements include the experiences associated with activities and accommodation. Therural activities include: Nature:  Unspoilt natural beauty of rural Serbia  Diversity of nature and landscapes  Proximity of rural Serbia to urban centres in Serbia as well as neighbouring countries like Croatia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria  International recognition of natural beauty with resources listed as UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (Golija - Studenica) and Ramsar lists (Labudovo Okno, Gornje Podunavlje, Peštersko Polje and Slano Kopovo) Culture  Food and gastronomy of high quality with typically Serbian rural cuisine  Local events and festivals in rural communities  History and rich heritage, including cultural heritage and archaeological sites. Serbia boasts three cultural sites recognized on the UNESCO World Heritage List (Archaeological site Felix Romuliana, Studenica Monastery and Stari Ras and Sopocani)  The accommodation includes the physical proximity of the accommodation to the rural area and the level of physical contact of the guest with the rural household or rural accommodation. It relates to the level of immersion of the guest in the activities of the rural household (which can range from high to no involvement).17 During the national stakeholders workshop (Belgrade, December 1st) a modification on the presentedpositioning statement was proposed: “Share the soul of Serbia”. - 18 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia3.1.2 Spiritual elementsThe spiritual elements include the emotional experiences associated with activities andaccommodation. The rural activities intangibles include:  Experiencing the rural lifestyle and slow pace of the countryside  Authentic people and places, experiencing the rural way of life as seen through the eyes of real people  Friendliness of the rural people and their open heartedness and heartfelt hospitality The emotional component of the accommodation includes the personal experience of the guest of the character and warmth of the rural household owner (or other rural accommodation). It relates to the way in which the guest is made to feel at home and part of the rural household.3.2 Rural Tourism symbolsSymbols are used as tools to position the destination and are used to create the mental image andassociation of the destination. Symbols are used to reinforce, illustrate and make tangible the coreof Rural Tourism. The symbols for rural Serbia should combine rural activities and ruralaccommodation.The strategy for the use of rural symbols for Serbia is as follows: Serbia Rural Tourism symbols Rural Activities symbols Rural Accommodation symbols  Nature  Farms  Culture: rural events + festivals  Rural gastronomy +  Traditional villages  Rural architecture  Heritage Human touch 3 - 19 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe symbols for rural activities include nature and culture symbols. The symbols for ruralaccommodation include farms, traditional villages and rural architecture. Finally, human symbolsshould be used to reflect the heart of the rural and multicultural Serbian people.3.3 Rural Tourism attributesSerbian Rural Tourism positioning should be further supported and made more tangible through aselection of attributes in order to convey a message of diversity of experiences to the potentialvisitor and tourist. Rural Tourism in Serbia can bring a wide array of opportunities to enjoy.It is comprised of a combination of physical attributes (based on activities and accommodation) aswell as emotional attributes. Accommodation Activities Phyiscal Physical Attributes 3 Priorité Attributes Rural Tourism Attributes Intangible AttributesAn example of these attributes is shown below: Physical attributes through activities includes lakes, mountains, rivers, heritage sites, hunting and bird watching. Physical attributes through accommodation includes rural architecture, traditional cottages (e,g. salas, vajat and brvnare), ethno villages and rural houses. Intangible attributes include the highly emotional and personal elements such as contact with the villagers, human contact, friendships, building memories and feeling a part of rural Serbia.Please refer to the Appendix for the full details of the chapter.3.4 The challenge of differentiationThe Diagnostic Report found that there is high competition for Rural Tourism in Serbia, especiallyfrom Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Czech Republic18. Despite the relatively high competition18 Please refer to the Competition Analysis in the Diagnostic Report for full details. - 20 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbialevels, Serbia has the opportunity to differentiate its Rural Tourism offer from its competitivemarkets by addressing multiple aspects. The key principles for differentiation are as follows: To follow a holistic approach to Rural Tourism development by combining rural accommodation with rural activities, to create truly authentic and integrated Rural Tourism experiences To always look for ways to develop and reinforce the intangibles and rural lifestyle with a truly authentic Serbian character by the ongoing involvement of the local communities. Although authenticity and friendliness can also be found in neighbouring competitors, it must be developed so that the Serbian intangibles achieve a truly strong association with the destination. Only the intangibles that are proper to Serbia can be used as competitive and unique features and they relate fundamentally to “lifestyle”, which needs to be expressed and illustrated in a very tangible way through symbols (rural events, style, architecture, design). To create innovative rural accommodation typologies which supporting the differentiation of Serbia´s rural accommodation by the development of typically Serbian accommodation in creative ways and in developing new Serbian typologies. To create rural man-made tourism facilities which are – as much as possible - intrinsically Serbian in character, while at the same time meet international standards. Furthermore, to ensure that international standards are achieved and promoted throughout the Rural Tourism Sector To constantly develop and invest in the development of human skills and management capacity. To show that the Rural Tourism model in Serbia is driven by economic, social- and environmental sustainability. - 21 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4 Rural Tourism Cluster development strategyThe Diagnostic Report found that the natural and cultural resources, which have potential to bedeveloped for Rural Tourism, are distributed throughout the Serbian territory. The report alsoidentified the strategic development priorities for tourism in Serbia, particularly through the TourismStrategy of Serbia, Tourism Master plans and the products being promoted by TOS. TheDiagnostic also identified key issues which have an impact on the development of Rural Tourism,which include aspects such as accessibility, hospitality offer and seasonality. The strategy willdefine the areas of the territory which should be prioritised for Rural Tourism development.The objectives of this chapter are as follows: To define the strategy for the development of geographic areas (called Rural Tourism Clusters) for Rural Tourism in the territory. In other words, to identify which areas should be developed as a focus for Rural Tourism throughout the territory. Given that there are many priority areas that have been identified for development, while at the same time there are budget considerations, further prioritisation of the Rural Tourism Clusters are considered. The second objective, therefore, it to define the prioritisation strategy for the different Rural Tourism Clusters. In other words, to define which of the Rural Tourism Clusters should be developed in which order.4.1 MethodologyThe methodology used to define the Rural Tourism development strategy is done in two mainsteps, as explained below:Step 1: Define Rural Tourism Clusters development strategyThe first step is the identification of which areas of the territory should be developed for RuralTourism and has been completed as follows: Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) are developed as a result of taking the most relevant Factors and Attractors in the territory (as identified in the FAS analysis of the Diagnostic Report19) and grouping them with Tourism Master20 plans where relevant. The result is 12 Rural Tourism Clusters which should be developed for Rural Tourism. The 12 RTC are then grouped further into 4 Rural Tourism Cluster Groups considering the synergies and proximity of one or several clusters.The output is the Rural Tourism Clusters grouped into Rural Tourism Cluster Groups. Please note: The detailed methodology and step by step examples of the mapping are included in the Appendix. The 12 Rural Tourism Clusters are then further evaluated in order to prioritise them for development.19 Please refer to the Diagnostic Report, Chapter 4: Inventory and assessment of relevant tourism assets andfacilities20 Source: Master Plan Zlatibor-Zlatar, Master Plan Golija, Master Plan Vlasina, Master Plan Besna Kobila,Master Plan Lower Danube, Master Plan Stara Planina, Master Plan Kucajske Planine-Belijanica, MasterPlan Kopaonik, Master Plan Upper Danube, Master Plan Sremski Karlovci, Master Plan Novo Milosevo,Master Plan Soko Banja, Master Plan Tara, Master Plan Roman Emperor´s Route - 22 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 2: Prioritisation of Rural Tourism ClustersThe 12 RTC are further prioritised in order to identify which should be developed first. Thesecategories address the issue of potential return for every Serbian dinar investment in RuralTourism development. The methodology identifies 6 aspects (which are ranked from 1 to 3) andare considered important in determining the level of risk and return of investment in each RTC. Thefollowing criteria have been applied to each RTC in order to define its priority for developmentcompared to the other RTCs: Factors and Attractors: considers the concentration of factors and attractors in each RTC and the potential the RTC has to develop a diversified rural tourism offer Seasonality: considers whether the RTC could be an all year round tourism destination. The outputs are driven by the findings from the Spatial Plan for Serbia21. Accessibility and Infrastructure: considers the ease of access to and within the RTC Proximity to markets: considers the size of the potential markets in terms of isochrones for each RTC. Unemployment: considers the unemployment levels in each RTC considering that high unemployment rates should be given priority for rural tourism development. Hospitality: considers the current capacity of the RTC to accommodate rural tourists. This is evaluated in terms of rural accommodation as well as hotels and other accommodation suitable for rural tourism. Experience in rural tourism: considers the experience that each RTC has in terms of development and management of rural tourismThe output is the 12 Rural Tourism Clusters prioritised in terms of development order. Please note: The detailed methodology and step by step examples of the mapping are included in the Appendix.21 Source: Spatial Plan of Serbia 2010: Destinations with year round offer; dominant summer offer withparticipation of Winter supply; dominant summer offer - 23 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.2 Strategy for Rural Tourism Clusters developmentThe first question which the strategy addresses is: Which parts of the Serbian territory shouldbe prioritised for the development of Rural Tourism? The strategy identifies 12 Rural TourismClusters (RTC) throughout the territory. The 12 Rural Tourism Clusters should be developed for Rural Tourism in Serbia. The 12 RTCs have been grouped into 4 Rural Tourism Cluster Groups which will be used in other parts of the strategy. The below table summarises the 12 RTCs and 4 RTCGs. Rural Tourism Cluster Development strategy RTC 1: Golija RTCG1: Central Serbia and Western RTC 2: Zlatar Zlatibor Serbia RTC 3: Kopaonik RTC 4: Central Serbia RTC 5: Lower Danube RTCG 2: South Banat and Lower Danube RTC 6: South Banat RTC 7: Soko Banja RTCG 3: Eastern Serbia RTC 8: Eastern Serbia RTC 9: South Eastern RTC 10: Fruska Gora RTCG 4: Vojvodina RTC 11: Upper Danube RTC 12: Northern These 12 RTC are the areas of the territory which should be developed for Rural Tourism. The 12 RTCs are the result of diverse and rich resources (including natural, cultural and other as detailed in the FAS of the Diagnostic Report) which are highly correlated for the development of Rural Tourism experiences. Of the 12 RTCs, 10 have already been identified for development in terms of the Tourism Master Plans which have already been defined. The RTCs show a high variety of resources distributed throughout the territory, including different types of attractors (mainly natural and cultural) as well as natural factors. A relatively high concentration of attractors and factors in certain areas. However, there is a relatively lower presence of man-made attractors when compared to the natural and cultural attractors. If it is allowed by the budget, these 12 RTCs should all be developed. However, given that the implementation of the Rural Tourism Master plan will have budget limitations, these 12 RTC´s are further prioritised for investment. The RTC and RTCGs are represented in the territory on the following map.Note: Although South Banat belongs to the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina, in terms of tourismdevelopment synergies, it has been proposed to connect it with Lower Danube - 24 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of 12 Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) and 4 Rural Tourism Cluster Groups (RTCG) Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 RTC 1 RTC 3 Zlatar Zlatibor RTCG 3 Golija RTC 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism ClusterSource: UNWTO - 25 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia 4.3 Strategy for Rural Tourism Clusters prioritisation The second question which the strategy addresses is: Within these prioritised areas of the Serbian territory, which of the RTCs will provide the best return for the investment of each Serbian dinar in Rural Tourism? In other words, it identifies which of the RTCs provide the best opportunities, with the lowest risk, for expanding the value of Rural Tourism.  The RTCs with the best opportunities, while at the same time having the least risk, are RTC1 ( Golija), RTC2 (Zlatar-Zlatibor), RTC3 (Kopaonik), RTC4 (Central Serbia), RTC5 (Lower Danube), RTC8 (Eastern Serbia), RTC10 (Fruska Gora) and RTC 11 (Upper Danube).  Three of the project target regions, namely RTC4 (Central Serbia), RTC5 (Lower Danube) and RTC8 (Eastern Serbia) are included in the prioritised RTCs.  RTC6 (South Banat), a project target region, is also included in the prioritised clusters. Although it has a lower ranking than the other target regions, it forms a natural continuation of RTC5 (Lower Danube) and can, therefore, contribute as part of this area for the development of Rural Tourism. The below table shows the summary of the prioritisation of the RTCs. Unemployment Accessibility / Experience in Infrastructure Prioritisation Proximity to SeasonalityRuralTourism Hospitality markets Rural Tourism Cluster tourismCluster TotalGroup FAS RTC 1 (Golija) 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 10 1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 11 2 RTCG 1 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 11 2 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 12 3 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 12 3 RTCG 2 RTC 6 (South Banat) 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 15 6 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 15 6 RTCG 3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 13 4 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 17 8 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 11 2 RTCG 4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 13 4 RTC 12 (Northern) 3 3 1 2 3 1 1 14 5 The below table explains the ratings. - 26 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Accessibility / Proximity to Unemploy- ExperienceRating FAS Seasonality Hospitality Infrastructure markets ment in tourism High volume High High volume of general Good concentration of proximity accommodati Long accessibility to of factors and potential Above 25% on and experience in All year round the cluster, and 1 attractors and tourists and of unemploy- relatively the destination relatively good high relatively high ment developed development connections diversification probability of rural tourism of tourism within it potential catchment accommodati on Medium Medium volume of Medium Summer Good volume of general Short concentration destination accessibility to proximity accommodati Around 20% experience in of factors and with the the cluster, but potential on and initial 2 of unemploy- the medium participation limited tourists and level of rural ment development diversification of winter connections medium tourism of tourism potential supply within it probability of accommodati catchment on development Low Good Low volume No concentration accessibility to of proximity Around 15% Limited experience in of factors and Summer the cluster, but potential 3 of unemploy- accommodati the limited destination very poor tourists and ment on capacity development diversification connections low probability of tourism potential within it of catchmentThe following conclusions can be drawn from the prioritisation of Rural Tourism Clusters: The specific geographic areas for rural tourism development in the territory have been identified and prioritised as Central and Western Serbia (RTCG 1), Vojvodina (RTCG 4), South Banat, Lower Danube and the top part or Eastern Serbia (RTCG 2) and Eastern Serbia (RTCG 3). The strategy for the development of Rural Tourism in Serbia should focus on these geographic areas and should be focused on developing these at the same time. However, when resource allocation decisions need to be made, the difference in the priority level should be taken into consideration. Some areas or municipalities with a critical mass of tourism accommodation (whether rural or no specifically) are not located within the priority clusters. However, they should be linked to and benefit from the development of the adjacent priority clusters because of their proximity. While all the RTCG are prioritised for development, the distribution of resources should be given more weight in the prioritised clusters. The primary resources which this refers to are investment and funding (including grant schemes). In other words, for example, Eastern Serbia (RTCG 3) should be given the highest prioritisation for investment in infrastructure, compared to the other cluster groups. The same approach should be applied for the prioritisation of funding schemes. It should also be considered that, while the process results in an overall level of prioritisation, there may be cases when specific criteria, such as the unemployment rate, are given higher priority is certain decision making, than other criteria. - 27 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia The strategy for Rural Tourism development, therefore, is to focus on all the areas, while at the same time considering the prioritisation. In practical terms this should support the decision making for investment. The prioritisation is an indicator of the potential return that may be generated in the RTCG. In other words, it is also an indicator of the relative value that can be created by investing 1 Serbian Dinar in the cluster. Although the 4 targeted regions have been determined as priority areas for rural tourism development, a national policy should also consider at the same level of priority the other clusters which have been determined in this chapter. - 28 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of 12 Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) and 4 Rural Tourism Cluster Groups (RTCG), withprioritisation of 12 RTCs 5 Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 4 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 6 10 RTC 2 Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube 3 3 Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja 6 Eastern Serbia 4 RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 RTC 1 RTC 3 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTCG 3 RTC 1 Golija 9 2 Kopaonik South Eastern 8 RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism Cluster 3 Prioritization orderSource: UNWTO - 29 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5 Rural Tourism Experience development strategyThe Diagnostic Report defined Rural Tourism as the integration of rural activities and ruralaccommodation. The Strategy report will show how these two components should be integrated todevelop a holistic Rural Tourism Experience strategy.The objectives of this chapter are as follows: To define the strategy for the development of the Rural Tourism Experience, which is based on the integration of rural activities and rural accommodation. To define the rural activities strategy for the territory and specifically, to define the main rural products in each RTC To define the strategy for the development of the rural activities through man-made facilities To define the rural accommodation strategy5.1 Rural Tourism Experience strategyThe Rural Tourism Experience strategy is comprised of three main strategies, which are combinedto form the overall strategy. Rural Man-made Rural Rural Tourism activities facilities accomodation Experience strategy strategy strategy strategyThe Rural Tourism Experience strategy is the following: To develop an integrated and holistic Rural Tourism experience in Serbia by focusing on the development of rural activities and rural accommodation, but at the same time, by focusing on the integration of these three components. To support the development of an integrated Rural Tourism Experience strategy by identifying ways in which the different elements (activities and accommodation) can complement each other. To develop Man-made facilities which will facilitate the development, commercialisation and performance of rural activities in central points across the territory. To involve local stakeholders in the development of the Rural tourism experience. They should be involved in the rural activities, rural accommodation and facilities development. To make a special and focused effort to reduce the gaps identified in the Tourism Sector Qualitative analysis (in the Diagnostic Report) in Rural Tourism, in particular by the development of products and activities which involve the local communities. This is especially important for the development of products and services which involve agricultural products in the Tourism sector. - 30 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.2 Rural Activities (products) general strategyThe rural product development strategy is based on the findings in the Diagnostic Report whichfound a high correlation between Rural Tourism activities and other types of tourism productswhich are already developed in Serbia. The diagnostic report showed that Nature & Earth, Cultural,Sport & Adventure, Family & Child, Cruise and Special Interest Tourism are all highly correlatedwith Rural Tourism. The Diagnostic also found that products like Touring, Wellbeing and Health,Short-breaks and MICE are also highly correlated with Rural Tourism.The rural activities strategy is the following: To further leverage the tourism products that are highly correlated with Rural Tourism, and which are already being developed by TOS. To further develop and optimise the resources identified in the Diagnostic Report and the RTCs which have high potential for the development of rural activities. These include the major natural and cultural assets. The strategy will focus on the development of rural activities in the target RTCs. Rural products can be used to create rural activities networks across different RTCs. The rural products should be developed with a focus in the RTCs but should also be developed in areas which are in close proximity to the RTCs. The rural products should, therefore, act as links between different RTCs and other areas of the territory. The rural products should be used to build the identity of the different RTCs and to support their development. The rural products should also be used to create themed routes or special interest routes throughout the territory (for example, hunting, fishing, and cycling). The rural products should be used to develop a variety of activities throughout the RTCs and a diversity of activities within the RTC´s. In other words, the rural activities should target different geographic, lifestyle and lifecycle segments. They should also create a mix of activities in terms of their potential to attract a certain volume of market, potential spending and when the activities can be carried out during the year. To develop the rural activities through and thereby, increasing economic and social value (by creating jobs in rural areas which employ rural communities and those engaged in agricultural activities), as well as creating environmental value (be developing products that respect environmental sustainability). The strategy is to mobilize the agriculture sector in the development of agricultural products which can be offered in the rural tourism sector either directly (to final consumer) or indirectly (to other operators of the valued chain)The following table represents the Rural Products and Sub-products which should be developedfor Rural Tourism and also shows their relationship with the products which are already beingdeveloped by TOS. - 31 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia SubProducts TOS products products  Themed Routes: Roman Emperors, Transromanica, Fortresses on the Danube Cultural  The experience of cultural resources such as visiting monuments, archaeological  Monasteries heritage sites, monasteries and paintings  Castle, manor houses fortresses and fortified towns  Learn about Serbian cultural heritage history, legends, etc.  UNESCO World Heritage sites (Archaeological site Felix Romuliana, Studenica Monastery and Stari Ras and Sopocani)  Personal contact with a local "community", group of people or ethnic group who have kept their local culture and traditions alive EthnoCultural villages and  Takes place in a rural or natural settingTourism events  Village life (rural life)  Visitors requirement: know and understand the way of life of the local community  Customs and folklore that embody the typical lifestyle of a place  Experience the day-to-day life of the local people and to be part of this lifestyle  The experience of food and wine at a local, national, international, traditional and indigenous level that is intrinsically linked with the agriculture sector Gastronomy  Discovery of gastronomy related to culinary heritage. It includes wine and other  Serbian Wine Routes and wine alcoholic beverages, such as Rakija  Different wine types and traditional delicacies and  Learn how to cook traditional gastronomic recipes specialties  Specialised restaurants in local production food and wine according to slow food philosophy  Tourism for which the main motivations are being close to the mountain, the river  Mountains: Kucaj, Divcivare, Rudnik, Zlatar-Zlatibor, Nature Mountains, and the lake themselves Valjevo, Stara planina, etc.and earth rivers and  Undertake activities (active or passive, associated with this natural resource) tourism lakes  River: Danube, Tisa, Drina, Sava, etc.  Experience the tangible and intangible activities associated with the lake  Lakes: Perucac, Palicko, Tresetiste,Vlasinsko,  Experience the enjoyment of fresh air, as well as summer and winter activities. Silver, etc. - 32 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia SubProducts TOS products products  Activities: walking, trekking, cycling, orienteering,skiing, rowing and kayak, sailing, fishing, etc.  Responsible travel to natural areas (i.e. Biosphere reserves) that preserve and Eco-tourism respect the environment and improve the welfare of local residents  National parks, Nature parks, Nature reserves and Outstanding landscapes  Allow tourists to discover, know and enjoy nature through participating in activities  Experience the agrarian way of life, any business initiated by the farmer and/or family to entertain or educate the visitors Agro- tourism  The agro-tourism concept is applicable to agriculture and horticulture  Agro-tourism has very high synergies with Rural Tourism as staying in rural accommodation is a key part of Agro-tourism Nautical tourism on  Sports and activities that take place in the water medium lakes and  Water-related activities and water sports: scuba diving, snorkelling, sailing, surfing,  Rowing, kayaking, canoeing and other water sports rivers water skiing, wind and kite surfing and boat trips Sports Mountain  Individual or group activities: skiing, trekking, biking,  Sports and activities that take place in the mountains or valleys and climbing, rafting, free climbing, ice climbing, hikingadventure Air  Parachuting, paragliding, ballooning, hand gliding,  Sports and activities that take place in the air etc.  16 camping grounds Earth  Sports and activities that take place on soil  Caves and potholes exploration, orientation trails, horseback riding, cycling, running, etc.  Tourism motivated by the need for spending quality time with one‟s family  Note that there are multiple initiatives between Family Family UNICEF and the Ministry of Education which areand child holidays  Spend time building relationships and share experiences with family members being researched to develop Rural Tourism in  Family events, celebrations and meetings Serbia specifically for schools and children - 33 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia SubProducts TOS products products Child and  Supervised program for children and/or teenagers conducted (usually) during the Youth summer months Camps  Summer or weekend camps include: sports camps, nature and science camps, travel camps, etc  Experience farm activities and the agrarian way of life Farm Life  Immerse visitors in any business initiated by the farmer to entertain or educate in the way of life on the farm  Learn about the traditional farm activities and food and beverage local production School and  Improving of knowledge into a particular area or activity educational  Practicing and learning activities for leisure and learning purpose Cruise  Holiday journeys based on their specific transport and medium Organisedtourism cruises  Trips and short visits along the banks or coats of the river  River cruises, lake cruises  River cruises for recreational and holidays purposes  Niche activity which is the main motivation of the visitor is to fish in local eco- Fishing systems  In the broad banks of the valleys, mountain rivers, lakes, mountain streams and gorges such as Bela  Learning of how to fish and the characteristics of fish species in a particular river Crkva lake, Ada Ciganlija and SavaSpecial or lakeInterest  Niche activity which main motivation is to experience a traditional hunting Hunting experience, the wild animals in their natural habitat  320 hunting grounds  Learning on how to hunt and the characteristics of fauna hunt species in a particular mountain area - 34 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia SubProducts TOS products products Bird  It is a highly specialised type of tourism, where the main motivation is to see one watching or various birds in their natural habitat  360 bird species  Learning about the specific bird species in a particular bird watching area Spa and  53 thermal resorts wellness  Thermal and mineral water sources for wellness and beauty through relaxing treatments, and health treatments for body, mind and soul  mineral springsWellbeingand health Medical  Preventive health care treatments  Medicinal mud tourism  Recovery and medical treatments which include surgery and rehabilitation  Medicinal water or taking medicinal baths  Complete a circuit whereby the visitor takes a tour of a place and experience the Organised destination first hand Touring tours  Tours are typically done by train, bus and car  52 weekend breaks in Serbia  Can also be themed circuits, e.g. Nature, CultureShortbreaks Packages  Bundled packages including different products and activities for a short break of 2 to 4 days. Team  Small and medium groups interested in team building activities based in teamwork building  Cooking course activities, games, problems solving, reinforce cooperation, etc. in a rural settingMICE Small seminaries  Small and medium companies and organizations (public and private) interested in and organize seminars, presentations and meetings in a rural setting meetings - 35 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.3 Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) and Rural Activities (products) strategyThe rural activities strategy is focused on the development of the rural products in the RTCs, whichhave been identified as the main territories for prioritised Rural Tourism development. The ruralactivities strategy per cluster is detailed below:5.3.1 RTCG 1: Central Serbia and Western Serbia (contains project target region RTC4: Central Serbia) RTCG 1 (Central Serbia and Western Serbia) contains a high concentration and variety of products which have high potential for the development of Rural Tourism. The RTCG benefits from a rich diversity of products including Cultural Tourism (including Cultural Heritage and Wine & Gastronomy Tourism), Nature & Earth Tourism, Sport and Adventure Tourism, Wellbeing & Health Tourism, Special Interest (especially hunting and fishing), as well as Nautic & Cruise Tourism. RTCG has the highest potential for Wellbeing & Health Tourism compared to the other RTCGs, while also being in close proximity to Sokobanja and Banja Koviljača. RTC1 (Golija) is well positioned to use Cultural Tourism (especially Cultural Heritage tourism such as monasteries), Nature & Earth Tourism and Sport & Adventure Tourism. It is also well positioned for the development of Nautic Tourism, Special Interest (especially hunting and fishing), as well as Wellbeing & Health Tourism. RTC2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) is well positioned for the development of outdoor activities including Nature & Earth Tourism, Sport & Adventure Tourism, Nautic Tourism and Special Interest Tourism. It is one of the strongest RTCs in terms of the enjoyment and practice of outdoor activities and these should be developed as part of the Rural Tourism offer. RTC3 (Kopaonik) is well positioned for the development of Cultural Tourism (especially Wine & Gastronomy Tourism), Sport & Adventure Tourism and Wellbeing & Health Tourism. The combination of Wine and Gastronomy with Wellbeing & Health Tourism creates interesting opportunities for the development of niche Wine/Gastronomy/Wellbeing products which should be combined for Rural Tourism development. RTC4 (Central Serbia project target region) is very well positioned for the development of Sport & Adventure Tourism and Wellbeing & Health Tourism. Furthermore, it has potential to further develop Rural Tourism from its Cultural Tourism offer including Heritage Tourism, Gastronomy and Wine Tourism, and Cultural Events (e.g. Kosidba na Raju event).5.3.2 RTCG 2: South Banat and Lower Danube (project target regions) RTCG2 (South Banat and Lower Danube) contains a high concentration and diversity of products which have high potential for the development of Rural Tourism. As a result of its location along the Danube and its natural resources, it is one of the strongest positioned RTCGs in terms of Nautic Tourism, Sport & Adventure Tourism and Nature & Earth Tourism. The development of water and mountain related activities are the main differentiators in this RTCG. Furthermore, it is also particularly strongly positioned in terms of Cultural Tourism (especially Cultural Heritage and Gastronomy & Wine Tourism). RTC5 (Lower Danube) (project target region) is well positioned for the development of Cultural Heritage Tourism, Nature & Earth Tourism, Sport & Adventure Tourism and Special Interest Tourism. It is especially well positioned for the development of Nautic Tourism and - 36 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia water related sport activities along the Danube. As well as the further development of the cycling routes. Furthermore, it benefits from the existing cultural products, such as the Roman Emperor´s Route. RTC6 (South Banat) (project target region) is well positioned for the development of Cultural Tourism (Heritage and Wine & Gastronomy Tourism), as well as Nature & Earth Tourism and Sport & Adventure Tourism. Its close proximity (and overlap) with RTC5 makes it a natural extension of RTC5.5.3.3 RTCG 3: Eastern Serbia (contains project target region RTC8: Eastern Serbia) RTCG3 (Eastern Serbia) contains a high concentration and diverse products for Rural Tourism development. It is especially well positioned to develop Nature & Earth, Cultural, Sport & Adventure and Special Interest Tourism. RTCG3 is one of the best positioned for the development of Hunting and Bird Watching Special Interest Tourism. RTCG3 also has potential for the development of Wellbeing and Health Tourism. The RTCG includes or is close to several different Wine Regions in Serbia, which makes the development of Wine & Gastronomy Tourism a potential product for further development. RTC7 (Soko Banja) is well positioned for the development of Sport & Adventure Tourism and as well as Special Interest Tourism (especially hunting and bird watching). The RTC is also located relatively close to Sokobanja which can be used to develop complementary Wellness and Health Tourism Products. RTC8 (Eastern Serbia) (project target region) is extremely well positioned for the development of Nature & Earth Tourism and Sport & Adventure Tourism, with Stara Planina as the key resource. The RTC also has potential for Wellness & Health and Fishing Tourism. It is especially well positioned for bird watching and hunting. It also benefits from being relatively close to Sokobanja (as with RTC7 above). RTC9 (South Eastern) is well positioned for the development of Nature & Earth Tourism, Sport & Adventure Tourism (especially cycling) and Special Interest Tourism (bird watching and hunting). It is a relatively less developed RTC for Rural Tourism and the strategy should aim to build its links and relationship with RTC8.5.3.4 RTCG 4: Vojvodina RTCG4 (Vojvodina) is an extremely rich RTCG in terms of the high variety and diversity of tourism products in a relatively close proximity. It also benefits from having some high quality tourism resources when compared to the other RTCG. Cultural Tourism, especially Cultural Heritage and Wine & Gastronomy Tourism, are extremely strong in positioning RTCG4. Furthermore, it has high potential for Nature & Earth, Sport & Adventure, Wellbeing & Health, Special Interest and