12/2/2008




                                                                       Concept Development Process


   Prod...
12/2/2008




1) Gather raw data from customers
• Interviews
• Focus groups
   – A moderator facilities with a two-hour di...
12/2/2008




   Result: sample data template                                                                             ...
12/2/2008




A sample survey                                                      5) Reflect on the results and the proce...
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PD73002 Customer Needs

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PD73002 Customer Needs

  1. 1. 12/2/2008 Concept Development Process Product Design Concept & Application Identifying Customer Needs Krates Ng From Product Design & Development 4th Ed. Ulrich and Eppinger Fall 2008 1 2 Our Goals Five steps process • Ensure that the product is focused on customer needs. • Gather raw data from customers. • Identify hidden needs as well as explicit needs. • Interpret the raw data in terms of customer • Provide a fact base for justifying the product specifications. needs. • Create an archival record of the needs activity of the • Organize the needs into a hierarchy of development process. primary, secondary and tertiary (if necessary) • Ensure that no critical customer need is missed. needs. • Develop a common understanding of customer needs among members of the development team. • Establish the relative importance of the needs. • Reflect on the results and the process. 3 4 Example: cordless screwdriver Design Brief: Screwdriver Project Product description •A hand-held, power-assisted device for installing threaded fasteners Benefit Proposition •Drive screws more quickly and with less effort than by hand Key business goals •Product introduced in 4th quarter of 2006 •50% gross margin •10% share of cordless screwdriver market by 2008 Primary Market •DIY consumer Secondary Market •Casual consumer •Light-duty professional Assumptions •Hand-held •Power-assisted •Nickel-meta-hydride rechargeable battery technology Stakeholders •User •Retailer •Sales force •Service center •Production 5 •Legal department 6 1
  2. 2. 12/2/2008 1) Gather raw data from customers • Interviews • Focus groups – A moderator facilities with a two-hour discussion with a group of 8 – 12 customers. – Special room equipped with a 2-way mirror allowing development team to observe. – Videotape. • Observing the product in use – Surveys not recommended. 7 8 Choosing Customers Sample questions • How many interviews? • When and why do you use this type of – 10 – 50 interviews for one market segment product? – Lead users • Walk us through a typical session using the • Articulate their emerging needs product. • May already invented solutions to meet their needs • What do you like about the existing products? – Extreme users • What issues do you consider when purchasing • Professional users the product? • Users with slight disability • What improvements would you make to the product? 9 10 Effective customers interactions Documenting interactions • Go with the flow. • Audio recording • Use visual stimuli and props. • Notes • Suppress preconceived hypotheses about the product technology. • Video recording • Have the customer demonstrate the product and • Photography typical tasks related to the product. • Be alert for surprises and the expression of latent needs. • Watch for nonverbal information. 11 12 2
  3. 3. 12/2/2008 Result: sample data template 2) Interpret Raw Data • Express the need in terms of what the product has to do, not in terms of how it might do. • Express the need as specifically as the raw data. • Use positive, not negative, phrasing. • Express the need as an attribute of the product. • Avoid the words “must” and “should”. From Product Design & Development 4th Ed. Ulrich and Eppinger 13 14 Needs statement example Organize the needs into a hierarchy • Print or write each need statement on a separate card or post-it note. • Eliminate redundant statements. • Group the cards according to the similarity of the needs they express. • For each group, choose a label. • Consider creating supergroups consisting of two to five groups. • Review and edit the organized needs statements. From Product Design & Development 4th Ed. Ulrich and Eppinger 15 16 4) Establish the relative importance of Example the needs • Rely on the consensus of the team members based on their experience with customers. • Base the importance assessment on further customer surveys. From Product Design & Development 4th Ed. Ulrich and Eppinger 17 18 3
  4. 4. 12/2/2008 A sample survey 5) Reflect on the results and the process • Have we interacted with all of the important types of customers in our target market? • Are we able to see beyond needs related only to existing products in order to capture the latent needs of our target customers? • Are there areas of inquiry we should pursue in follow-up interviews or surveys? • Which of the customers we spoke to would be good participants in our ongoing development efforts. • What do we know now that we didn’t know when we started? Are we surprised by any of the needs? • Did we involve everyone within our own organization who needs to deeply understand customer needs? From Product Design & Development 4th Ed. Ulrich and Eppinger • How might we improve the process in future efforts? 19 20 4

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