Nautic Tourism. RTC10 (Fruska Gora) is one of the strongest RTCs in the group and benefits from a high concentration of tourism products. Fruska Gora is extremely rich resource with a variety of products developed in association. These include the Cultural Heritage and Gastronomy and Wine Tourism. Along with RTC 12 it has one of the best wine regions in Serbia. Furthermore, RTC10 includes Nature & Earth Tourism and Wellbeing & Health Tourism. Water related activities and interests create a strong positioning for the RTC in terms of Sport & Adventure (including cycling along the Danube), Nautic and Special Interest Tourism. - 37 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia RTC11 (Upper Danube) is well positioned for the development of Nature & Earth and Sport & Adventure, as well as Special Interest Tourism. As with RTC10, it benefits from sports (e.g. like cycling), as well as special interest like hunting, fishing and bird watching. RTC12 (Northern) is the other extremely strong RTC in RTCG4. It has an extremely strong positioning in terms of Cultural Tourism, especially Wine & Gastronomy. It also has a variety of Sport & Adventure activities, having a unique positioning in terms of its concentration of equestrian activities in and around the cluster. It also includes a variety of Special Interest Tourism as well as Natural & Earth Tourism products.5.3.5 The role of other products in the Rural Tourism strategyThe important role of Wine and Gastronomy in the Rural Tourism strategy has been explainedabove. As a product, local gastronomy has a very important role to play in the creation of the ruraldestination of Serbia. It is an element that can be found throughout the territory and can bepackaged as one of the key strategies for product development.In addition, it should be emphasized that Rural Lifestyle is a key product that can be found acrossall rural areas of Serbia. This product focuses on local events, local festivities, rituals and traditionsand is a key part of the development of the Rural Tourism character of Serbia. Furthermore, thisRural Lifestyle, refers to the enjoyment of the slow pace of life which is typical of rural areas.Throughout the RTCs this product should form a key product which defines the essence of RuralTourism throughout the territory.Both Serbian gastronomy and lifestyle are facets of the intangible heritage of the country.Furthermore, the products strategy should reflect that Family & Child Tourism is an importantproduct that can be developed throughout the territory. It is an important product and continues tobe a product that attracts an important market. Finally, Touring and Short-breaks should also beincluded as part of the strategy between RTC and RTCG and should be used to create links andrelationships between the clusters.5.3.6 Summary of product and RTC strategyThe below tables summarise the main priority products which should be developed in each RTC.The table shows a “P” for the Priority products. It means that these are the main products thatshould be developed in the RTCs. The other products should also be developed, but not with thesame focus. The fours RTCs of the target regions have been defined in more detail in the ActionPlan Report. - 38 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaRTCG 1 (Central and Western Serbia) includes: RTC1 (Golija), RTC2 (Zlatar Zlatibor), RTC3 (Kopaonik) RTC4 (Central Serbia) Products and sub products Products Sub products RTC 1 RTC 2 RTC 3 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 22 Cultural heritage P Cultural tourism Ethno villages and events (rural life) P Gastronomy and wine P P Mountains, rivers and lakes P P P P Nature and earth Ecotourism P P P P Agro-tourism P P P P Wellbeing and health Spa and wellness P P P P Family holidays P P P P Child and youth camps P P P P Family and children Farm life P P P P School and educational P P P P Nautical tourism on lakes and rivers P Sports and adventure Mountain and Earth P P P P Air P P P Cruise tourism Organised cruises Fishing P P Special Interest Bird watching P P P P Hunting P P P22 P = High priority for positioning and development - 39 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaRTCG 2 includes: RTC5 (Lower Danube), RTC6 (South Banat) Products and sub products Products Sub products RTC 5 (Lower Danube) RTC 6 (South Banat) Cultural heritage P P Cultural tourism Ethno villages and events (rural life) P P Gastronomy and wine P Mountains, rivers and lakes P P Nature and earth Ecotourism Agro-tourism Wellbeing and health Spa and wellness Family holidays P P Child and youth camps P P Family and children Farm life P P School and educational P P Nautical tourism on lakes and rivers P P Sports and adventure Mountain and Earth P P Air P Cruise tourism Organised cruises P P Fishing P P Special Interest Bird watching P P Hunting P - 40 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaRTCG 3 (Eastern and South Easter Serbia) includes: RTC7 (Soko Banja), RTC8 (Eastern Serbia), RTC9 (South Eastern) Products and sub products Products Sub products RTC 7 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) RTC 9 Cultural heritage P Cultural tourism Ethno villages and events (rural life) P Gastronomy and wine P P P Mountains, rivers and lakes P P P Nature and earth Ecotourism P P Agro-tourism P P Wellbeing and health Spa and wellness P P Family holidays P P P Child and youth camps P P P Family and children Farm life P P P School and educational P P P Nautical tourism on lakes and rivers P Sports and adventure Mountain and Earth P P P Air Cruise tourism Organised cruises Fishing P P Special Interest Bird watching P P P Hunting P P P - 41 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaRTCG 4 (Vojvodina) includes: RTC10 (Fruska Gora), RTC11 (Upper Danube), RTC12 (Northern) Products and sub products Products Sub products RTC 10 RTC 11 RTC 12 Cultural heritage P Cultural tourism Ethno villages and events (rural life) P Gastronomy and wine P P Mountains, rivers and lakes P P P Nature and earth Ecotourism P P Agro-tourism P P Wellbeing and health Spa and wellness P P Family holidays P P P Child and youth camps P P P Family and children Farm life P P P School and educational P P P Nautical tourism on lakes and rivers P P Sports and adventure Mountain and Earth P P P Air P P P Cruise tourism Organised cruises P P Fishing P P Special Interest Bird watching P P P Hunting P P P - 42 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.4 Man-made facilities strategyThe Diagnostic Report identified that there is a lack of major man-made facilities for entertainmentand leisure in rural Serbia. Furthermore, it concluded that there are insufficient facilities which allowtourists and visitors to enjoy the natural and cultural resources. The man-made facilities strategy isthe following: To develop man-made facilities which allow the tourist and visitor to experience the rural resources and character in Serbia. To develop man-made facilities which will create iconic destinations which support the natural and cultural richness of rural Serbia. Furthermore, the man-made facilities can become attractions in themselves. To use the man-made facilities as a support structure which brings together different activities and gives access to them for the client. New man made attractors can be used on the one hand to reinforce and complement the offering of natural and cultural attractors and, on the other hand, as a demand driver in clusters where there is a lower concentration of natural and cultural attractors. To incorporate local agriculture products as part of the offer of the man-made facilitiesThe general approach is to create “activities” centres that can become leisure,entertainment, edutainment and/or education centres for visitors and tourists. It isimportant to highlight that these places are also for local residents.To illustrate the type of man-made attractors that could help to increase the touristic demand of aspecific cluster, some conceptual examples are presented below.Each man-made facility combines a mix of educational and entertainment options are highlyinteractive spaces. These are places where people can truly experience the essence of ruralSerbia.The reasons for concentrating different activities in one single place are multiple: Create a critical mass of tourism offering in one single place that will make it attractive enough Set up international standards for their design, building and operations The concentration of activities reduces the business risk from a market and operational cost point of view and make it more attractive for investors Each of the man-made facilities offers numerous and different opportunities of interpretation, adaptation and design to the specificities of the different regions of Serbia. Therefore, each activity centre presented below or other, can be duplicated in different parts of rural Serbia. The F&B units within the man-made facilities should supply local agricultural productsAll require a mix of “hard” investment in facilities and equipment and “soft” investment (services).The “hard” investment component can be high or low. These detailed are detailed further in theImplementation Plan. - 43 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe below table summarises the types of man-made facilities which should be developed tosupport the strategy. The man- made facilities are explained in detail in the Action Plan report:Man-made facility Description of the facility  The Welcome Centre is a specific zone where the customer enters a touristic facility to receive information on the local tourism offer. InWelcome Centre addition the centre aim at welcoming guests and making them feel comfortable in the destination and inviting them to experience the different tourism offers in the area.  The Activity Centres bring together the diverse natural, sport and leisure activities in one facility for all segments.  This concept can be applied to centres with different characteristics,Sports and Adventure depending on the strongest resources of the RTC.Activity Centres  Water Sports Adventure Centre  Forest & Mountain Adventure Centre  Air Adventure Centre  The Discovery Centre is the main place where the discovery of the area is concentrated. It focuses on different types of educationalDiscovery Centre and entertainment facilities in order to educate the visitor and to entice them to discover the destination. This facility can be highly sophisticated or relatively simple depending on the needs.  Enchanted Forests and Gardens offers leisure routes and fun trailsEnchanted Forest and in a forest in order to stimulate the imagination. This conceptGardens proposes adventure, leisure and educational activities in the forests of Serbia.  The Ethno Village should provide a visual experience which enriches and reflects the authenticity and character of Serbia. TheEthno Village –  Ethno Village will also provide traditional local products, servicesRevitalization Project and tourism activities to experience the local village life. This objective is to renovate and preserve the existing villages and to invite tourists to be part of this initiative. This project should be show cased in pilot projects throughout the territory.  The recycling centre is a facility that brings together and leads the recycling initiatives in the rural Serbia. It combines recycling andRural Recycling and education of the environment in a creative and artistic way.Art Centre  The recycling centre is a way of preserving the environment, a tool to increase public awareness and an expression of the Serbian art.Children Edutainment  Rural centre for children where they have fun while learning aboutNature Centres the rural way of life in Serbia.Farm School and  The school farm is a learning and entertainment place for childrenrevitalising rural where they can get away from the restriction of the city and canschools experience a sense of freedom in the countryside and adventure. - 44 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia  The revitalization of abandoned schools aims to bring school groups (children and youth) back to rural areas.  Slow movement means reconnecting with nature, respecting theSlow Movement environment, rediscover the pleasure of healthy products, take timeCentres for yourself or your family. The concept is based on the principle of a slow lifestyle, which is the opposite of the fast paced urban lifestyle. It can be combined with Wellbeing and Health facilities.  The Fisherman‟s Marina is a small, authentic and active marina with local fishermen. In the marina, the attraction is based on the fishing activity and the small stall where the tourists can eat fresh fish caught by the fishermen.Fisherman’s Marinaand Cruise Marina  The Cruise Marina is used for cruise ships to welcome a large number of tourists. It can be modern with the new buildings of natural material but can also combine traditional architecture and buildings. It should offer a variety of evening entertainment and music.  The Serbian Gastronomy and Wine World is the main facility for the discovery of Serbia‟s cuisine and beverages. It would include tastingSerbian Gastronomy areas for Serbian brandies, wines and foods (cheese, dried meat,and Wine / Rakija traditional dishes, etc.).World  This concept would be a national project to unify and promote Serbian gastronomy and wine / rakija to tourists and visitors.5.5 Rural Accommodation strategyThe Rural Accommodation strategy is based on the findings of the Diagnostic Report, whichidentified that despite the presence of some developed rural accommodation, that there is a lack ofstandardisation and quality guarantees in the accommodation offer. Furthermore, it was found thatdespite the occurrence of typically Serbian rural accommodation, it has potential to be furtherdeveloped.The rural accommodation strategy is as follows: To develop the rural accommodation offers so that it is an intrinsic part of the Rural Tourism experience and to focus on the development of rural accommodation and how it complements the rural activities. Rural accommodation must be used as a key strategic way of diversifying the Rural Tourism experience in Serbia. For example, for tourists seeking cultural heritage tourism activities, sleeping in an ethno-village or in a restored monastery would strengthen their experience. People interested in mountain, rivers and lakes activities may enjoy accommodation which allows them to sleep in tree huts or river boats. To develop a range of rural accommodation which caters for the needs of different types of segments, including lifecycle and lifestyle segments. In the lifecycle segments for example, families with children have specific accommodation requirements which may differ from the needs of couples without children. In the lifestyle segments, some segments like the Nature Seekers and Adventurous Spirits may look for accommodation with a high level of contact with the rural setting. - 45 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia To focus on standardization of the rural accommodation and in quality level guarantees. The strategy for the improvement of standards and the quality level is a core part of the overall strategy has been included as a separate chapter in this report. To build on the current and typical offer of rural accommodation typologies in Serbia and to further develop the association of rural tourism with these traditional types of accommodation. This has already been done successfully in Vojvodina with the salas and in Central Serbia with traditional households. A similar approach should be followed throughout the territory. The rural accommodation strategy should focus on the development of rural tourism typologies which are intrinsically Serbian in character. To improve the variety of rural accommodation typologies in order to provide the range seen in international markets and create new and innovative typologies in Serbia which are found in best practices internationally but are not yet presented in the Serbian market. These should include the creation of accommodation which is intrinsically linked with the rural setting and rural activities. Focus on particular types of accommodation which are highly strategic in developing Rural Tourism, such as accommodation in villages and farms. Brand the Serbian rural accommodation typologies and use it as a key differentiator in the market. Create holistic experiences for the rural accommodation user which combine the physical attributes of the rural accommodation with the intangibles and emotional aspects. While the physical structure and aspects of the rural accommodation are important, the intangibles remain extremely important in creating the essence of a rural tourism accommodation experience. To ensure an authentic visitor experience it is essential that the human interaction between the visitor and the rural accommodation manager/ owner enriches the visitors experience. These intangible are key to building long term and repeat relationships with visitors. Leverage from local agricultural products to reinforce the Serbian character (both physical and emotional) of the accommodation while at the same time contributing to the local farmers.The below graph shows the types of rural accommodation found in Serbia and internationalbenchmarks. It shows the level of immersion of the guest in the rural household on one axis, andthe level of services on the other axis. - 46 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia + Ethno villages Farm Traditional Cottage Salas Rural apartment Rural house Level of rural immersion Bungalows / chalets Camping Apartment, Villas Guesthouse Rural spa Hotel - + - Level of services Serbian rural accommodation International rural accommodation typologies which are also found in Serbia International rural accommodation typologies 23Source: UNWTOStrategically, it is important to build on the already existing rural accommodations in the Serbianterritory while strengthening them with a distinctly Serbian character. On the other hand differenttypologies can be introduced which will further increase the variety of the rural accommodationoffer and will contribute to diversifying the offer. Some examples of accommodation which mayenhance the rural activities and enrich the Rural Tourism experience is shown below:23 Adapted by UNWTO technical team and based on benchmarks, experts inputs and findings from theDiagnostic Report - 47 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Differentiating rural accommodation typologies (1/2) Differentiating rural accommodation typologies (2/2) Rural Spa Monasteries Boat house Caves Mill Grass igloos Tree houseAccommodation can also be differentiated according to differentiation labels which help to createits character. These may include for example: Farm house Boat house Salas Mill Ethno village Spa Tree house Monasteries Mountain houses (huts) Hunting lodges Pile dwellings and houses on rafts (tied to river banks)These labels can also be made specific to different segments, for example families, school andother groups, couples, special interest segments such as Adventurous spirits (who may beinterested in extreme sports, hunting, fishing, biking). - 48 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.6 Agriculture sector strategy within the rural tourism sectorThe agriculture sector strategy is based on the findings of the Diagnostic report that highlighted thepoor linkages between the agricultural sector and Rural Tourism. However, strong synergiesbetween the F&B unit and the accommodation unit; and between the F&B unit and the ruralactivities exist. These synergies need to be leveraged and further developed by the inclusion of theagricultural sector. The agriculture sector strategy within the rural tourism sector is the following: Become a complementary element of the rural tourism experience strategy, playing an important role in the products (activities), man-made facilities and accommodation strategies. Benefit local farmers by giving them the possibility to sell their agricultural production to rural accommodation business or to catering business, thereby, developing the supply chain further. Empower the rural tourism sector by strengthening the supply chain of agricultural products (farmers-operators-final consumers / tourists).The graph below summarizes the possibilities of agriculture products to positively impact the ruraltourism sector: Rural Tourism sector Direct supply  Farm typology units (to end consumers)  Markets Agriculture sector production  Catering businesses  Tourists shops: • Handicraft / souvenirs shops • Shops within developed Indirect supply man-made facilities  Local shops: • Butchery • Supermarket ´Direct supply is defined as agricultural products which are sold directly to the end consumer by theagriculture producer. This may be through the: farm accommodation units, markets, farm stalls andfarm restaurants.Indirect supply is defined as agricultural products which are sold to suppliers of hospitality andtourism services (catering businesses, handicraft / souvenirs shops, shops within developed man-made facilities) and suppliers of agricultural products (catering businesses, butchery,supermarket). - 49 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.7 Special programme for villages and farms in SerbiaThis special programme aimed at giving the maximum strength and visibility to the competitivepositioning of Serbian Rural Tourism, should be set up for at least 10 years due to the size of theproject and the rehabilitation and enhancement works to be done.The initial idea is that each Rural Tourism Cluster should have a selection of villages and farmsthat could be potentially used for this purpose and that would convert themselves in authenticsymbols, the showcase and at the same unique experiences (each time different) of rural tourismof Serbia. Application could be also opened to other non prioritised regions /municipalities.The support programme for villages and farms is detailed in the Support section of this report.5.8 Special programme for school and children / youth tourismThe Children and Family Tourism segments are essential in the strategy for the development of theRural Tourism strategy in Serbia. Children and Family Tourism have specific needs and are highlysensitive to some key issues. The main concern related to children is safety and security. The levelof observation and control varies upon the group structure (if children are travelling with theirfamilies, if they are travelling on their own or if they are travelling in school or camp groups) andupon the age of the children.The three major aspects to be considered when organizing rural trips and activities for children aresafety, quality time and edutainment. - 50 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaSafetySafety is the first aspect to consider when thinking about children tourism. Parents must feel thattheir children are safe. Parents must also feel comfortable when leaving their children alone.Children must be safe physically, emotionally, socially and intellectually.In order to prevent safety threats, it is important to prepare the environment and infrastructurewhere children are going to play, sleep or study, to carry out supervision duties and to teachchildren about safety.Quality timeChildren spend quality time when they feel happy, when they have fun on their own, in a group orwith their families. Quality time encourages repeat visitsEdutainmentParents want their children to learn as well as to have fun. Edutainment is a form of entertainmentdesigned to educate as well as to amuse.Four projects and programs have already been developed in Serbia in order to prevent the closingof schools in rural areas and to help economic development and education quality in rural areas.Active learning and teaching program24 Objective: the long term objective of this project was to change the methods of teaching and learning in Serbian schools. This would enable children to be better equipped with relevant knowledge and skills for the future professional and personal life. Two sub goals of the project were to improve quality of knowledge and skills that students gain in school, and to change child position in school from the role of the receptor of knowledge to the role of active, participation constructor of their own knowledge Timing: the project started in 1994 Location: Started in Belgrade but extended to the rest of Serbia and even Georgia Outcomes: publications with active learning and teaching topics, papers, master and doctoral theses, articles in national and international journals, TV series that promotes active learning ideas in broader publicLocal Plan of Action for Children Objective: the goal of the Local Plan of Action for Children is to stimulate and capacitate local community to recognize and improve the living conditions of the children and youth. Strategy: the strategy is to create a surrounding that stimulates development of the children and youth and make conditions for their active participation in the life and work of the local community Location: there are 21 municipalities in Serbia which have developed their Local Plans of Action for children and are currently in the implementation phase Outcomes: building a democratic citizenship24 Source: UNICEF, Potentials for child related tourism in Serbia, 15 July 2010 - 51 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe child friendly school project Objective: the objectives are to promote quality education for all children Strategy: development of standards of child friendly schools Timing: started to be implemented in Serbia since 2008.School without violence programme Objective: The aim of the program is to prevent and decrease violence against and among children and to create a secure an empowering environment for learning and development Strategy: Through the program members of school community (teachers, staff, parents, students) gain concrete knowledge how to prevent and solve problems of violence when it occurs. The program aims to increase their awareness, motivation for action and to influence their attitudes towards no-tolerance to violence and to teach them communication skills to constructively solve conflicts when and if they occur. Schools are setting procedures as well as creating internal and external protection network for continuous prevention and intervention in this area. Timing: the realization of the program started in October 2005 Outputs: more than 50 schools have received certificates for successful realization of the programPlaces with potential to develop child-related tourism have been identified by UNICEF and havebeen included in the Action Plan. Furthermore, a specific demand study for potential of schools fortourism is being commissioned. - 52 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia6 Market development, Promotions and Commercial strategyThe Diagnostic Report concluded that there is strong potential to develop Rural Tourismexperiences in Serbia and to target different markets. A promotions and commercial strategy isrequired in order to communicate with these markets, to develop their interest in Rural Tourism inSerbia and to convert the interest into sales and repeat sales. This chapter focuses on the marketdevelopment, promotions and commercial strategy.The objectives of this chapter as follows: To define the market development strategy for Rural Tourism in Serbia and to define the segmentation strategy. To define the Rural Tourism branding strategy (brand identity, positioning and image). To define the online marketing strategy for Rural Tourism. To define the sales and commercialization strategy. To define the communication and promotion strategy. To define destination marketing organization strategy.Note that the product development strategy has been developed in a separate chapter, the RuralTourism Experience strategy, in this document. This chapter explains the strategy for thedevelopment of the Rural Tourism experience in Serbia as the result of the development of anintegrated strategy of rural products and rural accommodation.6.1 Market development strategyThe market development strategy defines the target markets that are likely to be interested in thedestination‟s products and then communicating an attractive proposition. The segmentation of thepotential market for Rural Tourism in Serbia considers the following motivations: LEVEL 1 Rural Tourism Segmentation Activities Accommodation LEVEL 2 Geographic Domestic International Regional International Rest of World LEVEL 3 Lifecycle Lifestyle Note: Pre-segmentation of business/leisure has already been assumed - 53 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe segmentation strategy takes into account that demand is driven by a complex set of motiveswhich are not singular but highly complex, with different types of motivations. The first level of segmentation is driven by the rural activities needs, which are linked closely to the rural accommodation needs. This motivation is explained in the Rural Tourism Experience development chapter of this document. The second level of segmentation is the geographic market which divides the geographic markets into Domestic, International Regional (bordering countries plus Slovenia) and International Rest of the Word (ROW). The third level of segmentation considers the behavioural aspects of different potential markets and divides the market into Lifecycle and Lifestyle segments.6.1.1 Geographic market development strategy for general tourismIn 2008, above 2.2 million tourists‟ arrivals25 were registered in Serbia. Domestic arrivalsrepresented 71% of these arrivals, international-regional tourists accounted for 15% of the arrivalsand Rest of the World tourists for 14%.Three main geographical tourism market areas were identified, namely: International Rest of World Domestic International Regional (ROW)  Italy  Germany  Hungary  Greece  Romania  Poland  Bulgaria  Austria  Macedonia Countries  Serbia  United Kingdom  Montenegro  France  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Russia  Croatia  Turkey  Slovenia2  Netherlands  Other Countries % of arrivals by market 71% 15% 14% (2008)1 1 Source: Statistical Yearbook of Serbia 2009 2 International Regional market includes all the countries sharing borders with Serbia and Slovenia that has been included due to historic linksThe current breakdown between domestic and international tourists‟ arrivals of Serbia is far frombeing in line with the breakdown of the identified potential competitors and Slovenia. Internationaltourists‟ arrivals in Hungary and Czech Republic account for 45% and 50% respectively. Amongthe competition set, Slovenia has been qualified as the leader in terms of tourism and rural tourismalso. Nowadays Slovenia whose territory is 25% of the Serbian territory accounts for 2.7 million of25 Source: Statistical Yearbook of Serbia 2009Arrivals mean number of tourists spending one or more nights in accommodation facility during the observedperiod. The arrivals‟ number cannot be considered as equal to the travelling person‟s number. A person cantravel many times during a year, and each time his/hers arrival is registered by accommodation facility inwhich he/she stays; also, a person can visit many places during the single trip, and during this trip, in eachaccommodation facility his/her arrival is registered - 54 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbiatourists‟ arrivals. Of these 62% are international tourists, with Italy, Austria and Germany as mainorigin markets.26All these, together with an actual tourism development will lead to a more balanced breakdownbetween domestic and international tourists in Serbia. In a 5 years period it is estimated thatinternational tourists‟ arrivals will account for 40% of total arrivals. Within the international tourists‟,the international regional will see its weights consolidated.The pies below introduce the forecast for the different market contributions to tourists‟ arrivals by2015. % of tourists arrivals per market (2008) Forecast of % of tourists arrivals per market (2015) International International ROW ROW 14% 15% International Regional 15% International Regional Domestic Domestic 60% 25% 71%Source: Statistical Yearbook of Serbia 2009 Source: UNWTO assumptions6.1.2 Geographic market rural tourism development strategyNo information regarding the arrivals (or overnights) breakdown between domestic andinternational tourists to rural areas has been collected. Nevertheless in the Rural TourismProjections Model, based on the number of overnights for the base year27 (2009) it has beenassumed that the overnights breakdown of domestic to international is 82% to 18%. The weight ofinternational overnights is expected to increase over the projected period. Therefore, on the tenthyear of projections the overnights breakdown of domestic to international will become 78% to 22%respectively. However both groups are expected to increase its absolute number of overnights overthe forecasted period.This growth scenario of overnights and especially of international overnights (mainly international-regional) is based on the assumptions described below. Preserve domestic arrivals as the main tourism market Domestic tourism would be in 2015 the main market in Serbia but would slightly decrease its market share from 82% to 78% by giving a higher presence to the international market, from 12% in 2009 to 20% in 2015 and 22% in 2020. Still, it is estimated that both markets would keep growing in the mid and long term. Increase the International Regional market share Maintain and slightly increase the International ROW share.26 Please refer to the Economic Rural Tourism strategy and Appendix for the full details of the calculations27 Information collected through the survey to the 106 LTOs of Serbia - 55 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaDomestic strategy Serbia can leverage its strength by developing new products targeted to its domestic customers (product development strategy) Based on the cross-matrix above, new products for the domestic markets could be as follows:  Rural Lifestyle; Gastronomy and wine; Agro tourism / Farm; Mountains, Rivers and Lakes; Sports and Adventure; Family and Child; Wellbeing and Health; Special Interest; Shortbreak; and Nautical Tourism; as they are suggested to generate the most interest among domestic tourists‟.  Gastronomy and wine has been assessed as having a high potential to attract domestic tourists due to its promising wine industry, while ethnic tourism will remain poor to potentially attract Serbian tourists.International regional strategy Serbia could profit from new cross-border arrangement which would facilitate the tourism streams. Based on this fact, markets that are already being targeted could further be approached (market penetration). Especially following tourism products have been underlined to allure this market are: Cultural heritage; Rural Lifestyle; Gastronomy and wine; Mountains, Rivers and Lakes; Family and Child; and Shortbreak. These tourism products might equally be offered in competing countries, hence those products could be offered as complementary products, offering Serbia‟s main tourism product an additional value.International Rest of World In order to pursue with existing products additional market segments of the International (ROW), Serbia could attract niche segments by offer following cultural tourism products:  Special interest tourism products related to cultural tourism, touring and cruise have been identified as the most relevant and with the highest potential to attract international tourists.  International tourists are interested in the unique things that can be found in Serbia: visit roman archaeological sites in the land where 16 roman emperors were born, get in a cruise along the Danube or go hunting to almost untouched areas.6.1.3 Behavioural segmentation strategyThe behavioural segments have been defined in terms of Lifecycle and Lifestyle segments.Lifecycle segmentation strategyLifecycle segmentation assumes that people in different stages of their lifecycle share similarmotivations. Furthermore, people in these lifecycle stages travel in different structures, includingsingles, couples and groups. The below table presents the lifecycles tourists can belong to. Whenundertaking the product development and the promotion of a product, it is important to identify andunderstand the different segment‟s lifecycles of future tourists. The following lifecycle segmentshave been identified in Serbia: Children - 56 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Generation Y Generation X: SINKS and DINKS Family Baby boomers Swing generationLifecycle segmentationChildren Generation Y  Age range: 4-10 years old  Age range: 10 – 28 years old  Children‟s tourism continues to  A segment characterised by their be an important segment, familiarity with digital information, usually together with parents as telecoms, media and technology. the Child and Family segment. On the whole, they are broad- Due to the importance of minded as regards to polemic edutainment for children, this issues and non-traditional families has been included as a  “The world is in our hands” separate segment.  “Experiencing out of the school is more fun”Generation X: SINKS and DINKS Family  SINKS (Single and  Families continue to be a key individualists) and DINKS segment in the tourism market and (Double incomes no kids) continue to grow. It is established  Age range: 19 – 46 years old as an important segment in tourism development. The different  Increasingly, generation X behaviour within the family unit are young hearts seek to enjoy a becoming increasingly important in life free of commitments and the segment. constraints  “We are self-sufficient,  “I cherish the time spent with my family” qualified and we value our freedom”Baby boomer Swing Generation  Age range: 50 – 65 years old  Age range: 65 and beyond  The leaders of the ideological  Born in the age when Swing was revolution of the sixties, they en vogue, they value the luxury today have a high purchasing and healthcare they had less power and lead an active life access to in their youth.  “I’m aware of contemporary  “Life began after retirement” affairs, am happy with my profession and travel to where I like”The Lifecycle segments have been crossed with the different rural activities (which were identifiedin a separate chapter of this report) and the full details have been included in the Appendix. Theimplications of the Lifecycle segmentation for the market development strategy are as follows: The product development strategy should consider all these different lifecycle segments. Activities should be created for each group and the accommodation needs of different groups should also be considered. Activities, for example, should be created for different age groups and should have different levels of difficulty. Nature and Earth tourism products should be conceived for all the lifecycle groups. - 57 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Sports and adventure is potentially more attractive for the younger lifecycle groups who are looking for highly active holidays. It should also be noted that there is a trend of baby boomers to look for active holidays, with the older generation being increasingly aware of the benefits of sport activities for health. Family and Child Tourism is primarily consumed by family and child lifecycle groups. Family and Child tourism products are likely to have an important impact on Serbia‟s future rural tourism demand. Wellbeing and Health products are important for the Baby Boomers and Swing generation. Cruise Tourism is important especially for the Baby Boomers and the Swing Generation. The navigation of the Danube and other Rivers are an important product for these groups. Touring and Short breaks are highly attractive across different groupsLifestyle segmentation strategyThe purpose of lifestyle segmentation in tourism is to provide a more holistic understanding oftourists, and thus to market to them more effectively. It assists in understanding the motivationaland behavioural basis of destination choice, as well as aiding promotional planning in terms ofmedia choices, messages and imagery. The following segmentation has been made taking intoaccount the different motivations for travelling. The list of groups of such segmentation applyanywhere in the world. For the scope of this strategy the below profiles have been identified as theones matching with Serbia. Adventurous spirit Culture seekers Nature seekers New destination discoverers Creatures of habit Social butterflies - 58 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaLifestyle segmentationAdventurous spirit Culture seekers  Travelling is a challenge and  Mainly driven by experiencing constant adventure, they seek new cultures out new adventures  Knowing the culture and the  Very active and sporty segment, traditions is an important aspect interested in active tourism of their trips even if they try  They are more likely to explore different destinations the streets of a historic  They like to learn from new downtown, take a kayak and cultures and listening to stories observe local fishermen or go  Internet and specialized guides hiking along a historic path and magazines are their main  They prefer visiting places of the research sources usual tourist path  They preference in terms of  Their main research sources is lodging are more personal in internet nature, they seek out accommodation that is associated with the local cultureNature seekers New destination discoverers  Contact with nature is their main  New destination seekers see purpose of travelling themselves as true world  They look for overwhelming travellers and travel is an integral landscapes, and natural part of their lifestyle elements (caves, stones,...) and  They set trends and are rare flora species interested in architecture, history  They are sensitive to and culture environment and green issues  Understanding different cultures  The most active among them are and places is essential for this likely to join local initiatives such segment as trees plantation, forest  They are independent and cleaning... organize their own trips, mainly  Their main research sources are through internet internet and specialized nature  They have a high purchasing guides power and spend much of their  They select accommodation with income on travel, among the rest close contact to nature of the segments they are the less sensitive to pricesCreatures of habit Social butterflies  Seek assurances and comfort  Travelling is a way to be in when travelling, they are not risk contact with people either takers travelling with friends and/or  They like to return to places they family and meeting new people know and seek holiday that  They look for destinations and improve their wellbeing places where they can socialize  Their main sources of information with other people are word of mouth, websites and  They enjoy activities which are guides. They also like to talk to linked with social interaction travel agencies.  Their main research sources are internet (social networks) and travel agencies - 59 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe Lifestyle segments have been crossed with the different rural activities (which were identifiedin a separate chapter of this report) and the full details have been included in the Appendix. Theimplications of the Lifestyle segmentation for the market development strategy is as follows: The product development strategy should consider all these different lifestyle segments as they provide insights into the types of motivations that drive people. These lifestyle segments can propose interesting opportunities for the development of packages of products which are of high interest to these types of segments. Cultural tourism is attractive to consumed by all the identified lifestyle segments, and highly consumed by Culture Seekers and New Destination Discoverers. Nature and Earth and Sports and Adventure Tourism are highly attractive to four different lifestyle segments: Adventurous Spirit, Nature Seekers, New Destination Discoverers and even Social Butterflies. Wellbeing and Health Tourism is highly attractive to the Creatures of Habit and Social Butterflies. They are looking for products that are offered in a quality (safe and risk free environment) while at the same time offer opportunities for socializing Family and Child Tourism is dominated by the Creatures of Habit because the need for security and safety is the most important criteria for the majority of families travelling with children (especially with small children). Touring and Short Breaks are highly attractive to all lifestyle segments, which should be targeted in the development of the products in rural Serbia Cruise Tourism is highly attractive to Creatures of Habit and Social Butterflies. It also has interesting potential in Serbia, along the Danube, for Culture Seekers, Nature Seekers and New Destination Discoverers Special Interest Tourism is a product that can be attractive to all segments and this will be important in the development of products for all segments6.2 Rural Tourism Branding StrategyThe strategy for the development of the Rural Tourism brand includes the following strategy: To create a national Rural Tourism umbrella brand which forms the overall branding under which the activities and rural accommodation for Serbia should fit. The Rural tourism umbrella brand should fit within the overall positioning of Serbia “Where tradition meets nature28”. To leverage the rural products that currently exist (such as the Roman Emperor´s Route or the Guca brass bank festival)) and use them as a strengths on which to build the Rural Tourism brand. The rural activities that are already attracting people to rural Serbia should be used as inputs to develop the overall Rural Tourism brand. To use symbols of Rural Tourism to develop and strengthen the brand. To develop a regional rural tourism brands which are to the national umbrella brand, but at the same time offer diversity between the different RTC. The positioning for the four target regions has been defined in the Action Plan report.28 Slogan from UN day in Serbia and recommendation of the President of Serbia, Mr Tadic. Belgrade, 27September 2010 - 60 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia6.3 Online marketing strategyThe online marketing strategy aims at using the Internet as main promotional instrument for directand indirect sales of rural tourism products. Following strategy is proposed: Creation of a own user-friendly Rural Tourism multi-media website which shall be linked with existing related websites, such as National Tour Organization, Rural Tourism sites, local tourism organizations, regional tourism organizations, rural tourism activities and rural tourism accommodation facilities. Usage of the web platform to enhance the customer relationship, by including various e- marketing instruments, such as web 2.0, customer relationship applications Promotion of solely high quality contents in order to build an identity and increase customer confidence in the website and its products. Specifically, the website should be developed to attract the user to Rural Serbia through attractive symbols and colours that are appealing and invite the visitor to discover Rural Serbia Provide a central portal where all the information related to rural activities and accommodation is centralized Online booking which provides direct access to rural accommodation Provide packages of rural experiences by combining activities with accommodation Use social chats linked to the website so that tourists and visitors can share their experiences of Rural Serbia.6.4 Sales and commercialization strategyThe sales and commercialization strategy finds ways on how the product finds its way to the mostpotential customers. Therefore the strategy include following strategies: Prioritization of direct sales channels (call center and website with direct reservation and payment service) Usage of intermediaries as crucial partner to launch Rural Serbia on the market Identification of potential partnering sales initiatives with e.g. private companies, governmental organizations, NGOs or LGOs within or outside of the tourism sector6.5 Communication and promotion strategyThe communication and promotion strategy shall place Rural Serbia in the minds of potentialcustomer. The strategy shall transfer the brand‟s image and products. Hence, the strategies are to: Inclusion of Rural Serbia into the national tourism campaign Define Rural Serbia‟s personalized attributes as a tourism product: local, rural, authentic, personal Create and foster the awareness of Rural Serbia amongst rural tourism stakeholders Position the brand in the minds of the domestic, regional and international tourists Use communicational and promotional tools to gain notoriety among intermediaries Find adequate communication and promotion tools, such as brochures, trade shows, FAM- trips, Press-Trips. - 61 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Package and promote intangibles heritage Create a key message for communication and select its possible messengers Create direct multi-media contact between the potential visitor and the rural tourism provider Usage of synergies with other marketing tools used for Tourism Serbia6.6 Institutional destination organization strategy The institutional destination organization strategy shall lead the path to create a Destination Management Organization (DMO) representing all stakeholders relevant for Rural Tourism in Serbia. The ownership should be shared by members of rural municipalities, Regional Chamber of Commerce, Rural tourism Accommodation Associations, Rural Tourism Activities Associations and other commercial associations related to rural tourism. - 62 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia7 Economic Rural Tourism strategyThe economic impact assessment and the qualitative analysis of the Tourism Sector in theDiagnostic Report found that there are gaps in the rural tourism sector. This chapter defines thestrategy for the development of economic value from the development of Rural Tourism.The objectives of this chapter are as follows: To calculate the economic contribution of the Rural Tourism Master Plan to the development of tourism in Serbia To set the growth objectives for the rural tourism development in Serbia To estimate the impact of the Rural Tourism Master Plan in terms of: overnights (domestic vs. International overnights), increase of beds (general beds usable for rural tourism and rural beds) and direct revenues7.1 MethodologyThe methodology used to calculate the economic contribution of the Rural Tourism Master Plan tothe development of tourism in Serbia is presented below7.1.1 Tourism Projections The data from the 2009 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia29 has been taken as the starting point for the projections of tourism in Serbia: The Statistical Yearbook provides total arrivals and overnights. However the estimations for the tourism in Serbia made by international and reputable institutions project a number of arrivals growth rate. Based on these estimations, the UNWTO has projected the number of arrivals in three different scenarios: optimistic, pessimistic and conservative. To convert these arrivals into overnights the same ALS (average length of stay) has been applied over the forecasted period7.1.2 Rural tourism projections The data collected through the surveys of the 106 LTOs in Serbia has been taken as the starting point for the projections of rural tourism in Serbia From the demand side, the catchment of domestic tourists and the weight of international tourists as a % of domestic tourists have been set as objectives The breakdown of domestic and international tourists as well as domestic and international day visitors have been calculated From the supply side, for each of the 2 components (general tourism beds usable for rural tourism and the rural beds) an occupancy rate objective has been set The increase in the number of general tourism beds usable for rural tourism as well as the increase in the number of rural beds have been calculated29 Information referring to 2008 - 63 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia The total overnights have been calculated and an increase in the direct multiplier effect on accommodation revenues has been assumed. The total direct contribution of rural tourism to the economy has then been deduced7.2 Conclusions 3 year 5 year 10 year Goal description Base year CAGR30 (2013) (2015) (2020)General tourism projections Arrivals 2,266,000 2,615,432 2,769,854 3% ALS 3.38 Overnights 7,334,000 3,681,286 9,356,122 3%Rural tourism projections Catchment of domestic 13.5% 18% 22% 30% 8% tourists Domestic overnights 2,210,550 3,178,960 3,877,296 5,823,649 10% International tourists as % 22% 24% 25% 28% 2% of domestic tourists International overnights 490,932 761,234 973,368 1,630,622 12% Day visitors (domestic + 1,179,191 1,906,561 2,433,988 3,906,698 12% international) General tourism beds 32,747 39,287 42,574 47,653 4% usable for rural tourism General tourism beds usable for rural tourism 21% 24% 26% 30% 3% occupancy rate General tourism overnights 95% 87% 82% 70% as % of total overnights Rural tourism beds 10,657 11,864 13,937 20,423 7% Rural tourism beds 4% 12% 17% 30% 23% occupancy rate Rural tourism overnights as 5% 13% 18% 30% % of total overnights Total overnights 2,701,482 3,940,194 4,850,664 7,454,271 11% Direct multiplier effect 1 1 1.1 1.6 Total Direct Contribution of Rural Tourism to Economy 10.4 16.5 22.4 45.6 16% (RSD bn)The Rural Tourism strategy will inject extra effort and stimulation to Rural Tourism in Serbia andwill, therefore, result in an increased growth rate of Rural Tourism. The 3% organic growth rate ofRural Tourism is expected to increase by an additional 8% as a result of the Rural Tourism Master30 Compound annual growth rate - 64 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaPlan. In other words, at the current organic growth rate of 3% the overnights in 5 years areexpected to be 3.1 million. The extra growth rate (as a result of the Rural Tourism Master plan) willgenerate 1.7 million overnights more. The sum of these two growth rates is 11%, which willpotentially generate a total of 4.8 million overnights for Rural Tourism in 2015. The graph belowillustrates these growth rates and the impact on rural overnights. Projected rural overnights organic growth vs. Projected rural overnights growth inducted by the Rural Tourism Master Plan 6.000.000 5.000.000 4.000.000 CAGR: 11% 3.000.000 2.000.000 CAGR: 3% 1.000.000 - Base year 1 2 3 4 5 Projected Growth inducted by Rural Tourism Master Plan Projected Rural Tourism Organic GrowthFurthermore, the growth of Rural Tourism will contribute to the overall growth of tourism in Serbia.Rural Tourism currently contributes 2.7 million overnights (27%) to tourism in Serbia. It is expectedthat, as a result of the stimulation of the implementation of the Rural Tourism Master Plan, RuralTourism will contribute 4.8 million overnights (3.1 million + 1.7 million) to Serbia. Therefore theweight of rural overnights in Serbia will increase its share in the total tourism overnights to 30%. Inother words, Rural Tourism is expected to grow faster than the average growth rate of tourism,because of the implementation of the Rural Tourism Master Plan Weight of rural tourism in the tourism of Serbia in 2009 Weight of rural tourism in the tourism of Serbia in 2015 (overnights) (overnights) Rural tourism overnights inducted by Rural Tourism MP Tourism 1.732.565 Tourism overnights 11% overnights Rural tourism 7.334.000 11.088.687 overnights 73% 70% 2.701.482 Rural tourism 27% overnights (assuming organic growth) 3.118.099 19% - 65 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia7.3 Tourism and rural tourism projection modelsIn this section the main assumptions adopted for the two models are presented together with themost relevant conclusions. A deeper analysis of the two models flow can be found in the Appendixsection.7.3.1 Projection model for the tourism in SerbiaThe UNWTO, WTTC and Euromonitor have estimated a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR)of the future tourists‟ arrivals. These tourists‟ arrivals CAGR estimations, 3.6% for the UNWTO and2.22% for the WTTC and Euromonitor, have been used to build three projection scenarios(conservative, optimistic and pessimistic). For the purpose of this analysis only the outputs of theconservative scenario have been considered. This conservative scenario forecasts a tourists‟arrivals CAGR of 2.91%, reaching in 2015, 500,000 annual tourists‟ arrivals more than in 2008.In the Tourism Strategy of the Republic of Serbia31 the tourists‟ arrivals CAGR projected are 13.8%for the conservative growth projections and 16.4% for the ambitious growth projections. These areconsidered extremely high in the context of the world tourism growth rates, and the UNWTO,WTTC and Euromonitor projections for Serbia.The number of tourists‟ arrivals32 in 200833 has been taken as the starting point from which to buildthe three scenarios. The three scenarios present the number of tourists arrivals from 2008 (baseyear) to 2015.Tourism inSerbia 2008 2009E 2010E 2011E 2012E 2013E 2014E 2015EprojectionsArrivals 2,266,000 2,331,936 2,399,791 2,469,620 2,541,480 2,615,432 2,691,536 2,769,854Overnights 7,334,000 7,876,904 8,106,106 8,341,977 8,584,712 8,834,509 9,091,576 9,356,122To quantify the future tourism demand in Serbia, overnights should be calculating by multiplyingthe number of arrivals by the ALS. The 2008 ALS (average length of stay per trip), 3.3834, hasbeen applied to the number of tourists‟ arrivals. It has been assumed that the ALS will remain thesame over the forecasted period. In 2008, the Statistical Office registered 7,334,00035 overnights;therefore the conservative scenario of this demand model forecasts that by 2015 the country willregister 2 million more overnights.This general tourism projection model is meant to provide a reference point for rural tourismdevelopment as part of a larger tourism approach.31 Reference 200732 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia, 2009. This number refers to general tourism in Serbia, however it providesan order of magnitude. Arrivals mean the number of tourists spending one or more nights in accommodationfacility during the observed period.33 2008 has been taken as the basis year due to the fact that, at the time of work, the Statistical Yearbook2010 with information from 2009 was not available.34 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia 200935 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia, 2009 - 66 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia7.3.2 Projection model for the rural tourism in SerbiaThe flow of this model is based on the identification of the potential market of rural tourists and dayvisitors; and catchment rates of this potential market. The model quantifies, for the forecastedperiod, the number of overnights in rural areas in Serbia and the revenues from rural tourism. Themethodology applied quantifies the four types of possible tourists: Domestic tourists (those who overnight in a rural accommodation or in a general tourism accommodation but usable for rural tourism36) Domestic visitors (day visitors) International tourists Regional international visitors (day visitors) The direct economic contribution of rural tourism to the economy comes from the sum of these four components. Base year 1 2 3 4 5 10 Serbia Overnights Domestic tourists 2,210,550 2,523,154 2,845,872 3,178,960 3,522,679 3,877,296 5,823,649 International tourists 490,932 574,969 664,991 761,234 863,942 973,368 1,630,622 Total overnights in rural areas 2,701,482 3,098,124 3,510,864 3,940,194 4,386,621 4,850,664 7,454,271 General tourism usable for rural tourism Beds 32,747 35,161 37,336 39,287 41,029 42,574 47,653 Occupancy rate 21% 22% 23% 24% 25% 26% 30% Rural tourism Beds 10,657 10,461 11,026 11,864 12,850 13,937 20,423 Occupancy rate 4% 6% 9% 12% 14% 17% 30% Economic Contribution Economic Contribution domestic tourists 7,780,595,886 8,951,270,098 10,198,927,153 11,931,733,711 13,856,773,472 28,450,066,829 Economic Contribution domestic day visitors 2,379,211,664 2,845,165,684 3,342,773,533 3,873,755,997 4,439,918,479 7,868,053,951 Economic Contribution international tourists 1,773,020,668 2,091,631,220 2,442,235,818 2,926,275,462 3,478,644,704 7,966,018,712 Economic Contribution international-regional day visitors 356,881,750 426,774,853 501,416,030 581,063,400 665,987,772 1,180,208,093 Total Economic Contribution 10,409,713,512 12,289,709,969 14,314,841,855 16,485,352,535 19,312,828,569 22,441,324,426 45,464,347,585In the base year, a 13.5% catchment of domestic tourists results in 2.2 million overnights fordomestic tourists. International tourists account for 22% of domestic tourists resulting in 0.4 millioninternational tourists‟ overnights. The breakdown of domestic to international overnights is 82%and 18% respectively.Conclusions: It is expected that in ten years, 1 out of less than 4 Serbians will go for a trip in rural areas 37. Therefore the objective catchment of domestic tourists in 10 years is of 30%. The share of international tourists out of domestic tourists is also expected to increase reaching an objective share in ten years of 28%38. Therefore, the projected overnights for domestic and international tourists in ten years are 5,823,649 and 1,630,622 respectively totalling 7,454,271 rural related overnights in Serbia, representing a CAGR of 10.7% for the forecasted period. The breakdown of domestic to international overnights will become 78% and 22% respectively. The occupancy rates for the two supply components are expected to improve. The occupancy rate of the general tourism beds usable for rural tourism is expected to reach the objective36 This methodology is in accordance with the one applied for the quantification of the Direct EconomicImpact of Rural Tourism. Please refer to that chapter in the Diagnostic Report.37 UNWTO estimate based on international benchmark of other European countries38 UNWTO estimate based on international benchmark of other European countries - 67 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia occupancy rate of 30%. Same occupancy rate is expected to be reached by the rural tourism beds Given the total number of total rural tourism overnights and the occupancy rates, the number of general tourism beds usable for rural tourism is expected to grow at a 3.8% CAGR for the forecasted period, that means an increase from the base year number of general tourism beds (32,747) of 45%. The rural tourism beds are expected to increase at a 6.7% CAGR, that means an increase from the base year number of rural tourism beds (10,657) of 92%. On the 10 th year of projections the breakdown of general tourism overnights to rural tourism overnights is expected to be 70% and 30% respectively. For the day visitors, in the base year, it has been assumed that from the potential domestic market (4 million people), 1 Serbian out of four is nowadays going once a year to a rural area in Serbia to spend his/her day. The objective catchment within the ten year period is 70%. Regional-international day visitors are assumed to represent 15% of the domestic visitors over the 10 year forecasted period. A multiplier effect from overnight revenues of 1.6 has been assumed as the objective multiplier effect for rural tourism in Serbia in ten years. However, the multiplier effect during the three first projected years will remain at 1 because the efforts towards improving the Serbian rural tourism sector will not have an immediate effect.The direct economic contribution of rural tourism is estimated to be RSD 10.4 billion nowadays andforecasted to be 45.6 billion in ten years, registering a 15.9%CAGR - 68 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia8 Environmental and Social strategyThe Diagnostic Report identified the need for the preservation of and improvement of the naturalenvironmental in Rural Serbia. It also identified the high levels of unemployment in rural areas. Thestrategy has already proposed an overall vision for Rural Tourism in Serbia which is economically-socially and environmentally sustainable. The current chapter will explain the strategy forenvironmental and social sustainability.The objectives of this chapter are as follows: To define the environmental strategy for the development of Rural Tourism To define the social strategy for the development of Rural Tourism It should be noted the Human Resources development strategy is further elaborated in the Tourism Support Strategy chapter in this document.8.1 Environmental strategyThe environmental strategy focuses on the development, management and the protection of thenatural and cultural assets in rural areas of Serbia. The strategy proposes the following: To improve the preservation, presentation and management of protected and other valuable natural and cultural assets and landscapes. Utilize mechanisms to control illegal construction and architecture pollution To improve the infrastructure and local management system of waste, water supply and sewage systems To create a high environmental quality in the rural areas of Serbia by reducing the pollution of air, water and land To introduce and support use of renewable energy sources, cleaner technology and energy efficient solutions (especially in energy, transport and building construction) To minimize and manage environmental risks from potentially dangerous facilities and other activities in Serbia and neighbouring countries To strengthen public participation in decisions about the spatial distribution and environmental impacts of rural tourism development by developing environment protection awareness and educational programs for local stakeholders and local administration.8.1.1 Preservation and management of natural and cultural assets and landscapesThe Diagnostic Report found that the total area of protected natural assets is approximately 5.86%of the Serbian territory, which is significantly below the average of European countries, and is to beincreased to 11.5% by 2020. In addition, at least 20% of the territory will reach international statusbased on their inclusion onto ecological networks, such as UNESCO Biosphere Reserves,NATURA 2000 and the Ramsar List39. The strategy proposes the following: Utilise Rural Tourism as catalyst to preserve, protect and manage natural and cultural assets in rural areas. Develop solutions that are applicable to all areas proposed for rural tourism in39 Environmental Strategy has been done based on the findings of the Diagnostic Report which includes theProposal of Law on the Spatial Plan of Republic of Serbia, Government of Republic of Serbia (August 2010),National Environment Protection Programme (2010). - 69 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia order to generate a areas of very high environmental quality, by conserving the current state of environmental quality, protecting valuable natural assets and preserving ecosystems. Preserve and enhance Serbia‟s bio-diversity by reducing the loss of biodiversity; minimising pressures on biodiversity and by supporting the sustainable usage of biological resources in Rural Tourism projects. Develop the rural areas and the rural tourism with respect to the character, the value and the carrying capacity of the existing rural landscape. Furthermore it should conserve and improve the characteristic structure of the area and preserve its natural and cultural assets, its distinctive landscape, its traditional rural settlement pattern and its own building tradition. Create a positive architectural identity of settlements in rural areas, based on the preservation and revitalization of traditional architecture and quality as well as new building that respects the specific character of rural settlements.8.1.2 Include rural areas into a regional waste management systemCurrently 60% to 75% of the households are included in the system of waste collection, which isexpected to increase up to 90% in 2020 by implementing a sustainable waste managementsystem. The strategy proposes the following: Rural Tourism initiatives should be encouraged and supported (financially and training) to develop recycling methods and the re-utilization of waste. The strategy points out that the waste management strategy will be especially challenged by mountain areas with dispersed settlement patterns and small villages with a poor accessibility infrastructure. This fact will restrict adequate waste collection in rural tourism areas, mainly in RTCG 1 (Central and Western Serbia) and RTCG 3 (Eastern Serbia). Possible solutions could be: PVC containers of huge volume and “mobile waste centres” which will further be determined in the Action Plan Report.8.1.3 Introduce and support the use of renewable energy sourcesSerbia´s objective is to increase the electricity production from renewable sources by 7.4% (in2012) 19% by 202040. The strategy supports the usage of renewable energy sources in RuralTourism initiatives in Serbia proposes the following: Small hydro power plants have the highest potential to utilize their entire energy potential in following Serbian rural areas: RTCG1, RTCG3, RTC9 and RTC541. Wind farms that are feasible to be constructed in RTCG2, RTCG4, RTC1, RTC2, RTC3, and RTC842. Geothermal heat sources in RTCG4 (Vojvodina). Biomass from livestock to produce biogas especially in the areas of RTCG4 and RTC643. Energy efficiency optimisation adopts the ″low energy house″ as the construction standard for accommodation and other facilities, especially for the new developments of man-made facilities e.g. the Welcome and Discovery Centres. Existing buildings should make the use of the “passive solar design” technology, using solar energy for passive lightning and heating.40 Ibid41 RTCG1 (Central Serbia and Western Serbia), RTCG3 (Eastern Serbia), RTC9 (South Eastern) and RTC5(Lower Danube)42 RTCG4 (Vojvodina), RTCG2 (South Banat and Lower Danube), RTC1 (Golija), RTC2 (Zlatar Zlatibor),RTC3 (Kopaonik) and RTC8 (Eastern Serbia)43 RTCG4 (Vojvodina) and RTC6 (South Banat) - 70 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Develop infrastructure in rural areas which supports sustainable life styles - improve the infrastructure and local management system of waste, water supply and sewage systems, improvement of bathroom facilities for hotels and restaurants. Involve local communities and stakeholders in rural tourism and support the use of renewable energy sources (including solar, wind and production of biomass in agriculture and forestry as a sustainable option for diversification of rural economies and energy production), management of waste and management of fresh water resources.8.1.4 Minimize and manage environmental risksThe Diagnostic Report highlights most endangered areas (hot spots) in Serbia and the tourismstrategy should respond responsibly to these areas. The following is proposed: To prevent further environment degradation and ensure improvement of the current situation, as e.g. Kopaonik, Zlatibor and Divcibare have been identified as endangered environments The implementation of necessary measures will reduce the limitations for rural tourism development at exposed areas and support the protection of valuable natural (Deliblato Sands, Nera, Karas, Pek and Timok rivers) and cultural assets (Viminacium) and landscape. To raise the awareness of the required rehabilitation and revitalisation of degraded environments and threatened ecosystems Take into account that environmental hot spots can limit rural tourism development in rural areas exposed to environmental pollution and risks44. To ensure the sustainable options when new infrastructure are built, i.e. pedestrian pavement/cycling path for road8.1.5 Social awareness and community involvementThe stakeholders who will be involved in the development of Rural Tourism should be aware of theenvironmental issues and challenges faced in the rural areas. The strategy proposes the following: Develop the awareness and educate local stakeholders and local administration on environment protection, particularly in agricultural land protection, waste and sewage treatment, and energy efficiency. Involve local communities and stakeholders in rural tourism and support the use of renewable energy sources, management of waste and management of fresh water resources.8.1.6 Enhance nature-based tourismDevelop nature-based tourism solutions with low infrastructure works, for both tourists and localpopulation to enjoy the nature Build footpaths for families with small children and older people in the forests, lake and river banks. Build bird-watching stations; butterfly observing points and similar. Create good walking/trekking/horseback riding maps; caving and rocking guides and markings. Enhance nature-based, with low infrastructure-oriented, tourism which provides for both tourists and the local population to enjoy nature.44 Areas that are identified to be exposed to most risks are: the south-western part of RTC 6 (exposed toPancevo and Kostolac), northeastern part of RTC 5 (exposed to Kostolac), southern part of RTC 5, easternpart of RTC 7 and northeastern part of RTC 8 (exposed to Bor), as well as from transnational pollution atRTC 6, RTC 5, RTC 11 and RTC 12. - 71 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Further develop and strengthen visitors and rangers centres with adequate logistics bases for mountain rescue and emergency response. Support development of nature research, scouts and survival programs, High nature value farming and heritage trails based camps and scientific tourism related to nature and in particular nature protected areas.8.2 Social strategyThe social strategy focuses on the role that Rural Tourism will play in addressing social issues inrural Serbia such as unemployment, depopulation and the disempowerment of women and theyouth. The strategy proposes the following: To use Rural Tourism as a catalyst to create employment opportunities and to contribute to the eradication of poverty in rural areas To use Rural Tourism as a catalyst to drive the diversification of the rural economy To use Rural Tourism as a tool to utilize and promote high quality agricultural traditional food products To provide training and skills development To activate the participation of women, youth and other disadvantaged groups in Rural Tourism To revitalise rural schools8.2.1 Diversify the rural economy and reduce unemployment in rural areasIn rural areas the main sector of the economy is the agriculture sector which in Serbia represents20% of all employed people and contributes to almost 10% of the GDP. The sector is suffering andis in dire need of diversification45. The objective is to use the wealth of natural, cultural and socialresources in rural Serbia to further diversify the rural economy by creating new rural employmentopportunities. The strategy is as follows: To create new employment opportunities throughout the whole rural Tourism Sector To engage local rural communities in tourism and, thereby, reduce unemployment and depopulation in rural areas. To stimulate synergies between the agricultural sector and Rural Tourism through the further development of local markets for authentic and quality products produced by small scale farmers. To develop the agricultural products currently being produced as an integral part of the Rural Serbian experience. To brand it as such and to commercialise local agricultural products to the tourism sector in rural areas. To attract more people to rural areas and encourage their consumption of agricultural and rural products (honey, cheese, ham, rakija, wine, traditional meats and other dishes and handicraft products). To develop integrated experience between the tourist and the agricultural producer where they are involved in the development of the agricultural product together.45 Refer to Diagnostic Report for full details. - 72 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia8.2.2 Projection of job creationBased on the legacy study of the implementation of similar projects, a projection on the jobcreation in Serbia derived from the development of Rural Tourism has been made. Based oninternational benchmarks46 it has been assumed that 8 new tourists‟ arrivals to rural areas ofSerbia would represent a new direct job. Alike, 25 day visitors would represent a new direct jobopportunity.The 10 year projection on employment creation in Serbia derived from the development of Rural ispresented below:Tourist arrivals to create one direct job 8Day visitors to create one direct job 25 10 years 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020Tourists 774,531 877,716 985,049 1,096,655 1,212,666 1,333,214 1,458,436 1,588,472 1,723,467 1,863,568Tourists annual increase 99,160 103,185 107,333 111,607 116,011 120,548 125,222 130,036 134,995 140,101Day visitors 1,411,813 1,655,204 1,906,561 2,166,087 2,433,988 2,710,476 2,995,767 3,290,083 3,593,649 3,906,698Day visitors annual increase 235,622 243,391 251,357 259,526 267,901 276,488 285,291 294,316 303,567 313,049Jobs created from tourists arrivals 148,525 12,395 12,898 13,417 13,951 14,501 15,068 15,653 16,255 16,874 17,513Jobs created from day visitors 109,220 9,425 9,736 10,054 10,381 10,716 11,060 11,412 11,773 12,143 12,522Total jobs created 257,745 21,820 22,634 23,471 24,332 25,217 26,128 27,064 28,027 29,017 30,035At the end of the forecasted 10 year period, it is expected that the development of Rural Tourismwould have contributed to over 250,000 new direct job opportunities8.2.3 Promote high quality agricultural traditional food productsThe strategy is to identify and leverage the synergies between the agricultural and Rural Tourismsectors. The development of high quality traditional foods should be a core part of the RuralTourism experience and agricultural producers should be engaged as direct suppliers(commercializing their products directly to the final consumer) and indirect suppliers (to ruralhouseholds, F&B and other shops).8.2.4 Provide training and skills developmentThe Human Resources development strategy is a key support structure for the development ofHuman Resources. It has been elaborated as a separate section within the Tourism Supportdevelopment Strategy chapter. Please refer to this chapter as it explains the strategy for thedevelopment of awareness-, training- and support- programs for Rural Tourism.8.2.5 Activate the participation of women and disadvantaged groups in rural tourismThe strategy to develop employment opportunities for women, youth and other disadvantage dgroups in rural areas. Rural tourism highlights certain skills that were traditionally done invisibly in households cooking cleaning, making handcrafts, etc. The activation and formalisation of these activities can result in women playing a key role in development of rural tourism. The development of activities typically associated with women such as the production of handcrafts and typical foods should be encouraged and supported. This includes a focus on capacity building and commercialisation skills.8.2.6 Revitalise rural schoolsThe revitalisation of the rural schools is a key strategy for the project. It has been included as aseparate section in the Rural Tourism Experience Development Strategy chapter.46 International benchmarks: Europe, US, Brazil, Australia, South Africa. - 73 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia9 Tourism Support development strategyThe Diagnostic Report found that there are large gaps in the Tourism Sector in terms of theSupport of Rural Tourism. The following chapter defines the strategy for Support structures for thedevelopment of Rural Tourism in Serbia.The objectives of this chapter are as follows: To define the infrastructure development strategy for Rural Tourism To define the way to develop the whole value chain of rural tourism including the link with agricultural products To define the quality development strategy for Rural Tourism To define the human resources development strategy for Rural Tourism To define the private sector Micro & Small enterprises strategy To define the financial support strategy for the development of the Tourism Support structure To define the legislative support strategy for Rural TourismPlease note that the Man-made attractors strategy is an important support structure but it isconsidered to be an infrastructure that is closely linked with the Rural Tourism experiencedevelopment and has, therefore, been included in the product development chapter of thisdocument.9.1 Infrastructure development strategyThe infrastructure strategy will focus on the development of the following: Road infrastructure improvement Special programme: authentic villages and farms of Serbia9.1.1 Road infrastructure improvementIn the cluster identification a prioritization section of the present strategy report, accessibility to theentrance points of the 4 cluster groups identified was assessed as positive. Accessibility problemsarise from the connections within the cluster groups: Poor accessibility from the clusters entrance points to the main tourism factors and attractors Poor connections between the different factors and attractors within the clusters This “internal” accessibility concept is comprised of the following elements: bad road maintenance; no roads or only tracks for 4 by 4 wheel cars to get to some remote assets; lack of traffic and/or tourism signalisation. The result of any or the combination of these factors is in any case a long time needed to move between destinations and to reach some interest points; lack of access in some extreme cases. Another indirect impact linked with accessibility is the lack of accommodation, catering services and/or activities in some destinations within the cluster, which, added to the accessibility issue, make visitors or tourists renounce to visit some specific areas. - 74 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaTherefore, the efforts in terms of infrastructure development should be made at a local / clusterlevel in order to overcome these obstacles for rural tourism development. Actually, these efforts, ata first stage, should only involve an upgrade of the existing network of local and regional roadstogether with the construction of some new local and regional roads. The positive aspect is thatthere is no need for major infrastructure works of national road; but specific investments at a locallevel are required.It is important to say that it could be acceptable for some tourism attractions to get access onlythrough narrow, non asphalted roads, however in any case in good conditions, as it is practice inother rural areas in some European countries. Just as an example, rural tourism in Scotland usesmany narrow roads with passing places, in good conditions, that actually form part of the rural“experience”.Once prioritized rural tourism cluster groups and clusters have been confirmed, more specificrecommendations can be made with regards to the main accessibility axes that need to be in goodor better conditions in order to facilitate total tourism development. These recommendations will beincluded in the next deliverable: Action Plan.9.1.2 Special programme: villages and farms of SerbiaThis special programme aimed at giving the maximum strength and visibility to the competitivepositioning of Serbian Rural Tourism, should be set up for at least 10 years due to the size of theproject and the rehabilitation and enhancement works to be done.The initial idea is that each rural region identified as priority development area for rural tourism,should have a selection of villages and farms that could be potentially used for this purpose andthat would convert themselves in authentic symbols, the showcase and at the same uniqueexperiences (each time different) of rural tourism of Serbia. Application could be also opened toother non prioritised regions /municipalities.Both villages and farms will need the following support framework: Concept definition and set of minimum criteria to be eligible for the official certification Application process to be certified or minimum characteristics to apply for support program in order to meet the final minimum standards Awareness, training and technical assistance to the candidates for support schemes and for final certification Grant scheme for villages and grant scheme for farms Audit and certification process Promotion and commercialisation processAt the end of the process, a national network of certified villages and farms needs to be in placewith common minimum quality criteria but each one of them offering a distinctive and uniqueexperience. - 75 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia9.2 Quality development strategyThe positioning section of this Strategy Report recommends that Serbia‟s Rural Tourism needs touse “quality” as a competitive advantage in the future with regards to the neighbouring countriesand competitors. The Diagnostic Report found that today‟s quality level of Rural Tourism in Serbiais neither a competitive nor a comparative advantage with regards to competitors. The guaranteeof quality has been identified as a key strategy to drive the competitiveness of Rural Tourism inSerbia.The strategy for the development of quality standards is as follows: Provide international standard quality guarantees for the whole Rural Tourism experience, including rural activities, rural facilities and rural accommodation. The quality guarantees must support the positioning of the Rural Serbian tourism experience as a quality and value Rural Tourism offer. The quality strategy should be focused on quality guarantees throughout the tourism sector and should have a holistic approach. Differentiate the Rural Tourism offer in Serbia through a special focus on particular types of products, activities and accommodation. The quality labels should be used as a support for this differentiation. Promote the development of key products and services in Rural Serbia. The quality label can be used as a promotional tool to support the communication of messages to the target clients. To use mandatory and voluntary labels to support the quality guarantees.In order to understand the strategy, several considerations must be taken into account which willbe explained in the below sections.9.2.1 Total quality management strategyInternational best practices highlight that total quality management in tourism destinations impliesan increase of the tourist satisfaction paired with the improvement of the local economy, of theenvironment and of the quality of life of the local community. Quality is a systematic, holistic and long term process that needs to be consistent and be mostly achieved by means of voluntary measures Quality needs to be planned thinking not only in the needs of the visitor /tourist of today but also in those of the future, as infrastructure and equipment cannot be changed easily. Quality is more and more associated with a more holistic concept – sustainability – which, in the rural tourism context, gains even more importance.9.2.2 Development of a holistic quality strategyThe quality development strategy is a holistic approach to the guarantee of quality throughout thetourism sector. The quality of the tourism experience can be guaranteed through minimumstandards and through differentiating features. Quality has different dimensions which include hardcomponents (such as physical structures), and soft components (human elements). This holisticapproach to the quality strategy is illustrated in the below diagram: - 76 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Quality of tourism experience Direct Tourism Indirect companies + Tourism service Related providers Minimum standards • Public spaces Hard Tourism spaces • Atmosphere Dimensions (streets) + + Tourism Differentiating Soft professionals features People Local peopleSource: UNWTOThe strategy for the development of quality guarantee in Rural Tourism in Serbia should considerthe following: Involve the local rural community and local tourism companies: involve them as participants and as customers in the process of quality management Approach towards the tourist / visitor: improve the quality of products and services offered in order to achieve their return and/or they recommend the destination to other people Give a strong weight to investment in Soft elements (dealing with people) and Hard elements (facilities and infrastructure). The actions in the elements forming the soft generally do not require a great investment but a coordinated effort by the players. They have greater importance and greater impact on the destination or tourist centre than hard elements, focused on investments in costs infrastructure which are normally high although necessary.9.2.3 Mandatory quality labelsQuality cannot be imposed by law or regulations, because it is a mix of tangible and intangibleelements. However, a sound regulatory framework is necessary to set minimum standards, avoidunfair competition and protect the consumer at least regarding the “basics” of tourism performance.These are represented as “Mandatory labels”. Mandatory labels should be used to provide a minimum standards guarantee. These mandatory recognition systems should meet international standards specifically in terms of accommodation and food & beverage. It should review the minimum standard and identify where the standard adheres to international standards and where the standard should be lifted. If standards should be lifted, these should be clearly defined. Current amenities should adhere to the new standards and new amenities should meet these standards as the minimum requirements to enter the rural tourism sector.The implications on Serbian regulations are addressed in point 9.6.2 of the present document.The strategy proposed the further use of “Voluntary labels”. - 77 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia9.2.4 Voluntary quality labelsVoluntary labels should be used as a strategic differentiation tools. The strategy is to use thesevoluntary labels to provide further guarantees to the tourist and to further support the identity of theRural Tourism products. These labels can also play an important role in differentiating the RuralTourism offer in Serbia. Examples of voluntary recognition systems from best practices47 includethe following: Rural accommodation labels: The strategy is to support the identity of rural accommodation which strengthens the positioning of rural accommodation in Serbia. These should have a strong focus on traditional village accommodation and farm house labels. They should be used for traditional accommodation, but can also be used for modern accommodation which aims to enhance the tourist‟s Rural Tourism experience. Destination labels: The strategy is to use these labels to reinforce the rural destination of Serbia. The destination can be comprised of a rural specific destination, for example, “Traditional villages”. It may also develop labels in rural areas for specific segments such as “Family friendly” rural destinations. Destination labels can also be used for rural activities (for example the rural activities which have been developed in the Rural Tourism experience chapter). An example, may be destinations for Mountain tourism. Agriculture based labels: The strategy is to use these labels to reinforce the link of Rural Tourism with the agricultural products in Serbia. They can also be used to relate the personal stories of the rural communities involved in the production of the agricultural products. Environmental labels: These labels should be used to support the environmental strategy (presented in this report) and should give these strategies more visibility. It is also an important part of the promotion of environmental friendly Rural Tourism initiatives.9.2.5 Structuring products as a quality guaranteeIn order to “drive” the quality level of the rural tourism offering, in addition to the compulsory andvoluntary schemes presented above, it is also important to create a structured offering of“products” combining activities and accommodation. For this purpose it is not enough to structureproducts and then see if the private sector is going to respond and commercialize them. In amature market where private sector is developed, it would not be necessary to intervene, but in thecurrent conditions of rural tourism in Serbia, it is necessary to make a step beyond.This step would consist of creating an incoming tour operator or supporting it, which would not onlystructure but also commercialise rural tourism products. By this means it would “drive” the qualitylevel that is required to be competitive and, by the same means, monitor the quality level that isenforced by the companies which are part of the tourism offering.A specific chapter is dedicated to this approach within the “Tourism Organization” section.47 International best practices in France - 78 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia9.3 Human Resources development strategyThe Human Resources development strategy further develops the objectives to create socialsustainable programmes through the development of Rural Tourism. The underlying social strategyis defined in the Environmental and Social strategy chapter of this document. The followingsections elaborate the Human Resources development strategy for Rural Tourism in Serbia:9.3.1 Private sector development needs for rural tourismThe diagnostic study has highlighted the following issues with regards to the private sector relatedto rural tourism in Serbia: Weaknesses:  Private sector is hardly developed in general terms if we look at the tourism sector and the rural tourism value chain specifically: hardly any man-made attractions; very limited leisure and entertainment supply; agriculture production and tourism is linked in a limited and informal way (individual initiative); no skilled professionals and job opportunities are very limited for skilled people  Private sector stakeholders are hardly associated to look for synergies and to define their own future  Incipient co-operation between the private and public sectors  High disparity between regions in terms of rural accommodation development  In general terms, for the private sector, rural tourism constitutes only a small source of additional income. Strengths:  There is a critical mass of rural accommodation in some areas  Two areas have years of experience in rural tourism, such as Vojvodina and Central Serbia, although they are still at an emerging stage in quantitative and qualitative terms  Some good examples of farms and private households, as well as catering units that have generated additional income through tourism and that have expectations to increase their sales if opportunities are presented to them.  Nation-wide website to promote and commercialise rural accommodation under the Eurogîtes brand - 79 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaTourism sector chart showing a fully developed rural tourism value chain with 8 units: Travel Handicraft & Food & Tourism Leisure Support organization Transportation Accommodation Souvenir Beverage assets activities services and booking shops  This value chain unit operates  Either in visitor’s  Provision of food within the final home country or in & beverage destination as well  Mainly operated by intermediate  Rural products for as with the visitor institutions, either  Tour guides, destinations accommodation visitors, mainly in s original country public or private, excursions, shows  Other support  This value chain deduced from bars and  Handicraft and  Composed of all which manage and events for services for unit is the only official restaurants in Souvenir shops means of transport protected areas, tourists make up tourists one operated at accommodation hotels, fast food to reach or leave museums, this chain unit the visitor’s origin, data outlets, roadside the destination, or heritage areas, etc. before starting his vendors, kiosks, to distribute the etc. trip visitors within the area.When comparing this fully developed value chain with the current Serbian context, numerous gaps- and therefore opportunities - have been identified for private sector development in rural tourism: Tourism assets:  Creation of activity packages based on nature and culture heritage assets  Creation of man-made activities: for instance, nautical activity centres around lakes and the navigable rivers; gastronomy centres showcasing typical agricultural products, offering a wine tasting and eating experience paired with local traditions; etc. Transportation:  Bus circuits to discover Rural Serbia  4-wheel cars circuits in remote areas or areas with limited road accessibility  River boat transportation through navigable rivers and the Danube  Use of network of small local airports for practice of air related activities: ballooning, panoramic air rides, sports using air transportation, etc. Accommodation:  Increasing overnights through packaging with tourism activities  creation of other types of accommodation  further development and enrichment of rural tourism farms concepts combining accommodation, catering services and sales of agriculture products Food & beverage:This value chain unit is quite complex and extensive. The main opportunities can be summarisedas follows:  Direct link with tourism: catering units (restaurants, cafeterias, cafes, etc.); wine selling and tasting; wine and gastronomy route; direct sales to tourists of local food and beverage products (such as cheese, honey, herbs, ham, vegetables and fruits, mushrooms, fish, spirits, wines, beer, etc.). Local provision of fresh food and traditional foods and beverages homemade processed from autochthonic animal and plant species and varieties. To link - 80 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia small scale producers with catering units strengthen cooperation within communities will be essential.  Indirect link: provision of food & beverage products to the companies (see above) selling directly to the visitors and tourists. Handicraft and souvenir shops  Once again this value chain unit is very little developed and presents opportunities for direct and indirect sales to visitors and tourists. Travel organization and bookings:  All the above opportunities can be sold at local, regional and national level in a direct way or through intermediaries.  However, there is an opportunity for the creation of an incoming tour operator company that will structure and commercialise rural activities as well as tourism packages combining activities and accommodation; with optional ground transportation Other support services:  These relate to facilities and services that can generate additional incomes such as currency change, ATM machine, pharmacy and health services, construction services, furniture and equipment for second homes, etc.  These products usually develop themselves strongly only as a result of an already development tourism activityAs a conclusion there are many different opportunities for private sector development both in termsof creation and strengthening of businesses, as well as job opportunities.These opportunities will drive the needs to be addressed through the human resourcesdevelopment strategy.9.3.2 Strengthening of the public sector and multi-stakeholders’ organisationsThe diagnostic study highlighted the following weaknesses regarding institutional capacity andparticipatory governance for Rural Tourism development: Private sector is still small in comparison with public and civil society organisations There is little collaboration and partnership among public, private and civil society stakeholders There is a need to reinforce a partnership approach within the stakeholders involved in the development of rural tourism Uneven capacity and leadership among local stakeholders, which will imply difficulties and different “timings” for the implementation of rural tourism development plansOn the other hand, the strategy for governance, presented further below in the present document,points out the following institutional arrangements to develop and strengthen the public and privatesectors, as well as the civil society participation. RTOs (Regional Tourism Organizations) at regional and tourism “cluster” levels RTSWG (Rural Tourism Strategic Working Group) at National and Regional levels - 81 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia LAG (Local Action Groups) at local / municipality levelsOther organizations will require the collaboration of the public and private sectors and the civilsociety, such as the DMO (Destination Management Organization).All these governance instruments are new or just starting and it is therefore vital to develop thehuman resources capacity of all individuals that will participate in these structures.9.3.3 Scope of the Human Resource Development StrategyThe Human Resources development strategy defines the requirements for the development ofhuman capital which will support the rural tourism sector in Serbia. The strategy comprises of threeprograms namely awareness, training and support.Based on the above described needs and assumptions, the following approach is proposed basedon 3 main components: 1 2 3 Awareness Training Support programs programs programsAwareness program strategyThe Awareness programs have the following objectives: To introduce stakeholders, especially local communities and local stakeholders, to rural tourism and to explain what it is and the potential impact on their households To stimulate interest in rural tourism and, specifically, to stimulate the interest in engagement and participation in rural tourism To involve stakeholders, especially local communities and local stakeholders, in rural tourism and to provide the tools and clear, practical steps of how they can become involved in rural tourism To secure commitment in the development of rural tourism in the community in a sustainable mannerThe potential audience for the Awareness programs include the following: Those people who should be involved in the development of Rural Tourism. The Awareness program targets a wide audience of stakeholders who should be involved in the development of Rural Tourism. The objective is to explain what Rural Tourism is, to clearly define and show examples in practical terms of what Rural Tourism is and what it is not. It should create awareness of the benefits of what Rural Tourism can bring and should explain clearly the gaps and opportunities in its development. Those who can generate revenues and income from tourism by expanding or building a business. These include Micro & Small Enterprises essentially. The Awareness program strategy will include the identification of micro small business opportunities and creating the - 82 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia awareness of these opportunities. The gaps identified in the Tourism Sector will be important in identifying the potential opportunities. For example, a farmer producing milk and cheese, could be made aware of the different types of businesses that s/he could enter into which involve tourism. This could be as a direct supplier to the final consumer or to an intermediary. People looking for employment opportunities. The focus of the Awareness program will be particularly targeted to women as well as other disadvantaged groups. The strategy is to create awareness of the different types of employment that exist in the rural tourism industry. The local population, who are not directly engaged in the rural tourism sectors, should have a specific Awareness program. This program should make the local population aware of Rural Tourism and should teach them how they can benefit from the tourists in a positive way. It should also include behavioural awareness and should explain, using practical examples, how the local people should interact with tourists.The tools which should be used for the Awareness programs include the following: Informal organised workshops Benchmarks and best practice examples, especially from Serbian best practices Testimonials through films and pictures Introductory manuals and presentationsTraining needs program strategy The program should address transversal and specific needs. Transversal needs include training needs which are shared across different types of players in the tourism sector. Specific needs, however, are specific for the type of activity in the tourism sector. Transversal needs Handicraft & Food & Tourism Leisure Support Transportation Accommodation Souvenir Beverage assets activities services shops Specific needs  Composed of all  Mainly operated  Provision of food means of by institutions, & beverage  Tour guides, transport to reach  Accommodation either public or products for excursions,  Other support or leave the deduced from  Handicraft and private, which visitors, mainly in shows and events services for destination, or to different sources Souvenir shops manage protected bars and for tourists make tourists distribute the of information areas, museums, restaurants, up this unit visitors within the heritage areas, kiosks, etc. area. etc.Transversal needsThe Training programs aim to cover the following transversal needs: Language training in foreign languages General behavioral training of how to interact with tourists, how to address tourists Business skills including how to set up a business, how to write a business plan, how to apply to a grant scheme Local Action Groups and training of how they should be set up, organisation and objectives - 83 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaSpecific needs based on the diagnostic of the Rural Tourism SectorThe Training programs have the following specific needs: Transportation: training of basic needs of tourists and how transport providers, like local taxis, can provide a better service to tourists Accommodation and Food & Beverages: specific training for base staff positions (waiters, cooks, etc.), accommodation‟s & catering units‟ owners and managers and other people involved with the tourists directly. Trainings on food safety and quality standards and labels for food providers; packaging, direct marketing, etc. Trainings for households offering full board or B&B on organizing food supply, menus, food preparation standards, etc. Handicraft and souvenir shops: specific training of how to market products, how to engage the interest of the tourists in a comfortable and non-intrusive manner Tourism assets and Leisure activities: specific training tailored to provide value to tourists and to provide an overall service experience for tourists using natural and/or cultural attractions as well as man-made leisure and entertainment activities. Trainings for obtaining licenses of: local tourist guides, animators, riding trainers, riding or tracking guides (mountaineering license, speleologist license, etc.), rangers and guides to nature, etc.The potential audience for the Training Needs programs include the following: Direct suppliers of tourism products and services across the entire tourism sector Indirect suppliers of products and services who may have contact with tourists Suppliers of foods and beverages who do not necessary have contact with tourists Training programs have to follow a set of guidelines to ensure positive training results: Scope  Transversal: cross sectors and multiply stakeholders (public, private and civil society)  Focused in a sector, tourism sector unit or specific job position Duration and modality  Average of 20 to 40 hours for each training course/seminar  Half day sessions/interactive workshops to enable participants to combine training courses with other activities and responsibilities  Presentations in power point including the main content of courses. In addition, other additional material (printed and on-line) should be provided.  Coaching and mentoring as a follow-up of trainings; on-job trainings in rural tourism  Study tours for visiting successful rural tourism examples Trainers‟ profile  Teachers from the best universities and tourism management schools in Serbia and other western European countries  Scientific approach with experts (professors) and sector leaders with a practical approach, consultants and professionals working in the different sectors of the tourism industry  All courses must be delivered in Serbian Know-how and transfer model - 84 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia  Cooperation with MoERD, MoATFWM, TOS and the other ministries involved in rural tourism development in Serbia  Diploma or certificate issued by these organizations at the end of each course upon fulfillment of defined rules by participantsThe training program is based in a set of training courses addressed to different positions in thetourism industry (public and private) and to the civil society which will be determined in the nextdeliverable: Action Plan report. The tools which should be used for the Training programs include the following: Training courses (short and medium duration courses) Benchmarks and best practice examples, especially from Serbian best practices, as well as testimonials through films and pictures Follow up or up skilling coursesSupport programs strategyThe Support programs have the following objectives: Provide technical support to specific groups within the tourism sector Provide technical support for specific need target groupsThe potential audience for the Support programs include the following: Women groups and organisations Entrepreneurs in the rural tourism industry Young peopleThe tools which should be used for the Support programs include the following: National and regional support structure through email and support centre Individual and group technical sessions.9.4 Private sector development: Micro & Small Enterprises9.4.1 Private sector development through rural tourismAs to businesses, rural tourism usually provides more opportunity for micro and small enterprises,typically for one household or a family unit. These businesses usually require a low monetaryinvestment level but a high human capacity development effort. And the most common risks linkedwith these businesses are the following: over expectations on the potential business returns anddifficulty to ensure long term sustainability. Both risks can be mitigated through an adequate andon-going human resource development and monitoring scheme, which will be addressed in thenext section of the present strategy report. - 85 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe main character of rural tourism business leads mostly to the need for micro (1 person to onefamily unit without employees) and small (up to 50 persons) enterprises and this is also beneficialfor rural economy development. The genuine rural character is identified with small “human scale”,not usually with large developments.However, rural tourism also requires the creation of medium and sometimes large enterprises toprovide major facilities and services that will attract and drive a critical mass of visitors and tourists,which flow will spread over the surrounding areas and benefit micro and small enterprises. In thesame was as some rural events already organised in Serbia are recognised as very beneficial forthe image and positioning of rural tourism in Serbia and the municipality/ies around the event.In the infrastructure section some potential ideas have been presented and their implementation(investment and management) will require the support from medium and large enterprises, as it isvery unlikely that the public sector or local entrepreneurs will want or be able to undertake suchoperations.The way forward for the creation of such medium and large enterprises will be addressed in the“organizational framework” section of the present strategy document, under the public-privatepartnership sub-section.9.4.2 Support model for the development of Micro and Small Companies in Rural TourismGeneral scope of each support model component: Awareness programs:  These programs will provide an insight on the business opportunities in rural tourism to any local stakeholder that would like to consider entering the rural tourism business or extend their current opportunities.  Support tools: manuals, examples of established companies, introductory group sessions Business Incubators  A business incubator is a service centre specialized in the support to potential entrepreneurs in the process of setting up a company.  Support tools: benchmarking/case studies of established companies, training in business skills, group and individual technical assistance to entrepreneurs and support for PPP. Financial support:  This kind of support consists normally in grant schemes or subsidized loans only provided by the public sector and/or donors organizations under specific criteria  This point will be addressed in more details in a section of the present strategy report Quality standards  In order to develop products that are acceptable for the market, it is essential that rural tourism micro and small enterprises know and apply minimum standards in their business that would make them eligible by visitors and tourists today and at least in the midterm. - 86 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia  Support tools: minimum compulsory standards established by law or by intermediaries to join their network; guidelines and examples of best practices to show additional standards and business practices that will lead to a “quality” rural tourism product/service  This point will be addressed in more details in a section of the present strategy report9.5 Financial support9.5.1 Current situationAs pointed out in the diagnostic study, there are already several financial schemes currently inplace to support Small and Medium Enterprises and some of these schemes are specificallyaddressing rural development.The Ministry of Economy and Regional Development (MoERD) is granting loans to encouragequality of accommodation offers in field of tourism. These credits can be used by individuals, smalland medium-sized enterprises in the field of tourism. For this purpose, the 2010 budget has madea total provision of 400 million dinars.The minimal amount of approved loans for farms and physical entities is 500,000 dinars, for smalland medium enterprise is 2 million dinars.Loan participation in the project cannot be greater than 50% value of the project. Credit funds willbe realized through the Development Fund of the Republic of Serbia, with interest rate of 1% perannum, with a currency clause. The loan repayment period is 60 months after the shelf date whichlasts 12 months and is counted from the date of the first withdrawal of funds.The Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and Water Management (MoATFWM) hasannounced a competition for incentive funds to support development of villages through investmentin expansion (diversification) and improvement of economic activities of rural population.The right to use the incentive funds are the following: physical entity - the bearer of agriculturalholdings, entrepreneur, agricultural cooperatives, the church or monastery, citizens association,professional agricultural services.Incentive funds for individuals, businesses, agricultural cooperatives and churches andmonasteries are non-refundable, as a percentage the amount of the assessed value ofinvestments or activities, including: 1) 50% - for other areas; 2) 60% - for marginal areas.For citizens associations stimulating agricultural funds are awarded grants, as a percentage of100% of the estimated value of investments or activities.For example, Natural person - the holder of the agricultural farms may achieve encouragingfunding for the following activities: For the construction of facilities in the tradition of authentic village houses, or farms, sculpture and other ancillary facilities, preserving the national architecture and traditional architecture, in order to develop rural tourism. The maximum amount of approved funds cannot be more than 800.000 dinars per user For the restoration of the original buildings in the village (water mills, wine cellars, valjarica, such as facilities for drawing fibres, or cloth and the like), which will be the function of rural tourism. The maximum amount of approved funds cannot be greater than 500,000 dinars per user - 87 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia For the procurement of equipment for the enrichment of content on offer rural tourism. The maximum amount of approved funds cannot be greater than 500,000 dinars per userAlso, association of citizens can be achieved encouraging funding for promoting rural tourism, forevents that foster womens associations in rural areas, as well as activities aimed at employmentwomen in rural areas. The maximum amount of approved funds not may be more of 250,000dinars per user.Professional agricultural services can achieve the means for stimulating special projects in the fieldof rural tourism through the identification of opportunities and priorities in rural development. Thiscan be done in collaboration with the local community and education target groups about thepossibilities, benefits and importance of tourism and rural development to the areas of professionalagricultural services covered. The maximum amount approved funds cannot be greater than5,000,000 dinars per user.Additionally, this year and in 2011 United Nations agencies will be launching two grant schemes tosupport rural tourism projects.Therefore, it seems that there are enough support schemes and it does not look necessary tocreate new financial support schemes. However some recommendations can be made.9.5.2 Proposal to strengthen financial support schemesBasically, 4 proposals are made hereafter: Increase the total volume of funding available for grant schemes In the upcoming 10 years a strong and sustained effort needs to be made, as it was done in other countries, to support rural tourism development. This funding could be provided through the Serbian public sector, the United Nations and/or the European Union who has special programs for rural development like Leader, which showed how much it has contributed to rural development support, including tourism. A special grant scheme could be created or secured within existing schemes to fund a 10-year plan (or longer) that will aim at preserving and recovering traditional villages and farms, as Serbia’s positioning icons of the most tangible forms of rural tourism and rural life. Streamline the cooperation frame between the 2 main ministries providing grants in order to increase synergies in their best use Whilst keeping the Authority on the funding source and management, there will be a need to streamline the co-operation frame mainly between the MoERD and the MATFWM for the best and most optimised use of funding for rural tourism development. This could imply joint decision–making on yearly objectives and priorities, joint evaluation committees, joint awareness programs, training and technical assistance to potential and final beneficiaries. . The clear definition for financial support has to be done between two ministries to provide possibility to use EU Pre-accession funds – IPA rural development and regional development funds. Generate and secure minimum funding for some large public-private partnership projects that are strategic for the development of rural tourism Public-private partnership will be addressed specifically in the next section “organization framework”. However, it is important to mention that some initial strategic investments might - 88 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia require public sector commitment by means of capital injection in equity, not only by providing land as an equity. Some projects might not find interested private sector partners. Therefore it is also recommended to create a special fund for this kind of public sector investment securing the enforcement of the most important facilities during the initial enforcement stage of rural tourism development. Too often, plans have been announced and the critical mass of public sector investment has not been secured before hand and therefore has stopped or hindered the development pace. Generate and secure funding for improvement of accessibility to some key destinations or throughout key circuits, by means of rural roads. This kind of funding does not fall under the MoERD but under the Ministry responsible for road infrastructure. However it is the role of the MoERD together with the MAFWM to prepare a plan able to convince other Ministries to commit on an infrastructure investment plan that will target some specific goals. Setting priority development areas and not trying to get infrastructure support everywhere and at the same time is an essential argument to mitigate budget scarcity. A former section of the present strategy report precisely relates to the criteria and results of applying priority scales to rural tourism development.9.6 Legislative support9.6.1 Current legislative situationAs pointed out in the diagnostic study, in the past recent years Serbia has issued a high number oflaws and by laws in the field of tourism. Most of them are just starting enforcement. Although theseregulations were not addressing rural tourism specifically, their scope is broad and can be adaptedto rural tourism.The most relevant laws and by laws that affect also rural tourism development, although notspecifically, are the following: General Tourism Law (2009) Bylaw on the contents and method of preparation of planning documents and feasibility study for the declaration of tourist area (2010) Bylaw on the content and method of tourist signalization (2010) Bylaw on the categorization of tourist resorts (2010) Bylaw on the standards for categorisation of accommodation objects (2010)Another set of by laws addresses directly rural tourism accommodation: Bylaw on the form, contents and manner of keeping records of guests in farm households (2009) Bylaw on the form, contents and manner of keeping records of guests at private accommodation (2009)Finally another set of bylaws is regulating some sector of activity that has relation with rural tourismand the rural space: Spa Law (1993) Law on Public ski resorts (2006) - 89 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Bylaw on types, minimum conditions and categorizing facilities of nautical tourism (1994)Other bylaws are regulations other general and specific aspects of the tourism sector but are notspecifically relevant for the present topic.Based on this analysis, it does not seem necessary to elaborate and issue a rural tourism law or toelaborate further bylaws with specific reference to rural tourism.9.6.2 Proposal to strengthen the legislative frameworkIn order to support rural tourism development, the following set of legislative measures isproposed: 1. Approve the National Rural Tourism Master Plan in the Serbian Parliament in order to ensure its long term sustainability independently of the political changes which will naturally happen at national, regional and local levels throughout the years. International best practices show that rural tourism needs a long term policy and enforcement in order to reach its maximum potential. 2. Review the bylaw on the standards for categorisation of accommodation objects (2010) in order to:  Review minimum standards for new accommodation in order to make sure that they are prepared to be competitive in the near future (for instance all accommodation units should have their own in-room private bathroom when the accommodation unit is used on an individual basis). Exceptions should only be done for existing registered units and for apartment, houses, villas, etc. that are rented to groups of persons that are willing to share one or 2 bathrooms within the same accommodation unit.  Provide on a voluntary basis recognition labels that will certify rural accommodation units with differentiation elements (rural hotel, heritage building, farms or salas for instance), or willing to cater for special market segments needs (families, bikers, agrotourism, or hunters for instance). 3. Create a bylaw that will define and support the Serbian concepts of “traditional villages” or “ethno village” and “farm” and create voluntary recognition labels for differentiation and special market segments needs:  For traditional villages: “Heritage village”, “ethno village”, “art village”, etc.  For farms : Organic Farm, Wellbeing farm, Baby & children‟s Farm, Horse-Riding Farm, Farm with Stables, Cheese Farm, Cyclist-Friendly Farm, Wine-Growing Farm, Herb Farm, Seminar Farm, etc. 4. A special label should be also created to support “green” companies  This label could be applicable to all types of companiesIt is important that these categories, labels and standards are done in full co-operation between theMoERD and the MoATFWM - and with the Ministry of Environment for the “green label” - as well aswith a strong participation of private sector representatives.Further details will be provided in the next deliverable: Action Plan. - 90 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia10 Organisation frameworkThe Diagnostic Report found that there is a strong need in Serbia for the improved organisation ofthe Rural Tourism. The following chapter defines the strategy for the development of theorganisational framework for Rural Tourism in Serbia.The objectives of this chapter are as follows: To define the organisational strategy for Rural Tourism at a local, regional, national and trans- national level To define the tourism governance strategy To define the strategy for the implementation of the proposed governance and organisational structures10.1 Local, regional, national, trans-national levels10.1.1 Local levelThe Rural Tourism experience takes place in specific destinations in a rural setting (space) and,therefore, the ultimate satisfaction will come from the interaction of the tourists and day visitors withthe facilities, services, professionals and local population in that location.At the same time, local stakeholders should be the ultimate and direct beneficiaries of RuralTourism development. Therefore, a successful Rural Tourism development needs to empower thelocal stakeholders to ensure these two-way results (tourist-local stakeholder and local stakeholder-benefits).This is a complex and long term effort in rural Serbia, as it is also in most other countries, withmany destinations where rural tourism can be developed. Some of the destination have alreadyhave been working in Rural Tourism for many years (like Vojvodina, Central and Western Serbia)but most of the destinations are at an emerging stage. Furthermore, the municipalities where RuralTourism can be developed have different situations in terms of leadership and organization oftourism.The challenges at local level are multiple: Multitude of stakeholders and large geographical spread throughout Serbia Different levels of tourism awareness and development Different leadership levels within the local stakeholders Organization by municipalities whilst tourists /excursionists do not consider administrative barriers - 91 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia10.1.2 Regional levelCollaboration between municipalities is essential in the development of Rural Tourism because nomunicipality in the rural areas of Serbia today is strong enough to develop Rural Tourism whichgenerates enough tourism volume by itself. Tourism experiences that could be successfullydeveloped in rural areas require the combination of different tourism destinations in differentmunicipalities.Therefore, regional cooperation, contemplating the voluntary association of different municipalitiesas it is established by Serbian law, is already supporting tourism development. Vojvodina, as anautonomous region, has the most experience today in Serbia. There two other tourism regionalorganizations: one formally constituted, Western Serbia; and another one which is in the process ofbeing constituted: Eastern Serbia.These examples enable cooperation for the structuring and commercialisation of tourismexperiences, in addition to other coordination functions, and also generate synergies in terms offinancial capacity.However, many Rural Tourism products that could be developed go beyond the borders of regions,and themed products such as the Roman Emperors‟ Route or the Wine and Gastronomy Route,clearly cross different regions of Serbia.Challenges: Multitude of stakeholders and large geographical spread throughout Serbia Different levels of tourism awareness and development Regional organizations need to take into account the trans-regional / country-wide scope of many rural tourism products and, therefore, the need to cooperate with other regions of Serbia and with neighbouring countries.10.1.3 National levelA national organisation can truly consider the character of cross-regional and cross-municipalitiestourism products, as there is a strong need for this in order to approach to develop Rural Tourismsuccessfully.Rural Tourism experiences should be promoted and commercialized in a concentrated andefficient way in the domestic source markets in Serbia, neighbouring countries and otherinternational countries. This does not prevent the Regional Tourism Organizations neither fromtargeting these markets nor the local Tourism Organizations (LTOs) from promoting their productsthrough their website and their local information office.However, a region or a municipality is not usually the origin or the main motivation for a domesticor international tourist to choose where to spend their holiday: the first criterion is the kind ofactivity and setting for which he/she shows interest. On the other hand, the national organizationcan generate and optimize human and financial resources through leveraging synergiesthroughout the territory. - 92 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaChallenges: The broad perspective that a national organization can bring needs to be transmitted and implemented at regional and ultimately at local level in a consistent and efficient way. Implementation and enforcement are key issues. It is often said that national organizations are not “close” enough to the real needs and limitations of regional / local stakeholders. National organizations need to generate “buy-in” from regional and local organizations and constantly justify the value of their contribution because they neither attend tourists directly nor are they the direct tourism beneficiaries.10.1.4 Transnational levelThe value of transnational co-operation for tourism development has been proved for a long timeand Serbia is especially interested in this approach due to its geographical situation; to the highnumber of neighbouring countries it is sharing borders with; and due to the transnational characterof some of its products, such as the Roman Emperors‟ route or cruising on the Danube River.Co-operation agreements and border-crossing facilitation have already been put in place andothers are under development. Although regions can foster “soft” co-operation agreements, in mostcases only national organizations can reach these kinds of agreements.Based on this overview and considerations, an organization framework is proposed in the nextsection.10.2 Tourism strategy governanceTourism Strategy Governance: Governance for sustainable development (GSD):Governance is the principle that drives the establishment of organizations. Each system ofgovernance is made up of rules and procedures, both formal and informal which form aninstitutional framework within which the different players have to operate. The more predictable,transparent and legitimate this framework is, the more governable the system will be. The termGovernance for Sustainable Development (GSD) is used to identify and describe a set ofprocedures, players and processes that make a society progress towards sustainabledevelopment.Sustainable rural tourism development requires the determination and approval of a set ofstrategies that will address all the important and complex issues that are inherent to tourism. Dueto the number and diversity of issues, a balanced spectrum of stakeholders needs to be involved inthe strategy decision-making process, namely: The public sector The private sector The civil society and potentially other non-governmental and non profit organizationsThis balance needs to be present at all levels: national, regional and local. - 93 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaGovernance implementation structures:One of the major challenges of most tourism organizations is the implementation / enforcement ofthe strategy that has been approved.On the one hand, Rural Tourism in Serbia is at an emerging stage and is not generating a volumeof visitors and tourists (overnights) that would come from a strong and developed private sector.On the other hand, Rural Tourism is the sum of many different product typologies that aredelivered in a rural environment throughout many parts of the country, across regions andmunicipalities. Today, most of these products are not generally structured as a combination ofactivities and accommodation, which form the base of the Rural Tourism experience (as defined inthis report). Many cultural, natural and human assets are not even used for tourism purpose or lackminimum facilities and services.Therefore, a strong emphasis should be put on the process of structuring the Rural Tourismexperience, as well as promotion, commercialisation and quality control.Furthermore, one needs to consider human resource development and empowerment to achievethe goals and enable real and professional implementation.These constraints and needs should drive the nature and scope of the organization needed toimplement the tourism development strategy at national, regional and local levels.Note that the governance structure does not propose the creation on new institutions. Theexisting institutions will be used and will be optimized by identifying and developingsynergies where applicable. Additional functions may be added to existing institutionswhen needed.Based on all these considerations, the following organization structure is proposed to address thedifferent dimensions of rural tourism development in Serbia: - 94 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Leading Authorities Facilitating Authorities Strategic level National Council for  National Rural Tourism Strategic Rural Development 1 Working Group (NRTSWG) MoERD MoAFTWM (NCRD) National level Operational level TOS National Corporation for  Trans-regional DMO Tourism Development 2 • Quality labels (NCTD) • Rural activities portfolio • Rural accommodation portfolio  National Service Centre for HR development Strategic level  Regional Rural Tourism Strategic RTOs3 (Regional Tourism Working Group (RRTSWG) Organization) and Regional level Autonomous Province of Operational level Vojvodina  Regional DMO • Man made facilities • Quality labels • Rural activities portfolio • Rural accommodation portfolio  Regional Service Centre for HR development Strategic level  Local Action Group (LAG) Local level Operational level Municipality Mayor Community  Local Tourism Organization (LTO) 1 The National Council for Rural Development is a inter ministerial body 2 The National Corporation for Tourism Development is a governmental agency with the aim to attract investors for the different master plan projects that are taking place in Serbia 3 Western Serbia RTO is established; the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina already has the Tourism Organisation of Vojvodina established, Lower Danube RTO and Eastern Serbia RTO are in the process of being establishedLeading Authorities:National levelThe MoERD, MoATFWM and TOS are the main partners and leading authorities for the RuralTourism development project, forming a Steering Committee. For this reason they are highlightedin the above governance frame; notwithstanding that there are other ministries that need to beinvolved in some key decisions. Other players need to be involved on a permanent basis but theircontribution is addressed in the governance implementation instruments, such as the RTSWG andthe DMO.Regional level:The Regional Tourism Organization (RTO) needs to be the cornerstone of Rural Tourism in Serbiaand it is the formal tourism authority established by law to lead tourism development at regionallevel. The RTO should lead and using instruments at regional level such as the RTSWG, the DMOand the Service Centre.Local level:As it is today, the main legal authority at local level is the elected municipality mayor, who would beleading and using governance instruments at local level, such as the Local Action Group (LAG)and Local Tourism Organization (LTO).Today, all these Leading Authorities are already in place, except for the RTOs as only 2 to 3Regional organizations have already been set up. This means that RTOs should be established inall regions that have been defined as priority areas for rural tourism development. In other words,the 12 Rural Tourism Clusters defined in the strategy should all be part of an RTO (or the - 95 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaAutonomous Region of Vojvodina). In practical terms it may mean that multiple Rural TourismClusters collaborate to form an RTO which represents the Rural Tourism Cluster Groups (asdefined in the strategy). Or it may mean, as is the case for South Banat, that the municipality ispart of the Lower Danube cluster group but is also part of the Vojvodina Autonomous Region.Therefore, it is proposed that each of the RTC is represented in an RTO. These RTOs can becomprised of the RTCG.Governance implementation instruments: strategic levelThe existing leading authorities and the relevant players (public-private sectors and civil society) donot have an organization or instrument enabling them to interact and take joint strategic decisionsin a sustainable way.Based on international best practices and taking into account the Serbian context, it is proposedthat the strategic organizational role would be assumed by a Rural Tourism Strategic WorkingGroup (RTSWG) at National and Regional levels and a Local Action Group (LAG) at local level.The stakeholders‟ composition structure and the mission of the RTSWGs or LAGs are mainly thesame at any level, as highlighted in the chart below: Leading Authorities Facilitating Authorities Strategic level National Council for  National Rural Tourism Strategic Rural Development 1 Working Group (NRTSWG) MoERD MoAFTWM (NCRD) National level TOS National Corporation for Tourism Development 2 (NCTD) Strategic level  Regional Rural Tourism Strategic RTOs3 (Regional Tourism Working Group (RRTSWG) Organization) and Regional level Autonomous Province of Vojvodina Strategic level  Local Action Group Local level Municipality Mayor Community 1 The National Council for Rural Development is a inter ministerial body 2 The National Corporation for Tourism Development is a governmental agency with the aim to attract investors for the different master plan projects that are taking place in Serbia 3 Western Serbia RTO is established; the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina already has the Tourism Organisation of Vojvodina established, Lower Danube RTO and Eastern Serbia RTO are in the process of being establishedThe strategic role of the RTSWG or LAG is assumed by a mix of public and private sectorstakeholders complemented by representatives of the Civil Society. The members of the NationalRural Tourism Strategic Working Group should include (but is not limited to) the following: MoERD,NTOS, MoATFWM, National Corporation for Tourism Development, Chamber of Commerce, - 96 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaAssociation for Rural Tourism development of Vojvodina and Serbia and representatives from theestablished regional RTSWG.Establishing a balanced structure is essential to ensure that all points of view are represented andthat decision making take these different views into account. The main initial issue is to identify andselect all major and relevant partners and stakeholders that will constitute the RTSWG / LAG. It isimpossible and unnecessary to have all potential stakeholders on board. It is key to identify themost relevant ones that will form part of the core and permanent part of the RTSWG / LAG. Thosewho were not selected can be invited to meetings whenever their expertise and contribution isrequired.The term “leader” is used repeatedly when talking about some stakeholders‟ profiles, which isdefined as follows: individual person who has a demonstrated capacity to use his/her influence toconvince other people (without any imposition) by means of solid arguments and setting theexample. Some leaders have a formal authority given by their official position but this does notnecessarily mean that they are leading the Rural Tourism drive. However, a true leader (orchampion) of Rural Tourism does not need any formal authority and is able to identify and proposehis/her vision, strategy and actions for the implementation of this vision/strategy. A true leader (orchampion) of Rural Tourism with the formal authority is able to generate relevant changes withinthe functional structure of his/her organization.Main partners at a national, regional and local level are defined below.National level: National RTSWG Public sector: Ministry of Economy and Regional Development (MoERD), Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and Water Management (MoATFWM); Ministry of Environment; Ministry of Culture; the National Tourism Organisation of Serbia (TOS); National Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC); National Rural Development Council (inter-ministerial body), representatives of each established RTSWG. Private sector: Association for Rural Tourism Development; the National Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Travel Agencies and Tour Operators, the National Association of Tourism Accommodation; National Association of Farmers; “selo” (as the main national website dedicated exclusively to rural accommodation); as well as leaders such as any other relevant person/association with special weight in Rural Tourism. Civil society representative: Center for Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Development (CenORT), Women‟s Entrepreneurs Association, etc.Each of these partners should participate in the consultation and decision-making process forstrategic choices regarding Rural Tourism in Serbia. The maximum number of participants in ahypothetical RTSWG meeting should not exceed 25 persons in order to make meetingsmanageable. If there are too many stakeholders that could participate, some representatives canbe invited on an “ad hoc” basis, meaning that they would be called to participate in some ofmeetings when the agenda requires their presence and contribution.Regional level: Regional RTSWGThe regional level has a similar approach as follows: Public sector: representatives of each municipality that has formed the RTO (Regional Tourism Organization), one delegate from the MoERD, one from the MoATFWM, one from the Ministry of Environment - 97 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Private sector: any regional association of entrepreneurs and/or professionals that might have been created at regional level; selected relevant local leaders Civil Society: any relevant stakeholder with regional weight or local stakeholder that could represent a best practice for regional level.Local level:At local level a similar approach can be followed for Local Action Groups (LAGs). LAGs shouldhave representation by the public and private sectors and of the civil society. However, as definedby multilateral organizations like the United Nations or the European Union, LAGs are notspecialized in any sector of activity such as tourism. They deal with any relevant topic for theirmunicipality/ies. In the case of tourism issues, they could invite relevant players in themunicipality/ies such as the LTO (Local Tourism Organisation) and for example, the Farmers‟ orFishermen‟s Association, on a permanent basis; and local tourism “leaders” on a permanent or adhoc basis.Some few municipalities in Serbia have established Local Action Groups, which are governed bythe Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and Water Management and focus on related issues.Therefore it is proposed to follow a similar approach and not create another organization but ratherextend the work scope and stakeholders participation / membership in the LAGs to addresstourism issues and, in fact, any other issue affecting the local community. The Local TourismOrganization (LTO) and relevant private sector leaders would be the technical “voice” of ruraltourism in the LAG:At all above-described levels (national, regional and local), the role of the RTSWG is essentiallylinked with the determination, prioritization and high level monitoring of the implementation ofstrategic goals and programmes.This role includes the following characteristics: Economic driver: generating new income, employment, and taxes contributing to a more diversified local economy Community marketer: communicating the most appropriate destination image, attractions, and facilities to selected visitor markets Industry coordinator: providing a clear focus and encouraging less industry fragmentation so as to share in the growing benefits of tourism Public-Private-Civil representative: adding legitimacy to the industry and strengthening public-private-civil partnerships and cooperation Builder of community pride: enhancing quality of life and acting as the chief “flag carrier” for residents and visitors alike.The RTSWG aims to encourage tourism development facilitating accessibility, developing tourismfacilities, fostering SME‟s development and marketing the destinationIts technical areas of competence could cover the following: Accessibility and transportation: ensure the accessibility and transportation within the destination - 98 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Product development: development and commercialization of tourism products Business development: foster tourism business initiatives and development, particularly from SME‟s Tourism facilities: develop and enhance tourism facilities, equipments and services Destination marketing: promote as a tourism destination for boosting tourism arrivalsInstitutional considerations regarding the setting up and management of a RTSWGThis kind of organization brings question marks regarding its creation, real power andeffectiveness. How would this kind of organization fit in the legislative context of Serbia at national and regional level? Today the Law does not consider this kind of organization and the tourism sector does not have such kind of organization. So, where would it fit? As the cornerstone of the Governance system is the Regional level, the set up of the RTSWG at national level would actually be established as a strategic working group created by the inter-governmental National Council for Rural Development (NCRD) in collaboration with the RTOs and the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina (through the established Regional RTSWG). The 3 national partners (MoERD, MoATFWM and TOS) should then play a centre role and provide strategic support within the working group. It is recommended that MoERD should be its leading institution. In legislative terms, the RTSWG will not have any institutional legal power to take decisions regarding Rural Tourism development as these would ultimately fall under the responsibility of Ministries, the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina, RTOs and Municipalities. But, the bottom line is the need for such kind of coordination, paired with the importance given to the most important stakeholders to give guidance and support to the policies established by the responsible Authorities; and finally the respect given by these Authorities to reasonable opinions given in the context of the RTSWG with a high consensus level. Another very important reason for the creation and maintenance of the RTSWG is that governments are not staying in power forever. Through the election process, the rulers change and the new ones do not have the background and knowledge of all issues. The RTSWG would be a guarantee of stability in terms of knowledge and monitoring of rural tourism development, which is by definition and looking at European comparables a long- term commitment. Some countries have institutionalized this kind of instrument and other call it a “task force”. This is not important per se. With the current legislation in Serbia it should not be a legally established vehicle, however it could or should be institutionalized in the future. Which should the power and limits of the RTSWG be? In the current legislative context of Serbia, as pointed above, the RTSWG would not have any official authority. It means that, in practical terms, a decision taken during a meeting of the RTSWG is not legally binding for the institution that has to implement it to really do so. However, if an Institution with Official Authority systematically ignores decisions taken within the framework of the RTSWG, the stakeholders will simply not give any value to their participation and “boycott” the meetings one way or another. One cannot deny that creating - 99 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia and managing a RTSWG is a complex task but the value of consultation, consensus and informal and formal support is also very high. Therefore, creating and respecting – or not – the RTSWG is a trade-off. Rural Tourism Strategic Working Group versus Global Tourism SWG? One could also think that if a Rural Tourism Strategic Working Group finally created, why not create a global Strategic Working Group that would address all kind of tourism products, not just rural tourism? The role of the UNWTO in the current Master Plan is limited to Rural Tourism and, therefore, the recommendations regarding the Strategic Working Group and other governance mechanisms are focused on this area. However, it is important to consider that a holistic understanding and approach to Rural Tourism includes almost all the tourism products except business and MICE Tourism which are mainly taking place in large urban centres and areas. Consequently the concept of the Strategic Working Group could be extended to the whole tourism sector. However, Rural Tourism experiences (holistic interpretation), which is fundamentally orientated to leisure motivations, do not have much in common with Business and large MICE products; and the demand and supply side are different and obey different market and competitiveness rules. Therefore, stakeholders participating in a Strategic Working Group would also be mostly different. For instance, the MoATFWM, which has a key role in Rural Tourism development, would not have any relevant role in Business and Mice Tourism.Further details on the RTSWG composition, organization, functions and roll out will be provided inthe next deliverables: Rural Tourism Action Plan and Rural Tourism Implementation Plan. - 100 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaGovernance implementation instruments: operational levelThe below chart shows the Operational level governance structure: Leading Authorities Facilitating Authorities National Council for Rural Development 1 MoERD MoAFTWM (NCRD) National level Operational level TOS National Corporation for  Trans-regional DMO Tourism Development 2 • Quality labels (NCTD) • Rural activities portfolio • Rural accommodation portfolio  National Service Centre for HR development RTOs3 (Regional Tourism Organization) and Regional level Autonomous Province of Operational level Vojvodina  Regional DMO • Man made facilities • Quality labels • Rural activities portfolio • Rural accommodation portfolio  Regional Service Centre for HR development Local level Operational level Municipality Mayor Community  Local Tourism Organization (LTO) 1 The National Council for Rural Development is a inter ministerial body 2 The National Corporation for Tourism Development is a governmental agency with the aim to attract investors for the different master plan projects that are taking place in Serbia 3 Western Serbia RTO is established; the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina already has the Tourism Organisation of Vojvodina established, Lower Danube RTO and Eastern Serbia RTO are in the process of being establishedDestination Management Organisation (DMO) or Destination Management Company (DMC)The need for a broad, regional and national-level approach to structure, promote, commercialiseand control the quality of priority rural tourism products has been explained in the introductorychapter of the Organisational framework section.The DMO s is a public-private partnership company and the DMC is fully managed by the privatesector with the same purpose as the DMO. DMO/DMC48 main function: acts as an incoming specialized tour operator for Rural Tourism experience (holistic perspective of products) DMO structure: public-private partnership which can further evolve into a DMC or directly a DMC receiving financial support from the public sector for its initial years of operation. In the first case, there is a joint public-private sector company. In the second case it is only a private company but the financial contribution of the public sector by means of subsidies, grants and/or promotion support (advanced portal creation, advertising, etc.). If the law only gives the permit48 Note: A DMC will only have participation of the private sector - 101 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia to set up this kind of company as a tour operator and/or travel agent, then the DMO should be created and legalized as a specialized Tour Operator / Travel Agency in Rural Tourism with its license of activity.Key stakeholders for a successful rural tourism DMO: Public sector: The RTOs and Vojvodina Autonomous Region should lead and implement the creation of DMOs at regional level, which should also integrate themselves into a trans-regional DMO for those activities that are of common interest for several or all regional DMOs. National Serbian agencies should also be involved: MoERD (Secretary of Tourism); MoATFWM; TOS (National Tourism Organization of Serbia). Their participation could consist of providing technical support; promotion support at national level on the domestic market and also on the international markets (TOS); and financial support through subvention or any other monetary vehicle. Private sector: travel agency/ies; web provider/s such as “selo”; National Rural Tourism Association of Serbia. In practice, the private sector partners should be the ones in charge of the daily operations of the DMO, not the public sector, who would only participate in strategic decisions and monitor the operations and results of the DMO.The RTOs should be the main players of the DMO. DMO/DMC economics: sells packages and charges fees for reservation transactions; profit- oriented organization within a framework of sustainable tourism development. If it is a DMO this objective will be reinforced and most potential benefits would be reinvested during the first years of operation.The main benefit of a DMC/DMO is to establish a fully operational instrument to generate visitsand overnights on a systematic and broad basis to all “marketable” rural products in Serbia. Theterm “marketable” means activities and/or accommodation that can meet minimum qualitystandards to be sold immediately on the domestic and/or the international markets.In the current situation where Serbia is an emerging leisure tourism destination including RuralTourism as a main concept driver, it is unlikely to find one or several travel agencies or tourismoperator/s that would assume the investment risk of setting up a Rural Tourism DMC. Therefore,public sector support and participation is a key issue, which would lead to the creation of a DMO.From a large scale and efficiency point of view it is obvious that at the present development stagethe individual initiatives of one or several regions and/or municipalities could not have the sameimpact as the creation of national DMC or DMO. However the legal framework and the currentstakeholders‟ dynamics enable and lead more towards the creation of regional DMOs that wouldintegrate common interest and activities into a national DMO expression.As in the case of the creation of a RTSWG at national level, a question might arise: should it be aRural Tourism DMO or a DMO to sell any tourism products for Serbia? The DMO could be generaland not specific to Rural Tourism. However, once again, rural areas have no prime interest inbusiness or MICE tourism that mainly takes place in cities. - 102 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaEach regional DMO/DMC would have its local “branches” or units fundamentally in major localdestinations. The regional DMOs/DMCs should also set up a trans-regional office to centralize allcommon interest tourism products and activities.Other important functions of the DMO: to take care of the daily management of quality labels andto supervise the performance of man-made facilities /activity centres.Further details on the setting up and operations of a DMO/DMC will be provided in the nextdeliverable: Action Plan.Towards the creation of Regional “Service Centres”Regions are the natural link between the national and local level.Three key support components for Rural Tourism development (human resource development,private sector development, DMO/DMC, etc.) need to be decentralised to be efficient. Regionsgroup different municipalities and can, therefore, create synergies and efficiencies.The concept of “one stop shop” should rule the delivery of these support services to all localstakeholders. It is therefore proposed to create “Service Centres” as one-single physical facilitywhere all the above-mentioned support services can be presented and delivered.On the other hand, the concept of “physical proximity” paired with “efficiency” should be taken intoaccount when considering the geographical location of the “Service Centres”. The first principlewould lead to locate the “Service Center” as close as possible to where most of the beneficiariesare present and will operate, i.e. at local level. However, the principle of “efficiency” would notrecommend creating a Service Center in each municipality but rather at Regional level to servedifferent municipalities.“Regional Service Centres” should be established first in prioritized development areas for RuralTourism and then successively in secondary and tertiary areas.A Service Center will typically require a building equipped for training and know-how transferfunctions and the presence of professionals able to deliver the above-described services.Each “Service Centre” would also host the regional DMO/DMC.Further details on support to “private sector development” will be provided in the next deliverables:Action Plan and Implementation Plan.Finally it is important to emphasize that each “Service Centre” should be officially and legally underthe umbrella of an RTO and Vojvodina Autonomous Government. This would again avoidduplication of institutions and the Service Centre Facility could be located in one of the mostimportant tourism municipalities, maybe using or extending one the already existing LTOs.10.3 Tourism strategy implementationThe implementation of the tourism strategy requires special attention and the organizationalframework that needs to be set up accordingly. The next deliverables will address this issue in - 103 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbiamore details through the Action Plan and the Implementation Plan. However, some key issues andthe potential approach to address them are presented hereafter: National Policy on Rural Tourism Development Cooperation between Government and State Agencies Public-private sector co-operation Creation of a DMO (Destination Management Organization) or a DMC Regional “Service Centres”10.3.1 National Policy on Rural Tourism DevelopmentThe conclusions of the Diagnostic and the quantitative projections for Rural Tourism developmentpresented in this Strategy report have highlighted that Rural Tourism is already playing and couldplay even a more relevant role in Serbia: In the rural economy development and diversification In tourism development as a whole for Serbia because most of the potential products to be further supported are located in rural areas and are directly and indirectly related to a holistic concept of Rural Tourism.On the other hand, Rural Tourism cannot be developed in 3 or 5 years. It needs 20 to 30 years toreach its maximum potential as shown in other European countries, Therefore, it is crucial to defineand implement a long-term and sustained strategy, which is difficult to keep within the naturalchanges that take place at public sector level whenever there is an election, but also in the privatesector.This governance stability and sustainability need to be institutionalised by means of a nationalPolicy to be approved in the Parliament. The main contents of this policy are precisely the mainobjective of this report.10.3.2 Cooperation between Government and State AgenciesAs it has been highlighted in the Diagnostic report and in this strategy report, Rural Tourism is acomplex and holistic concept. Like the tourism sector in general, it has a strong indirect impact onother sectors of regional development and, therefore, requires an intensive interaction and co-operation between different government and state agencies.The Ministry of Economy and Regional Development (MoERD) is the leading ministry in thisproject and executes its leadership through its Tourism Department.There is a long list of these agencies with which, at some stage of Rural Tourism development, theMoERD will need to collaborate. But some of them play a more important role on a permanentbasis as it is highlighted in the chart below. Others will need to be involved but not so intensively.It is important to define, clarify or streamline the role of each agency with regards to Rural Tourismdevelopment, taking account the needs and the best-placed agency to provide the answer. Insome cases, there might be duplication of efforts between 2 or several agencies and a suggestionwill need to be made to find synergies to address the issue. - 104 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaAs shown by international benchmarks, two Government Agencies have a major role in RuralTourism development: the MoERD and MoATFWM. Based on this international best practice, thefollowing has been proposed: The Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and Water Management should retain competencies with farm and agriculture-related facilities, activities, investments, support schemes, etc. The MoERD should then take care of all remaining aspects except those which would fall under the direct authority of other agencies if is already established by law: for instance environmental issues or regulation of spas.Public sector partnership for the development of Rural Tourism: identification of partnersand their main role Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and Trade, Forestry and Water Ministry of Environment, Regional Development Management Mining and Spatial Planning Same functions as established Same functions as established Same functions as established in its statutes applied to all in its statutes applied to all in its statutes applied to the Main partners rural tourism-related products, farm and agriculture-related rural tourism space and except those directly related to tourism activities, natural resources agriculture activities accommodation and management Main partners food&beverage products Same functions as established in its statutes applied TOS (National Tourism Organization) to all rural and rural-related products (mountains & lakes, spas, etc.)  Ministry of Finance: funding for infrastructure and financial support to Micro and SMEs  National Corporation for Tourism Development: support to find investors to invest in large man- Other relevant made attraction and facilities in rural destinations partners  Ministry of Education: educational programmes with youth and children in rural areas  Ministry of Health: spas ruling and monitoring  Ministry of Culture: culture-related assets protection, restoration and enhancementThe potential role of TOSTOS should keep its current functions and responsibilities. However, the Rural Tourismdevelopment project presents an opportunity for TOS to explore new ways to strengthen andextend its functions from two main points of view: Enter into a more operational role through its participation in the creation and coordination with the trans-regional DMO, especially for those tourism products and activities that have a national and international scope and impact (see introduction to DMO above) Establish stronger co-operation links directly with the regional level essentially and indirectly with the local level, as it is more manageable in terms of size and time to deal with 12 Rural - 105 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Tourism Clusters, 4 Rural Tourism Cluster Groups or regions than with more than 100 municipalities.TOS´ potential functions in the development of rural tourism:Keep its main role as a promoter of the Serbian Tourism Offering abroad Support the creation of a more integrated tourism offering for rural areas capitalizing on its current products (village life, nature and culture tourism in general) Support the creation and management of trans-regional DMOs and get involved directly in its activity when it has a national scope or impact (like themed routes)In this context, what would TOS need to change from its current approach to products? Transform the product concept of “Village Life” to a more holistic concept of Rural Tourism, which would include “Village life” but also many more products related to both nature and culture in a wide sense. In the section about “destinations”, one concept should be “rural tourism” and include all destinations that are actually located in the rural areas of Serbia. This approach would give a special value to rural tourism but, at the same time, keep the existing product offering structure.10.3.3 Public-private partnerships and co-operation models for Rural Tourism DevelopmentUsually public-private sector co-operation is required for medium and large investment projectsthat the public sector cannot commit to (or should not commit to) as it is not customary for thepublic sector to invest and/or manage projects which could be undertaken by the private sector.The Public sector‟s role is to determine the most important projects that will have a positive impacton the sustainable development of Rural Tourism in Serbia. Then it should define the bestinvestment and management model that should be applied for success.This chapter will not address micro and small investment and management projects as these havealready been addressed in the Micro & Small Enterprises Development and in Human ResourceDevelopment sections of this Strategy report.For rural tourism development 2 major areas of public-private sector co-operation have beenidentified: Medium or large investment in and management of large natural / cultural assets and man- made attractions (as those identified in the infrastructure development section). Setting up of a company to structure, commercialize and control the quality of priority Rural Tourism experiences (based on activities combined or not with accommodation and other services): Destination Management Organisation (DMO) or Destination Management Company (DMC). - 106 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMedium or large investment in and management of man-made attractionsBusiness model options to channel public-private partnership Option 1: top-down approachSome countries have created a joint investment company between the public and private sector atnational or regional level to cover most investment needs in the country/region. Management of theassets are then given to specialized management companies depending on each investmentcase‟s needs. However, this model is often seen as an unfair competition as the resulting companywould have a monopoly or oligopoly.If this would be the adopted development model, then the National Tourism DevelopmentCompany (NTDC) that has been recently created should be the major partner and leader of thisapproach.If not, then the following model could be implemented: Option 2: bottom-up approachTaking into account the sustainability goals especially from a socio-economic point of view, thefollowing approach is proposed for investment promotion, especially for the proposed man-madefacilities that are also incomes generators:  Provide the investment and management opportunity first of all to local/regional players that might be interested and have the capacity either alone or in partnership with other investors  If no interest has been expressed, then channel the business opportunity to the NTDC, which can still establish some minimum sustainability criteria such as securing employment opportunities for at least 75% of the manpower needs at local/regional level.In any case, the chosen co-operation model needs to be identified depending on each investmentcase. However, some international best practices can be applied as to the following criteria: Concept / Case studies and recommended models component Case 2: owned by public Case 1: owned by public sector in Land sector in non protected area: protected area Recommended ownership Recommended options: land model: Concession sale or concession Case 2: 100% investment by Case 3: investment made Case 1: private sector by public sector co-investment Recommended model: flexible Recommended model: Investment Recommended model: land can be terms of reference for the detailed management put as an equity by the public sector private sector agreement with private sector Case 3: 100% of Case 1: co-management in Case 2: 100% of management management given to sensitive areas such as natural and given to private sector when private sector when culture heritage assets investment is made by private investment is made by Recommended model: public sector sector public sector keeps and manages directly crucial Recommended model: flexible Recommended model: Management services to be protected and gives terms of reference for the strict terms of reference for private sector other areas to be private sector including the private sector and managed (such as accommodation, variable rental scheme or search for maximum rental catering or leisure services, etc.). mixed (low fix rental + amount proposal from the Public sector gets a lease from the variable) private sector to the public private sector sector.Note: it is understood that there could be more combinations between the public-private sector partnership components. - 107 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia10.3.4 Risk of duplication and complexity of functions in the proposed Rural Tourism Governance model and how to mitigate itThe governance organization strategy proposed in this chapter has been designed in a way that itdoes not: Remove any of the current stakeholders that play a role in tourism at national, regional and local level, Eliminate any of its authorities or functionsWhat the strategy proposes is the following: Include several stakeholders that should play a role in rural tourism development from the public and private sectors and the civil society Organize their participation and role in a way that they add value to the existing stakeholders and organization Add some functions at national, regional and local levels, to Rural Tourism development that are not used today and need to be implemented to achieve the strategic and operational objectives:  Sustainable decision-making process for Rural Tourism development integrating all relevant stakeholders aiming to ensure continuity and consistency  “Rural Tourism experience” product structuring, commercialization and quality control to generate a holistic tourism experience; assumed through the DMO, which will also supervise the management of man-made facilities management and quality labels  Support to human resource development, namely through employment and creation of Micro and Small Companies, as well as providing the right management skills to the public sector and to all stakeholders participating in RTSWGs, DMOs, etc.  Use existing organization structures as much as possible such as the Ministries, the TOS, the NTDC, the RTOs (although they are not present in all regions), the LAGs (although they are present only in few municipalities and focused on agriculture) and the LTOs.  The proposed organization framework could look complex because it describes all functions that need to be covered to address the issues highlighted in the Diagnostic Report in order to develop Rural Tourism. However, the bottom line is that it creates 4 types of functions /organizations that are being placed under the Authority or currently established organisms:  Regional RTSWG, DMO, service centres, man-made facilities and quality labels: under the leadership and authority of the different RTOs and Vojvodina government.  The MoERD, the MoATFWM and TOS should participate in quality labels system and provide strategic support to create the structure and materials to regional service centers.  The MoERD, the MoATFWM and TOS should participate in the national expression of the common interests of the regions that should organize at national level RTSWG and trans- regional DMO.  Private sector should participate in all strategic and operational vehicles to develop rural tourism (RTSWG, DMO, service centres, man-made facilities and quality labels). Furthermore, it should invest in man-made facilities, DMO and accommodation upgrading and special labels. - 108 -
    • Volume II – Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaNone of these organisms need to be created through a law or regulation as they can beestablished within the current legal framework and current legal institutions. RTSWGs canbe institutionalized at a further stage if their role needs to be strengthened, but not necessarily.DMOs could be created as a DMC with the support of public stakeholders by means of monetarycontributions in the future. - 109 -
    • STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE RURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SERBIAUN Joint Programme „Sustainable Tourism for Rural Development‟ funded by the Spanish MDG Achievement Fund Strategy Report: Appendix 19 April 2011
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaIndex1Appendix: Synchronization of the Rural Tourism Clusters with the National Strategy on Tourism Development (2007)....................................................................................................................................................................................... - 3 -2 Appendix : Rural Tourism Cluster positioning ........................................................................................................ - 5 - 2.1 Rural Tourism positioning strategy.................................................................................................................................. - 5 - 2.2 Rural Tourism symbols ................................................................................................................................................... - 6 - 2.3 Rural Tourism attributes .................................................................................................................................................. - 7 -3 Appendix : Rural Tourism Cluster strategy .......................................................................................................... - 10 - 3.1 Detailed methodology for Rural Tourism Clusters development ................................................................................... - 10 - 3.2 Detailed methodology for Prioritisation of Rural Tourism Clusters................................................................................ - 15 - 3.3 Prioritisation of the Rural Tourism Clusters................................................................................................................... - 36 -4 Appendix: Rural Tourism Experience development strategy ............................................................................... - 37 - 4.1 Rural Products strategy................................................................................................................................................. - 37 - 4.2 Products for the development of tourism ...................................................................................................................... - 38 - 4.3 Plotting of products ....................................................................................................................................................... - 43 -5 Appendix : Tourism and Rural Tourism projections models................................................................................. - 57 - 5.1 Tourism in Serbia projection model............................................................................................................................... - 57 - 5.2 Rural tourism projection model ..................................................................................................................................... - 58 -6 Appendix: Market development , Promotions and Commercial strategy ............................................................. - 63 - 6.1 Lifecycle segmentation.................................................................................................................................................. - 63 - 6.2 Lifestyle segmentation .................................................................................................................................................. - 64 - 6.3 Lifestyle segmentation .................................................................................................................................................. - 65 -7 Appendix: Maps in A3 format ............................................................................................................................... - 68 - -2-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia1 Appendix: Synchronization of the Rural Tourism Clusters with the National Strategy on Tourism Development (2007)The 12 Rural Tourism Clusters defined by the UNWTO are based on a multi-layered approachwhich considers various critical issues in the definition of the territorial clusters for rural tourismdevelopment. The strategy takes into account the findings from the Tourism Strategy for Serbia in2007, although rural tourism was only identified as one of the 9 products which are dealt with in the2007 strategy. One should also consider that the 2007 strategy identified rural tourism as havingthe lowest potential, while Business and MICE, Holidays in cities and Events were given thehighest rating in the product portfolio matrix (see page 22 of the UNWTO Diagnostic Report). The2007 Strategy was developed for all types of tourism, while the Rural Tourism Master Plan focusesspecifically on Rural Tourism and its synergies with other rural products.In addition to taking the 2007 Master Plan into account, the Spatial Plan of Serbia, 14 TourismMaster Plans; resources as identified by the FAS analysis; seasonality; accessibility andinfrastructure; unemployment; hospitality and tourism experience were all taken into considerationin the development of the Rural Tourism Clusters.The Rural Tourism Master Plan, therefore, does not contradict the clustering which was identifiedin 2007. Rather it further builds on it by focusing specifically on rural areas and ruraltourism and, within the 4 macro clusters defined in 2006 (see below), if further defines sub-territories where rural tourism should be developed as a priority. Below we have included afull explanation of how the 2007 Tourism Clusters and the 2010/2011 Rural Tourism Clusters arerelated.The 2007 Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia defined 4 tourist clusters “notbased on administrative borders which presently exist in the country, but primarily on the rationalstrongholds and various kinds of economies of experience”. These 4 tourist clusters that cover allthe Serbian territory are: Vojvodina Belgrade South-Eastern Serbia South-Western SerbiaTaken into consideration the clusters defined by the Tourism Strategy of the Republic of Serbia,the UNWTO Strategy Report of the Rural Tourism Master Plan proposes a territory developmentstrategy which aims to prioritise rural tourism destination areas within these 4 territories. Theterritory development strategy has been based on specific rural tourism criteria. -3-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaUNWTO Rural Tourism Master Plan 2010/2011 Tourism Strategy for Serbia 2007UNWTO Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) and Rural Tourism Cluster 2007Tourism Cluster Groups (RTCG) RTC 1: Golija South-Western SerbiaRTCG1: Central Serbia RTC 2: Zlatar Zlatibor South-Western Serbia South-Western Serbiaand Western Serbia RTC 3: Kopaonik South-Western Serbia RTC 4: Central Serbia South-Western Serbia Belgrade and South-RTCG 2: South Banat RTC 5: Lower Danube Vojvodina, Belgrade and Eastern Serbiaand Lower Danube South-Eastern Serbia RTC 6: South Banat Vojvodina and Belgrade RTC 7: Soko Banja South-Eastern SerbiaRTCG 3: Eastern Serbia RTC 8: Eastern Serbia South-Eastern Serbia South-Eastern Serbia RTC 9: South Eastern South-Eastern Serbia RTC 10: Fruska Gora VojvodinaRTCG 4: Vojvodina RTC 11: Upper Danube Vojvodina Vojvodina RTC 12: Northern Vojvodina -4-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia2 Appendix : Rural Tourism Cluster positioning2.1 Rural Tourism positioning strategyThe positioning strategy for rural Serbia, should combine the physical elements (hardware) with thespiritual elements (software) to create an authentic rural tourism positioning with reflects theessence of the Serbian soul. Activities experiences Nature Culture Intangibles Physical elements  Unspoilt  Food and  Rural lifestyle gastronomy  Diversity  Local events  Authenticity and festivals RURAL  Proximity SERBIA  International  History and  Friendliness recognition heritage + +  Physical contact with rural household or Emotional elements  Emotional contact with rural household other rural accommodation or other rural accommodation Accommodation experiencesThe above diagram shows that the soul of rural Serbia consists of activities and accommodation,which provide physical and spiritual elements which, when combined, create the positioning ofrural Serbia.2.1.1 Physical elementsThe physical elements include the experiences associated with activities and accommodation. Therural activities include: Nature:  Unspoilt natural beauty of rural Serbia  Diversity of nature and landscapes  Proximity of rural Serbia to urban centres in Serbian as well as neighbouring countries like Romania and Bulgaria  International recognition of natural beauty with resources listed as UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (Golija - Studenica) and Ramsar lists (Labudovo Okno, Gornje Podunavlje, Peštersko Polje and Slano Kopovo) Culture  Food and gastronomy of high quality with typically Serbian rural cuisine  Local events and festivals in rural communities  History and rich heritage, including cultural heritage and archaeological sites. Serbia boasts three cultural sites recognized on the UNESCO World Heritage List (Archaeological site Felix Romuliana, Studenica Monastery and Stari Ras and Sopocani) -5-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaThe accommodation includes the physical proximity of the accommodation to the rural area andthe level of physical contact of the guest with the rural household or rural accommodation. It relatesto the level of immersion of the guest in the activities of the rural household (which can range fromhigh to no involvement).2.1.2 Spiritual elementsThe spiritual elements include the emotional experiences associated with activities andaccommodation. The rural activities intangibles include:  Experiencing the rural lifestyle and slow pace of the countryside  Authentic people and places, experiencing the rural way of life as seen through the eyes of real people  Friendliness of the rural people and their open heartedness and heartfelt hospitalityThe emotional component of the accommodation includes the personal experience of the guest ofthe character and warmth of the rural household owner (or other rural accommodation). It relates tothe way in which the guest is made to feel at home and part of the rural household.2.2 Rural Tourism symbolsSymbols are used as tools to position the destination and are used to create the mental image andassociation of the destination. Symbols are used to reinforce, illustrate and make tangible the coreof Rural Tourism. The symbols for rural Serbia should combine rural activities and ruralaccommodation.The strategy for the use of rural symbols for Serbia is as follows: -6-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Serbia Rural Tourism symbols Rural Activities symbols Rural Accommodation symbols  Nature  Farms  Culture: rural events + festivals  Rural gastronomy +  Traditional villages  Rural architecture  Heritage Human touchThe rural activities symbols include nature and culture symbols. The symbols for ruralaccommodation include farms, rural settlements and traditional rural architecture. Finally, humansymbols should be used to reflect the heart of the rural and multicultural Serbian people.2.3 Rural Tourism attributesSerbian Rural Tourism positioning should be further supported and made more tangible through aselection of attributes in order to convey a message of diversity of experiences to the potentialvisitor and tourist. Rural Tourism in Serbia can bring a wide array of opportunities to enjoy.It is comprised of a combination of physical attributes (based on activities and accommodation) aswell as emotional attributes. Accommodation Activities Phyiscal Physical Attributes 3 Priorité Attributes Rural Tourism Attributes Intangible Attributes -7-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia2.3.1 Physical attributes through activitiesAn example of these attributes is shown below: Positioning attributes Heritage sites Lakes Monasteries Mountains Biking Rivers Hunting Spas Bird watching2.3.2 Physical attributes through accommodationAn example of these attributes is shown below: Typical Serbian rural accommodations Salaši Traditional cottages (“vajat” and “brvnare”) Ethno-villages Rural houses -8-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia2.3.3 Spiritual attributesIn addition to these physical attributes, Serbia should be positioned as a Rural Tourism destinationwhich is highly personal and interactive. It should, therefore, also focus on the emotional aspects ofthe positioning which fosters the interaction of the visitor with the rural environment and localcommunity, thereby sharing experiences and building memories. Intangible positioning attributes Human contact Friendships Build memories Be part of rural Serbia -9-
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia3 Appendix : Rural Tourism Cluster strategy3.1 Detailed methodology for Rural Tourism Clusters developmentThe following steps were taken in order to define the Rural Tourism Cluster development strategy: Identification and plotting on map of priority factors and attractors as defined by UNWTO FAS diagnostic1 Identification and plotting on map of Tourism Master Plans2 Creation of initial Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) comprising of priority factors and attractors and considering the Tourism Master Plans. Creation of Rural Tourism Cluster Groups (RTCG) which comprise of more than one RTCThese steps are illustrated in the following maps.Note that all the maps can be found in A3 format at the end of this appendix document1 Refer to the Diagnostic Report2 Source: Master Plan Zlatibor-Zlatar, Master Plan Golija, Master Plan Vlasina, Master Plan Besna Kobila,Master Plan Lower Danube, Master Plan Stara Planina, Master Plan Kucajske Planine-Belijanica, MasterPlan Kopaonik, Master Plan Upper Danube, Master Plan Sremski Karlovci, Master Plan Novo Milosevo,Master Plan Soko Banja, Master Plan Tara, Master Plan Roman Emperor´s Route - 10 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia 3Map of selected high relevance factors and attractors in SerbiaThe below map shows the priority factors and attractors as defined by the UNWTO FAS in theDiagnostic report.Source: UNWTO3 Main relevant attractors and factors in Serbia. Note that this is not an exhaustive list, but that it representsthe most important resources in Serbia for rural tourism as defined in the Diagnostic Report. - 11 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of tourism master plans in Serbia (MP)The below map shows the Tourism Master Plans of Serbia (as identified in the Diagnostic Report)which are distributed in areas of mainly natural and cultural interest in the territory.Source: UNWTO - 12 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Initial Rural Tourism Clusters for Serbian TerritoryThe below map shows the Rural Tourism Clusters for Serbia (RTCs) based on the concentrationareas of factors and attractors crossed with the undertaken Master Plans in SerbiaSource: UNWTO - 13 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Rural Tourism Clusters and Rural Tourism Cluster GroupsThe below map shows the Rural Tourism Cluster Groups (RTCGs) based on the grouping of theRTCs in function of their proximity and shared common characteristics between them Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 RTC 1 RTC 3 Zlatar Zlatibor RTCG 3 Golija RTC National Park 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism ClusterSource: UNWTO - 14 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia3.2 Detailed methodology for Prioritisation of Rural Tourism ClustersThe 12 RTC are further prioritised in order to identify which should be developed first. Thesecategories address the issue of potential return for every Serbian dinar investment in RuralTourism development. The methodology identifies 7 aspects (which are ranked from 1 to 3) andare considered important in determining the level of risk and return of investment in each RTC. Thefollowing criteria have been applied to each RTC in order to define its priority for developmentcompared to the other RTCs: Factors and Attractors: considers the concentration of factors and attractors in each RTC and the potential the RTC has to develop a diversified rural tourism offer Seasonality: considers whether the RTC could be an all year round tourism destination. The outputs are driven by the findings from the Spatial Plan for Serbia4. Accessibility and Infrastructure: considers the ease of access to and within the RTC Proximity to markets: considers the size of the potential markets in terms of driving distance isochrones for each RTC. Unemployment: considers the unemployment levels in each RTC considering that high unemployment rates should be given priority for rural tourism development. Hospitality: considers the current capacity of the RTC to accommodate rural tourists. This is evaluated in terms of rural accommodation as well as hotels and other accommodation suitable for rural tourism. Experience in rural tourism: considers the experience that each RTC has in terms of development and management of rural tourism4 Source: Spatial Plan of Serbia 2010: Destinations with year round offer; dominant summer offer withparticipation of Winter supply; dominant summer offer - 15 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia The below table shows the summary of the prioritisation of the RTCs. / in to Unemployment Infrastructure Prioritisation Accessibility Rural Seasonality Experience Hospitality Tourism Proximity Rural Tourism Cluster markets tourism Cluster Group Total FAS RTC 1 (Golija) 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 10 1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 11 2 RTCG 1 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 11 2 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 12 3 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 12 3 RTCG 2 RTC 6 (South Banat) 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 15 6 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 15 6 RTCG 3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 13 4 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 17 8 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 11 2 RTCG 4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 13 4 RTC 12 (Northern) 3 3 1 2 3 1 1 14 5 The below table explains the ratings: Accessibility / Proximity to ExperienceRating FAS Seasonality Unemployment Hospitality Infrastructure markets in tourism High volume of High Good High volume of general Long concentration of accessibility to proximity accommodation experience factors and All year round the cluster, and potential tourists Above 25% of 1 and relatively in the attractors and high destination relatively good and relatively unemployment developed rural development diversification connections high probability tourism of tourism potential within it of catchment accommodation Medium volume Medium Good Medium volume of general Short concentration of Summer accessibility to of proximity accommodation experience factors and destination with the cluster, but potential tourists Around 20% of 2 and initial level in the medium the participation limited and medium unemployment of rural tourism development diversification of winter supply connections probability of accommodation of tourism potential within it catchment development Good Low volume of Low concentration No accessibility to proximity of factors and Limited experience Summer the cluster, but potential tourists Around 15% of 3 limited accommodation in the destination very poor and low unemployment diversification capacity development connections probability of potential of tourism within it catchment The detailed steps are explained in the following pages. - 16 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 1: Factors and AttractorsThe concentration of relevant factors and attractors together with the diversification potential of therural tourism offer is evaluated for each RTC. The classification of factors and attractors is basedon the following criteria (derived from UNWTO FAS):Description RatingHigh concentration of factors and attractors and high diversification 1potentialMedium concentration of factors and medium diversification potential 2Low concentration of factors and limited diversification potential 3Factors and Attractors conclusion for strategy:The conclusion of the rating of the factors and attractors in the RTCGs shows that RTCG 1,comprising of RTC1 (Golija), RTC2 (Zlatar Zlatibor), RTC3 (Kopaonik) and RTC4 (Central Serbia)have the higher concentration of factors and attractors and the higher potential to develop adiversified rural tourism offer. RTCG 3 (Eastern Serbia) has the poorest rating mainly because thelow volume of factors and attractors in RTC7 (Soko Banja) and RTC9 (South Eastern).It is expected that RTCs with a higher potential to diversify their rural tourism offer will be able toattract different segments of rural tourists. FAS RTC 1 (Golija) 1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 1 RTCG1 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 1 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 1 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 1 RTCG2 RTC 6 (South Banat) 2 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 3 RTCG3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 1 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 3 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 1 RTCG4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 2 RTC 12 (Northern) 3 - 17 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 2: SeasonalityThe seasonality and potential as a year round destination is evaluated for each RTC. Theclassification of seasonality is based on the following criteria (derived from the Spatial Plan ofSerbia):Description RatingAll year round destination 1Summer destination with the participation of winter supply 2Summer destination 3Seasonality conclusion for strategy:The conclusion of the rating of the seasonality in the RTCGs shows that RTCG 1, comprising ofRTC1 (Golija), RTC2 (Zlatar Zlatibor), RTC3 (Kopaonik) and RTC4 (Central Serbia) has an all yearround tourism offer, complementing summer activities with winter ones. RTCG 4 (Vojvodina) hasthe poorest rating because its focus as summer destinationIt is expected that RTCs with a higher potential to develop an all year round rural tourism offer willbe able to reduce the risks implied in the seasonality Seasonality RTC 1 (Golija) 1 RTCG1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 2 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 1 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 2 RTCG2 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 3 RTC 6 (South Banat) 3 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 2 RTCG3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 1 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 1 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 3 RTCG4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 3 RTC 12 (Northern) 3 - 18 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of seasonalityThe below map shows the different seasonality areas in Serbia.Source: Spatial Plan for the Republic of Serbia 2010 - 19 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 3: Accessibility and Infrastructure5The defined cluster groups are spread out throughout the Serbian territory. The analysis of thetransportation connections to them and within them is critical to prioritize their development. Theassessment of the transportation for each of the cluster groups is focused on the accessibilitywithin the Serbian territory. Train transportation has been omitted from the analysis due to its poorcondition and low relevance as means of transport.The following criteria has been used:Description RatingGood accessibility to the cluster, and relatively good connections within it 1Good accessibility to the cluster, but limited connections within it, especially 2in rural areasGood accessibility to the cluster, but very poor connections within it, 3especially in rural areasInfrastructure and Accessibility conclusion for strategy:The conclusion of the rating of the infrastructure and accessibility in the RTCGs shows that RTCG4, comprising of RTC10 (Fruska Gora), RTC11 (Upper Danube) and RTC12 (Northern) have thebest Infrastructure and Accessibility. RTCG 3 (Eastern Serbia) has the poorest accessibility andinfrastructure.A better infrastructure and accessibility to and within the RTCGs allows to widening the tourismoffer and eases tourists‟ flows Infrastructure and Accessibility RTC 1 (Golija) 2 RTCG1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 2 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 2 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 2 RTCG2 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 2 RTC 6 (South Banat) 2 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 3 RTCG3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 3 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 3 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 1 RTCG4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 2 RTC 12 (Northern) 15 Source: “GEOKARTA”, Belgrade 2009 - 20 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of infrastructure in Serbia crossed with RTCGThe below map shows the current and planned infrastructure network in Serbia Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTC 1 RTC 3 Golija National Park RTCG 3 RTC 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism ClusterSource: UNWTO adapted from “GEOKARTA”, Belgrade 2009 1 - 21 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaInfrastructure and Accessibility further details:Rural Tourism Cluster Group 1: RTC1 (Golija), RTC2 (Zlatar Zlatibor), RTC3 (Kopaonik), RTC4 (CentralSerbia)The only way to access RTCG 1 by air is through the international airport of Belgrade. Apart fromsourcing international tourists that arrive by plane, the main and nearest urban centre is Belgrade.Connections from Belgrade to RTCG 1 rely mostly on road connections and more specifically onmain and regional state roads, as the main railway (Belgrade-Bar) is in a poor condition. Novi Sadin Vojvodina has a direct main state road M21 that links it to Valjevo passing through Sabac. WithinRTCG 1, Uzice, Nova Varos and Kraljevo are linked by main state roads E 763 (M21) and E-761(M5), which connect them with Belgrade and Montenegro. Apart from these the rest of the roadsstructuring RTCG 1 are regional and local.The density of regional roads is highest in northern part (Valjevo mountains), being higher than inthe other cluster groups defined, modest at Tara, Zlatibor, Zlatar and Kopaonik mountains and getslower at Golija and Mokra Gora mountains and their surrounding area.The density of local roads follows the same pattern, but with lower level of quality (as low as 3% ofpaved local roads in Municipality of Sjenica).The accessibility to and within the areas of Zlatar, Golija and Mokra Gora are assessed as low.This cluster group has potential to upgrade its accessibility in the future as follow: The construction of two planed motorways: Е-761 (Pojate - Kruševac - Kraljevo - Čačak - Požega - Užice - Kotroman - Bosnia and Hercegovina) and Е-763 Belgrade-South Adriatic (Beograd - Čačak - Požega - Arilje - Ivanjica - Duga poljana - Boljare - Montenegro) planned to be finished after 2014 Regional and local roads development Railway reconstruction Small airports of Ponikve (near Užice and Zlatibor mountain), Sjenica, Ladjevci (near Kraljevo) and Divci (near Valjevo) development.The average level of the cluster group accessibility is 3, mainly because of the areas of Valjevo,Tara-Zlatibor and Kopaonik mountains.Rural Tourism Cluster Group 2: RTC5 (Lower Danube), RTC6 (South Banat)The airport of Vrsac is used for flying instruction purposes, therefore Belgrade and Timisoara(Romania) airports are the way to approach RTCG 2 by air. From Belgrade, Kovin and Vršac,located north of the Danube, and Pozarevac, located at the south, can be reached relatively easydriving along main state roads M24 (Kovin and Požarevac) and E70 (Vršac), or by railway. Kovinand Požarevac urban centres represent the two main route entrance points to RTCG 2.Within RTCG 2, the areas with the highest density of regional and local roads network are themunicipalities of Požarevac and Veliko Gradište at the south of the Danube. Two main state roadsM24 and M25.1 that stretch along or parallel to the Danube represent the main road access forRTCG 2. Despite the fact that this cluster group stretches along corridor VII it has low accessibilityby Danube.This cluster group has potential to upgrade its accessibility in the future as follows: - 22 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Navigable infrastructure development at corridor VII Regional and local roads development Railway reconstruction Construction of planed motorway Е-70 (Belgrade – Pančevo – Vršac – Romania) after 2014 Small airports of Vršac and Bela CrkvaThe average cluster group accessibility is 3, ranging from high for Deliblato sands to low foreastern part of Lower Danube.Rural Tourism Cluster Group 3: RTC7 (Soko Banja), RTC8 (Eastern Serbia), RTC9 (South Eastern)RTCG 3 is the furthest RTCG from Capital. Nis, the main and nearest urban centre, has aninternational airport that is operated by international regional companies only in summer. Howeverthe airports in Sofia (Bulgaria) and in Skopje (Macedonia) are the closest international airports toRTCG 3 with significant international connections (Nis Airport is still without internationalimportance despite having some international connections). The cluster is connected by road(Belgrade – Niš – Leskovac), by the main state road from Leskovac to Macedonia. The other mainconnections are the railway from Belgrade to Macedonia (at corridor X) and the main state roadand railway from Niš to Bulgaria (corridor X.b). Paracin and Nis (on the way of corridor X) are thetwo urban centres from where main state roads (E-761 and E-711) and railways connect to otherpoints of Stara Planina cluster. Leskovac and Vladičin Han (corridor X) and Pirot (corridor X.b) arethree urban centres from where main state roads (M9 and M1.13) start to Vlasina-Vardenik cluster.The density and quality of regional and local roads is assessed low.This cluster group has potential to upgrade its accessibility in the future as follows: Construction of the highways and railway reconstruction at corridor X until 2014 Corridor X.b finishing after 2014 Construction of planned main state road from corridor X (Markovac) to Bor and Zaječar Railway reconstruction Niš airport and small airport of Leskovac and Bor development until 2014The average cluster group accessibility is 5, both for Stara planina and Vlasina-Vardenik cluster.Rural Tourism Cluster Group 4: RTC10 (Fruska Gora), RTC11 (Upper Danube), RTC12 (Northern)Infrastructure in RTCG 4 that is fully located in Vojvodina benefits from the flat territory of thisregion. The main road accesses to the cluster are the highway from Belgrade to Croatia (corridorX), the motorway under construction (Corridor X.a from Belgrade to the border with Hungary), andthe main state roads.Besides the international airport of Belgrade, another important airport for this area is the airport inOsijek (Croatia) since it‟s less than 50km from the Upper Danube area.The network and quality of regional and local roads, which varies from the high density at FruškaGora to modest density in the other clusters, make it easier to move around the cluster group. - 23 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaDespite the fact that two of three clusters stretch along the corridor VII it has medium-lowaccessibility of the river Danube. The third cluster has low access by Tisa river.This cluster group has potential to upgrade its accessibility in the future as follows: Completion of motorway construction at corridor X.a until 2014 Navigable infrastructure development at corridor VII and Tisa river Railway reconstruction Small airports of Čenej (Novi Sad) and Subotica developmentThe average cluster group accessibility is 1, ranging from 1 for Fruška Gora and Palić-Kanjižacluster to 3 for Upper Danube cluster. - 24 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 4: Proximity marketsThe proximity markets to each RTC have been estimated using a point of reference for each of thefours RTCGs. The following criteria has been used:Description RatingHigh volume of proximity potential tourists and relatively high probability of 1catchmentMedium volume of proximity potential tourists and medium probability of 2catchmentLow volume of proximity potential tourists and low probability of catchment 3Proximity markets conclusion for strategy:The proximity markets show the potential sources of tourists to the RTCGs. These sources oftourists are urban centres located at less than four driving hours from the RTCGs. It is expectedthat RTCGs with greater proximity markets will benefit from more visits. Proximity to markets RTC 1 (Golija) 2 RTCG1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 2 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 2 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 1 RTCG2 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 1 RTC 6 (South Banat) 1 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 1 RTCG3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 1 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 3 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 1 RTCG4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 2 RTC 12 (Northern) 2 - 25 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaProximity markets further details:In order to quantify the potential tourism to these four RTCG four levels of catchment have beendefined: Less than 2 hours driving Between 2 and 4 hours driving Proximity markets International Rest Of the WorldA city for each of the four RTCG has been selected as the reference city from which to measurethe driving distance. The selection of the cities responds exclusively to geographic reasons, eachcity should be equidistant to the borders of each RTCG. By RTCG the cities are: For RTCG 1 (West Serbia): Ivanjica For RTCG 2 (Lower Danube): Majdanpek For RTCG 3 (East and South Serbia): Knjazevac For RTCG 4 (West and North Vojvodina): SomborFor the two firsts levels of catchment (less than two hours driving and between 2 and 4 hoursdriving) the cities with a population of approximately 100 thousand or more have been identified.These cities have been classified into two groups: domestic and international regional. It is likelythat the level of catchment would be lower in a foreign city than in a Serbian one.Proximity markets are defined as countries that share borders with the RTCG or have potential asdirect source markets.Finally the identification of the International ROW countries is deduced from the breakdown oftourists‟ arrivals by country6. A shortlist of all the countries has been made, selecting the mostrelevant. No split by RTCG has been made to classify the International ROW countries. In otherwords, all the identified international ROW countries are likely to be potential markets for the RTCGdefined.The below table presents the results of the analysis and the catchment levels (defined byisochrones) for each RTCG.6 2009 Statistical Yearbook - 26 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia RTCG 1 RTCG 2 RTCG 3 RTCG 4 (taking Ivanjica as reference point) (taking Majdanpek as reference point) (taking Knjazevac as reference point) (taking Sombor as reference point) Pop. Pop. Pop. Pop. City Km City Km City Km City Km („000) („000) („000) („000) Isochrone 1 (less than 2 hours driving) 354 2,039 1,949 2,364 Belgrade 170 1,576 Bor 75 55 Kragujevac 133 175 Pancevo 156 127 Kruševac 143 131 Belgrade 171 1,5761st level of Domestic Kraljevo 114 121 Bor 74 55 Niš 56 250 Zrenjanin 135 132 Lazarevac 157 58prioritization Zajecar 81 66 Leskovac 109 156 Drobeta-Turnu Osijek (CRO) 75 330 International Sofia (BLG) 149 1,249 Severin (ROM) 106 107 Pécs (HUN) 99 157 regional Vidin (BLG) 96 108 Vidin (BLG) 104 108 Szeged (HUN) 106 169 Isochrone 2 (2 to 4 hours driving) 3,146 2,842 3,541 3,309 Sabac 166 122 Kragujevac 189 175 Novi Sad 367 299 Sabac 161 122 Krusevac 171 131 Nis 177 250 Zrenjanin 359 132 Valjevo 220 96 Domestic Belgrade 213 1,576 Novi Sad 252 299 Belgrade 285 1,576 Smederevo 235 1092nd level of Nis 261 250 Zrenjanin 244 132 Cacak 237 117 Kragujevac 300 175 Novi Sad 292 299 Krusevac 243 131 Kragujevac 202 175prioritization Pernik (BLG) 173 136 Podgorica (MTN) 255 169 Timisoara(ROM) 304 307 Vratsa (BLG) 206 196 Budapest(HUN) 261 1,721 International Sarajevo(B&H) 249 468 Sofia (BLG) 267 1,249 Craiova(ROM) 189 299 Timisoara (ROM) 231 307 regional Tuzla (B&H) 217 131 Craiova (ROM) 216 299 Kumanovo(MCD) 236 105 Zagreb (CRO) 352 779 Skopje (MCD) 268 506 Isochrone 1 + Isochrone 2 3,500 4,881 5,490 5,673 Proximity markets3rd level ofprioritization International Romania Romania Montenegro Romania regional Bosnia and Hercegovina Bulgaria Bulgaria Hungary countries Macedonia Croatia Other relevant markets4th level ofprioritization International Italy, Germany, Greece, Poland, Austria, United Kingdom, France, Russia, Turkey, Netherlands ROW countries The output of this study depends heavily on the reference cities chosen. However, it is useful to get an order of magnitude of the potential markets to each of the RTCG The comparison and conclusions from the isochrones is explained below 1st level of prioritization: Isochrone 1 (less than 2 hours driving) RTCG 1, which stretches along Western Serbia, is the RTCG that accounts for the least potential market volume at less than two hours driving distance. This is due to the fact that Belgrade is further than 2 hours driving from Ivanjica and there are no major urban centres in Montenegro and Bosnia & Herzegovina near the border with the RTCG. However this RTCG has many important and cities such as: Cacak, Kraljevo, Valjevo and Uzice. RTCG 4, stretching along west Vojvodina, accounts for the highest number of urban centres less than two hours drive. RTCG has a balanced domestic and international regional potential market, including domestic cities such as Belgrade, and cities from two different countries: Osijek (Croatia) and Pecs and Szeged (Hungary). At this first level of catchment, having Belgrade (1.5 million inhabitants) within 2 driving hours makes the difference in terms of potential market volume 2nd level of prioritization: Isochrone 2 (2-4 hours driving) In the catchment area defined by 2 and 4 hours driving distance, the four RTCGs share a similar potential market volume. RTCG 3, which stretches along Eastern Serbia, accounts for the biggest market potential volume mainly because it includes Belgrade and the capital of Macedonia, Skopje. The shared characteristic for the four RTCGs is that they all have at least one international capital at less than four hours drive away, namely: - 27 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia RTCG 1: Sarajevo (Bosnia & Herzegovina) with 468 thousand inhabitants is 249 km far from Ivanjica RTCG 2: Sofia (Bulgaria) with 1.2 million inhabitants is 267 km far from Majdanpek RTCG 3: Previously mentioned Skopje (Macedonia) with 506 thousand inhabitants is 268 km far from Knjazevac RTCG 4: Both Budapest (Hungary) and Zagreb (Croatia) with 1.7 and 0.7 million inhabitants are 251 and 352 km far from Sombor respectively.Isochrone 1 + Isochrone 2Summing the catchment areas defined by Isochrone 1 and Isochrone 2, RTCG 3 and 4 have thehighest potential market volume. All the urban centers less than four hours driving distance fromthese two RTCGs account for approximately 5.5 million people respectively. RTCG 1 has the leastpotential market volume, mainly because of the lack of urban centres in the bordering countries arenear this RTCG. However, the potential market within RTCG 1 is high given that this clustercontains the most crowded cities in Serbia.Finally, all the RTCG have Belgrade as a potential emitting market, in other words Belgrade is lessthan 4 hours driving from all the RTCGs.3rd level of prioritization:All the countries sharing borders with the different RTCGs have been defined as priority marketsfor each of them. All the RTCGs share borders with at least two countries.4th level of prioritizationThe 10 most relevant countries, excluding international regional countries, in terms of arrivals toSerbia have been chosen as 4th level of prioritization market. These 10 countries are all European.Proximity to markets evaluation of the RTCsAll the proximity to markets analysis has been commissioned from the RTCGs perspective. Theorder of magnitude obtained is useful to quantify the potential market to the RTCGs. However andfor the evaluation of the different RTCs in terms of proximity to markets, the source potentialmarkets to the RTCG has been taken into account together with other specific characteristics ofeach RTC: proximity to Belgrade, relevance of domestic potential market versus internationalregional and ease of accessibility to the RTC. - 28 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 5: Unemployment distributionUnemployment in Serbia, particularly in rural areas, is a major challenge which needs to beaddressed. This step identifies the differences in unemployment rates between the RTCs andidentifies the level of unemployment currently. This is then used as an indicator to influence thestrategy. The higher the unemployment levels in the cluster, the higher the need to diversify therural economy through Rural Tourism development. The following criteria has been used:Description RatingAbove 25% of unemployment 1Approximately 20% of unemployment on average 2Approximately 15% of unemployment on average 3Conclusions for strategy: Unemployment distribution There are high unemployment rates in all the RTCs Despite the high potential of natural, cultural and other resources in these areas, there are RTCs in RTCG1, such as RTC1 (Golija), RTC2 (Kopaonik), and RTCG3, like RTC8 (Eastern Serbia) and RTC9 (South Eastern) which have extremely high rates of unemployment. It is expected that the development of rural tourism in these areas will help to reduce such critical unemployment rates and reduce the imbalance of unemployment between the different areas Unemployment RTC 1 (Golija) 1 RTCG1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 2 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 1 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 3 RTCG2 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 3 RTC 6 (South Banat) 2 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 2 RTCG3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 1 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 1 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 2 RTCG4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 2 RTC 12 (Northern) 3 - 29 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Unemployment in Serbia crossed with RTCGThe below map shows the unemployment rates in Serbia mapped with the RTCGs Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTC 1 RTC 3 Golija National Park RTCG 3 RTC 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism ClusterSource: UNWTO adapted from Republic Statistical Office, Districts of Serbia, Census 2002 - 30 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 6: Hospitality supplyIt is important to consider that there is always a critical mass for rural tourism and general tourismaccommodation. This should be taken into account when developing the accommodation strategyin the Rural Tourism Clusters. Furthermore, it should ensure that an effort is made to generateovernights and that tourists can be accommodated, as this kind of supply cannot be increased inone year. At the same time, it is important to provide opportunities for existing accommodationsupply to generate overnights and become sustainable businesses, as the rural tourism activity isextremely seasonal currently. The following table shows the rating of accommodation supply:Description RatingHigh volume of general accommodation and relatively developed rural tourism 1accommodationMedium volume of general accommodation and initial level of rural tourism 2accommodation developmentLimited accommodation capacity 3Conclusions for strategy: Hospitality Supply The RTCs in RTCG1, RTCG2 and RTCG4 contain the most developed accommodation capacity for Rural Tourism currently in Serbia. In comparison, RTCG3 has the weakest accommodation offer. The strategy for accommodation development takes into consideration the fact that the current occupancy rates are extremely low in rural areas and that accommodation with current capacity should be supported to create more overnights and improve their occupancy rates. RTCs with a higher volume of general and rural beds are expected to lead the rural tourism offer by hosting in first place tourists looking for rural related activities Hospitality RTC 1 (Golija) 2 RTCG1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 1 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 2 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 1 RTCG2 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 1 RTC 6 (South Banat) 2 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 2 RTCG3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 3 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 3 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 2 RTCG4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 1 RTC 12 (Northern) 1 - 31 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaCross of rural accommodation supply (from LTOS) and Rural Tourism ClustersThe below map shows the result of the survey to the 106 LTOs of Serbia regarding generalaccommodation and rural accommodation Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTC 1 RTC 3 Golija National Park RTCG 3 RTC 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism ClusterSource: UNWTO - 32 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaHospitality supply further details:The following table shows the criteria used to summarise the hospitality supply of rural householdsand accommodation, which can be used for rural purposes. The data provided by the LTOs (asexplained in the Diagnostic Report, Value Chain Analysis) has been used as the basis for themapping of the accommodation supply. The “hotels and other accommodation” shows theaccommodation which is close to rural areas and can be used by tourists to rural areas. Rural accommodation Hotel and other accommodation Number of beds Number of beds Low (L) more than 20 (20-50) more than 100 (100-300)Medium (M) more than 50 (51-110) more than 300 (300-600) High (H) more than 110 (+ 110) more than 600 (+600)Important note: Please note that the map is the result of the LTOs survey which has been usedas the basis of the analysis throughout the Diagnostic and Strategy reports. It should be noted,therefore, that some of the municipalities (although they have a bed supply which can be used forrural accommodation) have not been reflected in the map. This is as a result of either limited or noinformation provided by the municipality7 .It should also be noted that this is an initial representation of the rural households in Serbia, as wellas the hotel and other accommodation that can be used by tourists to rural areas. The graphicrepresentation reflects the initial analysis of the concentration of rural accommodation.The initial analysis of the distribution of the accommodation supply has the following conclusions: There are already areas of relatively high concentration of rural accommodation in Serbia. These are found mostly in the Central Serbia. Although it is not reflected on the map, it should be noted that Vojvodina8 already has a good accommodation supply for rural tourism Hotel and other accommodation, in close proximity to rural areas, which can be used by tourists to rural areas is distributed throughout the territory. There is a higher concentration in areas such as Central Serbia and Lower Danube There are also areas with high concentration pockets in other locations which have a high concentration of rural accommodation, hotel and other accommodation or a combination of the two categories.The following conclusions can be drawn from the previous map with the cross of rural tourismclusters and rural tourism cluster groups with the accommodation supply: Every RTC contains at least rural accommodation or hotel and other accommodation that can be used by tourists to rural areas.7 Please refer to the LTOs survey in the Diagnostic Report for the full details8 Please note that the LTOs survey was not fully completed by all municipalities, which is why the ruralaccommodation in Subotica has not been highlighted on the map. Municipalites like Cajetina, Zlatibor,Sokobanja have not provided completed information for the survey - 33 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia RTC4 (Central Serbia) and RTC5 (Lower Danube) have a higher concentration of rural accommodation and hotel and other accommodation. Note that the rural supply in Subotica is not well presented in the map as a result of limited information from the LTOs survey. Nevertheless, Subotica and Vojvodina in general has a rural accommodation supply which is already developed. There are some RTCs which have a relatively low supply of rural accommodation. These include RTC1, 3 and 11. RTC9 has a particularly weak rural accommodation supply. - 34 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaStep 7: Experience in tourismThe final dimension which is considered in terms of the strategy is the level of development oftourism in general and rural tourism in the RTCG. This includes elements like the presence ofleaders in the area in terms of rural tourism development. The following criteria have beenidentifiedDescription RatingLong experience in the development of tourism 1Short experience in the development of tourism 2No experience in the development of tourism 3Conclusions for strategy: Experience in tourism RTCG4 has the strongest experience in the development of tourism and already has a history of successful Rural Tourism development. This provides a strong base to leverage for the further development of Rural Tourism. RTCG1 also shows a relatively strong experience of tourism. RTC5 (Lower Danube) shows strong leadership and high potential as a leader of the Rural Tourism development RTCs with longer experience in tourism are expected to lead the adoption of the actions proposed by the Rural Tourism Master Plan Experience in tourism RTC 1 (Golija) 1 RTCG1 RTC 2 (Zlatar Zlatibor) 1 RTC 3 (Kopaonik) 2 RTC 4 (Central Serbia) 2 RTCG2 RTC 5 (Lower Danube) 1 RTC 6 (South Banat) 3 RTC 7 (Soko Banja) 2 RTCG3 RTC 8 (Eastern Serbia) 3 RTC 9 (South Eastern) 3 RTC 10 (Fruska Gora) 1 RTCG4 RTC 11 (Upper Danube) 1 RTC 12 (Northern) 1 - 35 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia3.3 Prioritisation of the Rural Tourism ClustersGiven the conception of the Rural Tourism Clusters and the 7 prioritisation criteria, the RuralTourism Master Plan should be applied in the defined RTCs following the order showed in the mapbelow: 5 Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 4 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 6 10 RTC 2 Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube 3 3 Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja 6 Eastern Serbia 4 RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 RTC 1 RTC 3 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTCG 3 Golija RTC 1 National Park 9 2 Kopaonik South Eastern 8 RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism Cluster 3 Prioritization order - 36 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4 Appendix: Rural Tourism Experience development strategy4.1 Rural Products strategyThe rural product development strategy is based on the findings in the Diagnostic Report whichfound a high correlation between Rural Tourism activities and other types of tourism producttypologies. The conclusion was that the following product typologies are highly correlated with ruralactivities: Level 5: Extremely high Extremely high correlation correlated with Rural Tourism Level 4: High correlation with  Cultural Tourism (including rural Rural Tourism lifestyle tourism) Agrotourism Sport &  Nature and Earth Tourism Mountains, Adventure Lakes & Rivers  Sport and Adventure Tourism  Wellbeing Tourism MICE: Team building Nautic & Cruise Family and children Ecotourism Rural  Family and Child Tourism Tourism High correlation: Rural Heritage Lifestyle  Nautical and Cruise Tourism  Special Interest Tourism Gastronomy Ethnic & wine  Short breaks  Touring  MICE (team building and seminars)The mapping of tourism activities shows that there are many activities linked to natural and culturalresources. Furthermore, these activities while being concentrated in some cases in key areas, theyare distributed throughout the territory.The overall strategy for the development of the Rural Tourism activities is to develop the tourismproducts that are extremely highly and highly correlated with Rural Tourism. - 37 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.2 Products for the development of tourismThe following table represents the Rural Products which should be developed for Rural Tourism: Priority for Rural Tourism Products Sub products strategy Cultural heritage 1 Cultural Tourism Ethno villages and events (rural life) Gastronomy and wine Mountains, rivers and lakes 1 Nature and earth tourism Ecotourism Agro-tourism Nautical tourism on lakes and rivers Mountain 1 Sports and adventure Air Earth Family holidays Child camps 1 Family and child Farm Life School and educational 1 Cruise tourism Organised cruises Fishing 1 Special Interest Hunting Bird watching Spa and wellness 2 Wellbeing and health Medical tourism 2 Touring Organised tours 2 Short breaks Packages Team building 2 MICE Small seminaries and meetings - 38 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaBelow are presented the defined products that correlate with rural tourism Family and children Nature and earth Cultural tourism Sports and Adventure including Nautic Specialinterest  (including Nautic) MICE Cruise tourism Short breaks Wellbeing and Health Touring Cultural tourism  Experience of cultural resources: monuments, archaeological sites, monasteries, Cultural heritage historical farm houses and palaces, art works (paintings, sculptures, museums, etc.)  Learn about Serbian cultural heritage history, legends, etc.  Personal contact with a local "community", group of people or ethnic group who have kept their local culture and traditions alive Ethno villages and  Takes place in a rural or natural setting events (rural life)  Visitors requirement: know and understand the way of life of the local community  Customs and folklore that embody the typical lifestyle of a place  Experience the day-to-day life of the local people and to be part of this lifestyle  Experience with food and wine from the different regions in Serbia  Discovery of gastronomy related to culinary heritage. It includes wine and other alcoholic beverages, such as rakija Gastronomy and Wine  Learn how to cook traditional gastronomic recipes  Specialised restaurants in local production food and wine according to slow food philosophy - 39 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Nature and earth tourism Physical environment and nature oriented mind and activities  Tourism for which the main motivation are being close to mountains, rivers and lakes Mountains, rivers and  Experience the tangible and intangible activities associated with mountains, rivers and lakes lakes  Experience the enjoyment of fresh air, as well as summer and winter activities like trekking, skiing, rowing and kayak, sailing, fishing, etc.  Responsible travel to natural areas that preserve and respect the environment and Ecotourism improve the welfare of local residents  Allow tourists to discover, know and enjoy nature through participating in activities  Experience the agrarian way of life, any business initiated by the farmer and/or family to entertain or educate the visitors Agro-tourism  The agro-tourism concept is applicable to agriculture and horticulture  Agro-tourism has very high synergies with Rural Tourism as staying in rural accommodation is a key part of Agro-tourism Sports and adventure Hard and Soft activities  Sports and activities that take place in the water medium Nautical tourism on  Individual or group water-related activities and water sports: sailing, boat trips, kayak, lakes and rivers rafting, surfing, scuba diving, snorkelling, water skiing, wind and kite surfing and, aquatic ski, body board , etc., in lakes and rivers  Sports and activities that take place in the mountains Mountain  Individual or group activities: skiing, trekking, biking, climbing, bird watching, archery, mushroom and plants picking, etc.  Individual or group activities: parachuting, ballooning, hang gliding, paragliding, Air helicopter visits, etc.  Individual or group activities: walking, cycling, caving and potholing, running, horse Earth riding, etc. - 40 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Wellbeing and health  Thermal and mineral water sources  Enhancement of wellness and beauty through relaxing treatments Spa and wellness  Wellness and health treatments for body, mind and soul  Fun spas and thermal water  Preventive health care treatments Medical Tourism  Recovery and rehabilitation programs with specific medical treatments Family and children Family  Tourism motivated by the need for spending quality time with one’s family Family holidays  Spend time building relationships and share experiences with family members  Family events, celebrations and meetings Child  Supervised program for children and/or teenagers conducted in summer and winter Child and youth school holidays and outdoor learning periods camps  Summer or weekend camps include: sports camps, nature and science camps, travel camps, organized activities, childrens meetings and celebrations, etc.  Experience farm activities and the agrarian way of life  Immerse visitors in any business initiated by the farmer to entertain or educate in the Farm life way of life on the farm  Learn about the traditional farm activities and food and beverage local production School and  Improving of knowledge into a particular area or activity educational  Practicing and learning activities for leisure and learning purposes Cruise tourism  Holiday journeys based on their specific transport and medium Organised cruises  Trips and short visits along the banks or coats of the river  River cruises for recreational and holidays purposes - 41 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia Special interest  Fishing is possible in the broad banks of the valleys, mountain rivers, lakes, Fishing mountain streams and gorges  Learn how to fish and the characteristics of fish species in a particular river or lake  320 hunting grounds spread over an area of 6,500,000 hectares, 90% of which is managed by hunting associations Hunting  Hunting tourism in Serbia is well-established and has strict rules of conduct  Learn how to hunt and the characteristics of fauna hunt species in a particular mountain area  There are about 360 bird species recorded in Serbia, including five endangered ones, which are especially catching the interest of bird and nature lovers, students Bird watching and Scientifics  Learn about the specific bird species in a particular bird watching area Touring  Complete a circuit whereby the visitor takes a tour of a place and experience the Individual or group destination first hand tours  Tours are typically done by train, bus and car  Best of / Taste of Short breaks  With activities or very passive  Some people take a short break going to a spa and do nothing Group or individual  Break means that your body / mind needs a break from the routine or your usual life  Short break means a short period of time ranging from one weekend to up to 5 days MICE  Small and medium groups interested in team building activities based in teamwork Team building activities, games, problems solving, reinforce cooperation, etc. Small seminars and  Small and medium companies and organizations (public and private) interested in meetings organize seminars, presentations and meetings in a rural setting - 42 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.3 Plotting of productsThe methodology applied to choosing which tourism products were to be included in the strategyhas combined two sources: FAS Methodology together with the NTOS website. From the NTOSthe main tourism assets that are currently promoted as tourism products have been identified. TheFAS methodology has been used as a guiding tool to assess the importance of many of thetourism assets promoted as part of a tourism product by TOS.After these two filters have been applied, the different tourism products or activities have beenmapped on the Serbian territory using GIS method. Given the different nature of the tourismproducts, the following maps have been produced and analysed: Map of Nature and Earth Tourism Map of Cultural Tourism (1/2) (including archaeological, monasteries and fortresses) Map of Cultural Tourism (2/2) (including wine regions and wine routes) Map of Sport and Adventure Tourism Map of Wellbeing Tourism Map of Special Interest TourismThe following has been plotted on the GIS maps: Resources for the development of the product category (based on TOS and FAS) Identification of current routes developed by TOS and/or routes that currently exist Identification of distribution of products and linking of these products throughout the Serbian territory. Note that these are only conceptual links and do not show actual / physical movement between different resources / products Identification of the four RTCG - 43 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.3.1 Cultural TourismCultural heritage9The NTOS is already promoting some cultural routes (i.e. Cultural Route of The Roman Emperors,Fortresses on the Danube ...). For the better analysis of how these products are structured amongthe Serbian territory and what is their geographical location in function of the rural tourism clustersidentified, they have been plotted in the map below:9 Apart from NTOs, UNESCO has been implementing the project, Safeguarding and Promotion of MedievalFortresses along the Danube, from 2010-2011. The project intends to support the creation of partnerships forthe enhancement of sustainable cultural tourism along the medieval fortresses on the Danube River, andalso includes the creation of a website, travelling exhibitions, workshops and a final conference. - 44 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Cultural Tourism in SerbiaSource: UNWTOImplications for the strategyThere is a high concentration of archaeological sites, monasteries and fortresses in key areas ofthe Serbian territory. Fruska Gora and Central Serbia include a high concentration of monasteries.While along the Danube, fortresses and archaeological sites share the river coast. The CulturalRoute of The Roman Emperors runs from Lustiniana Prima, near Nis, to the Danube and along it. - 45 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaWhen compared with the Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) there is a high concentration ofmonasteries mainly in RTC 10 (near Fruska Gora) and RTC1. The Route of The Roman Emperorsalso coincides with RTC 5, 6 and 8, while the fortresses along the Danube also coincide with RTC5 and 6.In terms of the Rural Tourism strategy, these cultural products should be prioritised in these RTC inorder to further develop Rural Tourism in the cluster. Furthermore, the close proximity of othercultural heritage sites (like the Morava Monasteries for example) can be linked with the existingproducts, liked the Route of The Roman Emperors. Packages linked to internationally recognisedUNESCO World Heritage sites should also be created. Additional themed historic routes can bepackaged which will further enhance the existing routes and allow movement through a greatergeographic part of the Serbian territory.Finally, as these cultural heritage products are such an integral part of the Serbian ruralenvironment, the strategy should include the creation of accommodation which are closely linked tothese types of cultural products. An example is the creation of packages including walking tours tomonasteries which also provide over night accommodation in the monasteries. This may then becomplemented by other products such as traditional medicinal brandy production by the monks.Heritage trails of local character supported by the interaction of rural communities and environmentcould be created to present rural history and its connection to traditional rural life and natureheritage created by (e.g. transhumance heritage of Balkan livestock farmers) - 46 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaWine Regions and Wine RoutesThe following map represents the “Serbian wine routes” as defined by TOS10 and shows the mainregions for wine production and main wineries, cellars and wine houses in Serbia, as well ashighlighting the Serbian Wine Route which exists today in Serbia.Map of Wine Regions and Wine Routes in SerbiaSource: UNWTO10 TOS 2010 - 47 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaImplications for the strategyWine regions are distributed throughout large parts of the Serbian territory and many are locatedalong corridor X, which makes their accessibility relatively easy from major cities in Serbia. Thecomparison of the RTCG and the wine regions show that there are wine regions in some of theRural Tourism Clusters. These include the wine regions of Subotica (RTC4), Fruska Gora (RTC10) and Vrsac (RTC 6).Wine Tourism has an important role to play in the development of Rural Tourism in Serbia. It hasalready been identified by TOS as an important product and the strategy should be to further buildon the development of the wine route which has been created. The Wine Tourism products shouldbe given priority in the prioritised RTCG.Wine Tourism is also closely linked to gastronomy. The TOS has already created the gastronomybooklet which promoted the restaurants which are on the Serbian wine route. This pairing ofgastronomy and wine is critical in the development of the Serbian rural tourism experience.Furthermore, as a product, wine and gastronomy can be used as a tool to engage businesses thatare not in the RTCG in the development of these clusters, by extending the development of thecluster to include the participation of these wine estates.Wine and gastronomy play a critical role in the Rural Tourism experience as they seduce the visitorto try something new and to experience the rural way of life. The product development strategy forRural Tourism should introduce packages for specific wine and food lovers. This can include thefurther development of wine accommodation, to wine and gastronomy appreciation experiencessuch as wine tasting courses and cooking courses. This product is extremely strong in developingthe image of rural Serbia and can play a key role in creating the overall positioning of rural Serbiaas a way to stop and take the time to enjoy the goodness of life. - 48 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.3.2 Nature and Earth TourismThe following map shows the distribution of resources in Serbia for Nature and Earth Tourism inSerbia.Map of Natural Tourism in SerbiaSource: UNWTO - 49 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaImplications for the strategyThe national parks, nature parks, nature reserves and mountains mostly located mostly on theperiphery of the Serbian territory. The centre of the territory is crossed by the numerous rivers. Allthe natural elements (except from Davolja Varos) plotted on this map are included in the RTCdefined as prioritisation for development.The Diagnostic report found that there are great differences in the level of development of thenatural resources for Nature and Earth Tourism throughout the territory. Tara, Zlatibor and Zlatarmountains (RTC2) and Kopaonik (RTC 3), for example, are already established attractors whichare bringing tourists and visitors to the area. The Rural Tourism strategy should further leveragethe development of these areas to strengthen and extend the rural tourism experience in theseareas. This includes the packaging of attractive accommodation as well as activities linked to themountain areas.On the other hand, Stara Planina (RTC 8), Deliblato sands (RTC 6) or Upper Danube wetlands(RTC 11) should be further developed so that the resources (classified as factors in the FASanalysis) are developed and organised to attract tourists and visitors in a responsible andintegrated way. Rivers such as the Tisa and the Sava should also be included in the Rivers andLakes category for further development. - 50 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.3.3 Sports and Adventure Tourism and Nautical TourismThere are many sports and activities located all around the Serbian territory, and these includehiking and climbing, cycling, skiing, sailing, rafting and equestrian activities. A selection of the mainareas for these sports and activities has been illustrated on the map below:Map of Sports and Activities in SerbiaSource: UNWTO - 51 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaImplications for the strategySerbia already has a variety of sport activities throughout its territory and these products have highpotential for further development as part of the Rural Tourism strategy. The Eurovelo cycling routewhich has been developed along the Danube sees thousands of tourists crossing it during theyear. However, there has been limited integration of this activity for the development of the ruralcommunities along the Danube. Cycling is an example of a Sport Tourism product which is a nichethat can be further developed as part of Rural Tourism. The strategy for the development ofproducts, particularly along the Upper and Lower Danube (RTC 11 and RTC 5 respectively),should include the creation of packages which combine cycling with rural accommodation,especially geared towards cyclists, along the paths. Furthermore, further emphasis of the discoveryof the traditional villages along the Danube should complement the cycling routes.Rural Serbia has a rich source of water which can further enhance the development of RuralTourism, both in terms of water related sport and leisure activities. The Danube and Drina riversare ideal for Nautical Tourism development. These activities are mainly in RTC 1, 2 and RTC 5 and6. Activities such as rafting (in RTC 1 and 2) and sailing (in RTC 5 and 6) should be furtherdeveloped.Equestrian activities are concentrated near RTC 12 and RTC 5 & 6. The equestrian activities inRTC 12, in the Vojvodina Rural Tourism Cluster Group, have the potential to be developed as aequestrian niche. This has interesting opportunities for equestrian related accommodation andcomplementary facilities.Despite the diversity of sport activities throughout the territory (both in the prioritized RTCs and outof the clusters) there is a lack of leisure activities in rural Serbia. The main man made attractor isthe Sargan railway in RTC 2. There are also leisure air strips in the territory which currently appealto a niche market. The development strategy of leisure activities in rural Serbia should focus on thedevelopment of a better variety of man-made attractors. These are particularly important in areaswith relatively poor natural and cultural resources, as well as in areas which are in close proximityto major source markets. The strategy for the development of man-mad attractors will be furtherdeveloped in the Support section of this document.Sport and Adventure Tourism, as well as Nautical Tourism, play an important role in the overallstrategy for the development of Rural Tourism in Serbia. These products give a rich variety ofactivities to the Rural Tourism Clusters as well as providing opportunities to create links betweenthe different clusters. Sport activities also act a strategic tool to help link the areas which are notincluded in the priority RTCs to the activities that are being developed, thereby, increasing thereach to a wider geographic area. Sport and Adventure, as well as Nautical Tourism also offergreat opportunities for creating rural Serbia discovery packages. - 52 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.3.4 Special Interest TourismFishing, bird watching and hunting make up the majority of the Special Interest Tourism in Serbia.The multiple spots for these activities are plotted in the map below:Map of Tourism of Special Interest in SerbiaSource: UNWTO - 53 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaImplications for the strategyHunting, fishing and bird watching products are developed throughout the Serbian territory. As withthe Sport and Adventure Tourism product, these Special Interest products are a key part in thestrategy for the development of Rural Tourism. There is a higher concentration of these activitieson the west side of Vojvodina and on the western central part of Serbia. Those areas of higherconcentration are covered by RTCG 1 and RTCG 4. Fishing is important for Drina river due tospecial interest for some species and along Lower Danube.Strategically it will be key to identify the most attractive spots for these three activities in order tobuild attractive rural tourism products around them. For example, key hunting areas may bepackaged with rustic hunting lodges. Bird watching and fishing continue to be popular throughoutthe territory and have great potential to be packaged as part of a Serbian rural experience. Thepackaging of these Special Interest products should consider the complementary rural productsand services that can be included as part of the offer. For example, fishing tourism could becombined with the regeneration of an authentic rural fishing village. Thereby, allowing the people tofish and to enjoy the rural fishing village hospitality. - 54 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia4.3.5 Wellbeing & Health TourismSpas and thermal springs, as well as the most relevant Mountain Health Resorts have been plottedon the below map.Map of Health Resorts, Spas and Thermal Springs in SerbiaSource: UNWTO - 55 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaImplications for the strategyThe highest concentration of both spas and thermal springs and mountain health resorts extendstowards the south and the west of the Serbian territory. RTCG 1 has an advantageous position interms of including many of these resources compared with the other cluster groups.However it is important to mention that two of the most important spas and thermal springs(Sokobanja, Banja Koviljača) are not included in any rural tourism cluster group even if they arenear RTCG 1 and RTCG 3 respectively. The conditions of the spas and thermal springs inidentified have been assessed mid-low. It will be important to make the most of these naturalresources characteristic of Serbia in order to promote well-being tourism in the future. - 56 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5 Appendix : Tourism and Rural Tourism projections models5.1 Tourism in Serbia projection modelThe below model is based on the estimations made by different international and reputableinstitutions: UNWTO, WTTC and Euromonitor. This demand model estimates the future behaviourof the tourism demand in Serbia through two main variables, namely, number of tourists‟ arrivals toSerbia and the number of overnights.The UNWTO, WTTC and Euromonitor have estimated a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR)of the future tourists‟ arrivals. These tourists‟ arrivals CAGR estimations are presented below,together with the three scenarios (conservative, optimistic and pessimistic) that make up thedemand model. In each of these three scenarios a specific tourists‟ arrivals CAGR is to be applied. Optimistic Pessimistic Conservative Source CAGR scenario scenario scenario growth growth growthUNWTO 3.60% 3.60% 2.91%WTTC and Euromonitor 2.22% 2.22%The three CAGRs chosen to estimate the number of arrivals within each scenario are relativelyconservative and are considered to be a prudent approach to the demand projections. In theTourism Strategy of the Republic of Serbia11 the tourists‟ arrivals CAGR projected are 13.8% forthe conservative growth projections and 16.4% for the ambitious growth projections. These areconsidered extremely high in the context of the world tourism growth rates, and the UNWTO,WTTC and Euromonitor projections for Serbia.The number of tourists‟ arrivals12 in 200813 has been taken as the starting point from which to buildthe three scenarios. The three scenarios present the number of tourists arrivals from 2008 (baseyear) to 2015.Tourists arrivals 2008 2009E 2010E 2011E 2012E 2013E 2014E 2015EConservative scenario 2,331,936 2,399,791 2,469,620 2,541,480 2,615,432 2,691,536 2,769,854projectionsOptimistic scenario 2,266,000 2,347,576 2,432,089 2,519,644 2,610,351 2,704,324 2,801,679 2,902,540projectionsPessimistic scenario 2,316,296 2,367,708 2,420,262 2,473,982 2,528,894 2,585,025 2,642,402projectionsThe conservative scenario, forecasts that in 2015 there will be 500,000 annual tourists‟ arrivalsmore than in 2008.11 Reference 200712 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia, 2009. This number refers to general tourism in Serbia, however it providesan order of magnitude. Arrivals mean the number of tourists spending one or more nights in accommodationfacility during the observed period.13 2008 has been taken as the basis year due to the fact that, at the time of work, the Statistical Yearbook2010 with information from 2009 was not available. - 57 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaTo quantify the future tourism demand in Serbia, overnights should be calculating by multiplyingthe number of arrivals by the ALS. The 2008 ALS (average length of stay per trip), 3.3814, hasbeen applied to the number of tourists‟ arrivals. It has been assumed that the ALS will remain thesame over the forecasted period. The forecasted overnights for 2015 for each of the definedscenario are presented below. Overnights 2015E Conservative scenario projections 9,356,122 Optimistic scenario projections 9,804,313 Pessimistic scenario projections 8,925,609In 2008, the Statistical Office registered 7,334,00015 overnights; therefore the conservativescenario of this demand model forecasts that by 2015 the country will register 2 million moreovernights.5.2 Rural tourism projection modelThe information collected through the surveys of the 106 LTOs in Serbia is the starting point for therural tourism projections. Apart from this source of information, international benchmarks havebeen reviewed, the outputs from the visitors‟ survey taken into account and a panel of experts hascommented on the results and proposed modifications. All these represent supports for theprojections regarding rural tourism in Serbia.For Serbia a model has been developed in order to estimate the number of overnights throughoutthe forecasted period. The model has been projected for a ten year period. Based on the demandside, two objective occupancy rates have been set for the two components of the supply: generaltourism usable for rural tourism and rural tourism. The details for the first 5 years and the last year(year 10) of the projections are presented below.The flow of the model is based on the identification of a potential domestic market and catchmentrates of this potential market. The model quantifies, for the forecasted period, the number ofovernights in rural areas in Serbia. Based on this number of overnights and the objectiveoccupancy rates, the increase in the number of beds is deduced. Finally the revenues from ruraltourism are calculated from the accommodation revenues and from other revenues in tourism. Themethodology applied quantifies four types of possible tourists: Domestic tourists (those who overnight in a rural accommodation or in a general tourism accommodation but usable for rural tourism16) Domestic visitors (day visitors) International tourists Regional international visitorsThe output of this model comes from the sum of these four components.14 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia 200915 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia, 200916 This methodology is in accordance with the one applied for the quantification of the economic contribution.Please refer to the Economic Contribution chapter in the Diagnostic Report. - 58 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.2.1 Potential marketThe main urban centres of Serbia have been identified as the main source markets of potentialtourists to rural areas. Given this, the first step has been to estimate the size of the main urbancentres in terms of population.The cities of Serbia with above 80,000 inhabitants have been selected for the urban populationanalysis and are included below. Population main cities City of Belgrade 1,576,124 Novi Sad - city 299,294 City of Niš 250,518 Kragujevac - city 175,802 Leskovac - city 156,252 Subotica - city 148,401 Zrenjanin - city 132,051 Kruševac - city 131,368 Pančevo - city 127,162 Šabac - city 122,893 Kraljevo - city 121,707 Čačak - city 117,072 Smederevo - city 109,809 Sombor - city 97,263 Valjevo - city 96,761 Vranje - city 87,288 Loznica - city 86,413 Novi Pazar - city 85,996 Sremska Mitrovica - city 85,902 Užice - city 83,022 Total main urban centres 4,091,098 Muni ci pa l i ties of Serbi a 2009This figure, 4 million inhabitants, represents the potential market of tourists to rural areas. (Thisfigure is assumed to suffer, over the forecasted period, from the decrease of the Serbianpopulation17 (0.28% annually) and to benefit from the urban population historic increase (2%CAGR))5.2.2 Domestic and international touristsFrom the interviews to the LTOs in Serbia it has been estimated that the number of rural overnightsin 2010 (base year) is of 2.7 million. In the base year, this figure has been used as an input in orderto estimate the catchment of domestic tourists. From this catchment of domestic tourists, theinternational tourists as a percentage of domestic tourists has been deduced. An ALS (averagelength of stay) of four nights18 has been assumed for the two groups (domestic and international)and for the forecasted period.17 Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2009.18 From the Statistical Yearbook of Serbia 2009, the resulting ALS is 3.38 nights. Given that this 3.38 is theresult of compiling all kind of targets overnights (including business), an ALS above the official one has beenassumed. - 59 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaGiven this, in the base year, a 13.5% catchment of domestic tourists results in 2.2 millionovernights for domestic tourists. International tourists account for 22% of domestic touristsresulting in 0.4 million international tourists‟ overnights. The breakdown of domestic to internationalovernights is 82% and 18% respectively.Conclusions: It is expected that in ten years, 1 out of less than four Serbians will go for a trip in rural areas19. Therefore the objective catchment of domestic tourists in 10 years is of 30%. The share of international tourists out of domestic tourists is also expected to increase reaching an objective share in ten years of 28%20. Therefore, the projected overnights for domestic and international tourists in ten years are 5,823,649 and 1,630,622 respectively totaling 7,454,271 rural related overnights in Serbia. The breakdown of domestic to international overnights becomes 78% and 22% respectively. The total overnights in ten years, 7,454,271; represents a CAGR of 10.7% for the forecasted period. Base year 1 2 3 4 5 10Serbia Overnights Domestic tourists 2,210,550 2,523,154 2,845,872 3,178,960 3,522,679 3,877,296 5,823,649 International tourists 490,932 574,969 664,991 761,234 863,942 973,368 1,630,622 Total overnights in rural areas 2,701,482 3,098,124 3,510,864 3,940,194 4,386,621 4,850,664 7,454,2715.2.3 Domestic and regional-international day visitorsGiven the characteristics of the Serbian territory, day visitors are difficult to quantify but could bevery relevant in terms revenues in rural areas. Therefore, in this demand driven model domesticand regional-international visitors‟ volume and revenues have been quantified and projected.For the domestic visitors, in the base year, it has been assumed that from the potential market (4million people) 1 person out of four is nowadays going once a year to a rural area in Serbia tospend his/her day. Therefore the catchment of domestic day visitors for the base year is 25%. Theobjective catchment within the ten year period is 70%. The average spending per day, RSD 1,900,comes from the visitors‟ survey carried out in rural areas of Serbia21. A 2% CAGR has beenapplied to this average spending over the forecasted period.For the regional-international, it has been assumed 15% of the domestic visitors that theyrepresent over the 10 year forecasted period. It has been assumed that regional-internationalvisitors spend the same per day as domestic visitors. Base year 1 2 3 4 5 10Serbia Day visitors Domestic day visitors 1,022,775 1,227,663 1,439,308 1,657,879 1,883,554 2,116,511 3,397,129 International-regional day visitors 153,416 184,150 215,896 248,682 282,533 317,477 509,569 Total day visitors 1,176,191 1,411,813 1,655,204 1,906,561 2,166,087 2,433,988 3,906,69819 UNWTO estimate based on international benchmark of other European countries20 UNWTO estimate based on international benchmark of other European countries21 Visitors‟ Survey, Diagnostic Report - 60 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.2.4 Supply side of the modelThe supply side of the model is based on the improvement of the occupancy rates set asobjectives for: General tourism accommodation usable for rural tourism Rural accommodationsThe aim is to quantify the yearly increase of new beds based on the number of overnightsestimated previously. In the base year, the breakdown of general tourism overnights usable forrural tourism to rural tourism overnights is 95% to 5% respectively. It has been set as an objectivethat in a ten year period the weight of rural tourism overnights would increase becoming 30% oftotal overnights in rural areas.General tourism usable for rural tourismIn the year of study, and from the information collected from the LTOs, the 32,747 general tourismbeds registered an occupancy rate of 21% resulting in 2.5 million overnights. The objectiveoccupancy rate for general tourism beds usable for rural tourism is assumed to reach 30% in tenyears. In the tenth year of projections, the total number of overnights estimated, with the weight ofthe general tourism overnights of this total overnights in rural areas (70%) and the objectiveoccupancy rate for this component results in the number of general tourism beds usable for ruraltourism needed: 47,653. Therefore the annual growth rate for general tourism beds usable for ruraltourism is 3.8% for the forecasted period.The number of general tourism beds usable for rural tourism, in the base year, comes from thesurveys to the LTOs, 32,747. Historically, from 2002 to 2008, the number of general tourism bedsincreased at a 4.8%22 CAGR. It is assumed that this growth rate was mainly driven by the increaseof beds in urban areas such as Belgrade. Consequently the CAGR assumed in this model (3.8%)seems conservative given the registered past growths.Serbia Base year 1 2 3 4 5 10 General Tourism Beds 32,747 35,161 37,336 39,287 41,029 42,574 47,653 Occupancy 21% 22% 23% 24% 25% 26% 30% Overnights 2,556,128 2,855,154 3,149,090 3,437,175 3,718,613 3,992,569 5,217,990Rural TourismThe 10,657 rural beds in Serbia registered an occupancy rate of 4%23. This percentage has beenassessed as extremely low and, therefore, the objective occupancy rate for rural beds is assumedto reach 30% in ten years. This objective occupancy rate with the assumed weight of ruralovernights results in the rural beds needed in the tenth year of projections: 20,423. At the end ofthe 10 years, the registered CAGR over the forecasted period will be 6.7%.Serbia Base year 1 2 3 4 5 10 Rural Tourism Beds 10,657 10,461 11,026 11,864 12,850 13,937 20,423 Occupancy 4% 6% 9% 12% 14% 17% 30% Overnights 145,354 242,969 361,774 503,020 668,008 858,095 2,236,28122 Statistical Yearbook of Serbia, 200923 Survey of 106 LTOs in Serbia, 2010 - 61 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia5.2.5 Rural Tourism Economic ContributionIn order to quantify the tourism revenues, the methodology introduced in the EconomicContribution chapter has been applied. According to the Economic Contribution methodology,tourism revenues include accommodation revenues and other revenues.From the “accommodation” revenues side, the average price per rural bed comes from the LTOssurvey carried out. An annual increase of 2% has been assumed for the first three years ofprojections, 3% for the next two years and then 2% for the remaining years. Conceptually, thistrend tries to reflect the expected cycle of rural tourism in Serbia: soft growth, steep growth andstable growth.From the “other revenues” side, in the base year, other revenues represent 0.97 of accommodationrevenues24. As a comparison, Gîtes de France states that other revenues in France represent 1.6times of the accommodation revenues. France benefits from a developed rural tourism sector anda consolidated rural tourism value chain. Therefore the French multiplier effect (1.6) has beenassumed as the objective multiplier effect for Serbia in ten years. However, the multiplier effectduring the three first projected years will remain at 1 because the efforts towards improving theSerbian rural tourism value chain will not have an immediate effect.In order to calculate the Economic Contribution, the price per rural bed has been multiplied bydomestic and international overnights. Thereafter, the multiplier has been applied to domestic andinternational accommodation revenues. The results of the Economic Contribution projections arepresented in the table below: Base year 1 2 3 4 5 10Serbia Overnights Domestic tourists 2,210,550 2,523,154 2,845,872 3,178,960 3,522,679 3,877,296 5,823,649 International tourists 490,932 574,969 664,991 761,234 863,942 973,368 1,630,622 Total overnights in rural areas 2,701,482 3,098,124 3,510,864 3,940,194 4,386,621 4,850,664 7,454,271 Day visitors Domestic day visitors 1,022,775 1,227,663 1,439,308 1,657,879 1,883,554 2,116,511 3,397,129 International-regional day visitors 153,416 184,150 215,896 248,682 282,533 317,477 509,569 Total day visitors 1,176,191 1,411,813 1,655,204 1,906,561 2,166,087 2,433,988 3,906,698 Economic Contribution Economic Contribution domestic tourists 7,780,595,886 8,951,270,098 10,198,927,153 11,931,733,711 13,856,773,472 28,450,066,829 Economic Contribution domestic day visitors 2,379,211,664 2,845,165,684 3,342,773,533 3,873,755,997 4,439,918,479 7,868,053,951 Economic Contribution international tourists 1,773,020,668 2,091,631,220 2,442,235,818 2,926,275,462 3,478,644,704 7,966,018,712 Economic Contribution international-regional day visitors 356,881,750 426,774,853 501,416,030 581,063,400 665,987,772 1,180,208,093 Total Economic Contribution 10,409,713,512 12,289,709,969 14,314,841,855 16,485,352,535 19,312,828,569 22,441,324,426 45,464,347,585It is expected than in a ten year period, the rural tourism value chain will reach an optimal level ofdevelopment. Therefore, it is forecasted that the Direct Economic Contribution of Rural Tourism willaccount for RSD 45.5 billion, with a CAGR over the forecasted period of 15%.24 Refer to the Diagnostic report for further details in the calculation of the economic tourism direct multipliereffect - 62 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia6 Appendix: Market development , Promotions and Commercial strategy6.1 Lifecycle segmentationThe following table shows the tendencies of different lifecycle groups to consume different types ofproducts. The table equally illustrates which lifecycle segment should be targeted with whichtourism product: Products Lifecycle Groups Genera- tion X: Swing Genera- Baby Children SINKS Family genera- tion Y boomers and tion DINKS Cultural Tourism Med Med High High High High Nature and earth High High High High High High tourism Sports and Med High High Med Med Low adventure Wellbeing and Low Low High Med High High health Family and child High Low Low High Med Low Cruise tourism Low Low Low Med High High Special Interest Low Low High Low High High Touring Low High High High High High Short breaks Low High High High High High - 63 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia6.2 Lifestyle segmentationThe following table shows that some tourism products will strongly meet the demand of variouslifestyle segments and equally shows which tourism product would be able to target which lifestylesegment: Products Lifestyle segments New Adven- Destina- Creature Social Culture Nature turous tion s of Butter- Seekers Seekers Spirit Discover habit flies ers Cultural Tourism Med High Med High Med High Nature and earth tourism High Med High High Med High Sports and adventure High Low High High Low Med Wellbeing and health Low Low Med Med High High Family and child Low Med Med Med High High Cruise tourism Low Med Med Med High High Special Interest High High High High Low High Touring High High High High High High Short breaks High High High High High High - 64 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia6.3 Lifestyle segmentationThe following table shows the crossing of the geographic target markets with rural products,lifecycle and lifestyle segments.Domestic market Product Segments Lifecycle Lifestyle  Generation X  Culture Seekers  Family  New Destination  Gastronomy and wine  Baby Boomers Discovers  Swing generation  Social Butterflies  Children  Adventurous Spirit  Generation Y  Nature Seekers  Agro tourism/Farm  Generation X  New Destination  Mountains, rivers and lakes  Family Discovers  Baby Boomers  Social Butterflies  Swing generation  Adventurous Spirit  Generation Y  Nature Seekers  Sports and Adventures  Generation X  New Destination Discovers  Children  Creatures of habit  Family and Child Tourism  Family  Social Butterflies  Generation X  Creatures of habit  Wellbeing and Health Tourism  Baby Boomers  Social Butterflies  Swing generation  Adventurous Spirit  Culture Seekers  Generation X  Nature Seekers  Special Interest Tourism  Baby Boomers  New Destination  Swing generation Discovers  Social Butterflies  Adventurous Spirit  Generation Y  Culture Seekers  Generation X  Nature Seekers  Short Breaks  Family  New Destination  Baby Boomers Discovers  Swing generation  Creatures of habit  Social Butterflies  Baby Boomers  Creatures of habit  Cruise Tourism  Swing generation  Social Butterflies - 65 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaInternational regional market Product Segments Lifecycle Lifestyle  Cultural  Generation X  Culture Seekers Heritage  Family  New Destination Discovers  Gastronomy  Baby Boomers  Social Butterflies and wine  Swing generation  Children  Generation Y  Adventurous Spirit  Mountains,  Generation X  Nature Seekers rivers and lakes  Family  New Destination Discovers  Baby Boomers  Social Butterflies  Swing generation  Adventurous Spirit  Sports and  Generation Y  Nature Seekers Adventures  Generation X  New Destination Discovers  Family and  Children  Creatures of habit Child Tourism  Family  Social Butterflies  Adventurous Spirit  Generation Y  Culture Seekers  Generation X  Nature Seekers  Short Breaks  Family  New Destination Discovers  Baby Boomers  Creatures of habit  Swing generation  Social Butterflies - 66 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaInternational (ROW) market Markets Product Segments Lifecycle Lifestyle  Generation X  Culture Seekers  Cultural International  Family  New Destination Heritage ROW  Baby Boomers Discovers  Rural Life  Swing generation  Social Butterflies  Children  Adventurous Spirit  Generation Y  Nature Seekers International  Mountains,  Generation X  New Destination ROW rivers and lakes  Family Discovers  Baby Boomers  Social Butterflies  Swing generation  Adventurous Spirit  Culture Seekers  Generation X International  Special Interest  Nature Seekers  Baby Boomers ROW Tourism  New Destination  Swing generation Discovers  Social Butterflies  Adventurous Spirit  Generation Y  Culture Seekers  Generation X  Nature Seekers International  Touring  Family  New Destination ROW  Baby Boomers Discovers  Swing generation  Creatures of habit  Social Butterflies - 67 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia7 Appendix: Maps in A3 formatMap of relevant factors and attractors in Serbia - 68 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in Serbia - 69 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Initial Rural Tourism Clusters (RTC) - 70 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Rural Tourism Cluster Groups (RTCG) and RTC Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 RTC 1 RTC 3 Zlatar Zlatibor RTCG 3 Golija RTC National Park 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism Cluster - 71 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of seasonality areas in Serbia - 72 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of current and planned infrastructure network in Serbia - 73 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of current and planned infrastructure network in Serbia with RTCGs Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTC 1 RTC 3 Golija National Park RTCG 3 RTC 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism Cluster 1 - 74 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of unemployment in Serbia - 75 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of unemployment in Serbia with RTCGs Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTC 1 RTC 3 Golija National Park RTCG 3 RTC 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism Cluster - 76 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Rural accommodation and General tourism accommodation suitable for rural tourism t in Serbia - 77 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Rural accommodation and General tourism accommodation suitable for rural tourism t in Serbia with RTCGs Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 10 RTC Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja Eastern Serbia RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTC 1 RTC 3 Golija National Park RTCG 3 RTC 9 Kopaonik South Eastern RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism Cluster - 78 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of RTC prioritisation 5 Northern RTCG RTC 4 12 RTC 11 4 Upper Danube RTC South Banat 6 10 RTC 2 Fruska Gora 6 RTC 5 Lower Danube 3 3 Central Serbia RTCG 2 RTC RTC 4 7 Soko Banja 6 Eastern Serbia 4 RTCG 1 RTC RTC 8 2 RTC 1 RTC 3 2 Zlatar Zlatibor RTCG 3 Golija RTC 1 National Park 9 2 Kopaonik South Eastern 8 RTCG Rural Tourism Cluster Group RTC Rural Tourism Cluster 3 Prioritization order - 79 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Cultural Tourism in Serbia - 80 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Wine Regions and Wine Routes in Serbia - 81 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Natural Tourism in Serbia - 82 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Sports and Activities in Serbia - 83 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Tourism of Special Interest in Serbia - 84 -
    • Volume II: Strategy for Sustainable Rural Tourism Development in SerbiaMap of Health Resorts and Spa‟s and Thermal Springs in Serbia - 85 -