6.a&p i nervous system2010
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A and P I Nervous System Power Point

A and P I Nervous System Power Point

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    6.a&p i nervous system2010 6.a&p i nervous system2010 Presentation Transcript

    • Unit III- Nervous System
      • Marieb, 8th Edition
        • Chaps 11-12; skim 14
        • pages 385-483; 491-493, 510- 519 skim; skim 525-539
        • Book and CD-ROM
      • CD-ROMS in SLC Rm 1214
    •  
    •  
      • Nervous System
      • I. A. Introduction
        • 1. Homeostasis - maintain internal life functions within a normal range
        • 2. Communication an important component
          • Detect a problem - sensory system
          • Correct the problem with an adjustment
          • Communication between two components involves the nervous system and its principles
      • I. B. Organization of the Nervous System
        • 1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
          • Brain
          • Spinal cord
        • 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
          • a) Somatic Nervous System
            • Voluntary system that controls skeletal muscles attached to limbs / bones
          • b) Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
            • Involuntary system that controls cardiac and smooth muscles (stomach, uterus, blood vessels, etc.) and glands
            • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
      • I. C. Cellular Neuroanatomy
        • 1. Nerve Cell = Neuron
          • Cell body = nucleus, Rough ER, neurotubules, Golgi, etc.
          • Dendrites = processes which receive input to cell body
          • Axon = longer process which communicates with other neurons
          • Terminal Branches / End Terminals = end of axon that communicates with next neuron or muscle or gland
        • How can we protect this long axonal process?
      Fig. 11.4
      • I. C. Cellular Neuroanatomy
        • 2. Glial Cells - supportive cells of the CNS
          • Protective, metabolic, phagocytosis, transport nutrients & wastes between neurons & blood vessels
          • Schwann cells in the PNS and a glial cell in the CNS produce myelin sheath - phospholipids membranes of cell wrapped around neuronal axon, function:
            • protection - regeneration
            • Speed up rate of conduction down axon (node to node)
      Fig. 48-5
    • Fig. 11.3
    • Fig. 48-5
    • Fig. 11.5
    • Fig. 13-4
    • Fig. 48-4 and Table 11.1
      • I.C. Cellular Neuroanatomy
        • 3. Types of Neurons
          • a) Sensory / Afferent Neurons - carry information about the environment (internal and external) towards the CNS
          • b) Motor / Efferent Neurons - carry information away from the CNS towards the periphery & effectors (muscle or gland)
          • c) Interneuron / Association Neurons
            • Only within the CNS
            • Connect two other neurons together, any combination
    • Fig. 48-1
      • I. C. 4. Synapse space or gap between a neuron and a neuron or a neuron and an effector
      • I. C. 5. Stimulus Response Mechanism
        • a) Stimulus
          • Change in the environment
        • b) Response
          • Reaction by the organism in response to the original stimulus
        • c) Basis of all functioning of the nervous system, communication directed at stimulus - response mechanisms basis of behavior, learning, etc.
    • II. Impulse conduction
      • A. Introduction
        • 1. 1930s - at Woods Hole Mass., work on the giant squid axon - nonconducting cell
          • Large enough to isolate from animal and remove the cellular/axonal cytoplasm and chemically analyze
    • 1a. Ionic Distribution
      • EXTRACELLULAR INTRACELLULAR
      • SODIUM - Na + Na +
          • HIGH LOW
      • POTASSIUM - K + K +
          • LOW HIGH
      • CHLORIDE - Cl - Cl -
          • HIGH LOW
      • HIGH PROTEINS -
      • SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
    • 1b. CHANGES BASED UPON NORMAL NET DIFFUSION
      • EXTRACELLULAR INTRACELLULAR
      • SODIUM - Na + Na +
          • HIGH LOW
      • POTASSIUM - K + K +
          • LOW HIGH
      • CHLORIDE - Cl - Cl -
          • HIGH LOW
      • HIGH PROTEINS -
      • SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
    • 1c. CHANGES BASED UPON NORMAL NET DIFFUSION OPPOSED BY ACTIVE TRANSPORT AND ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES
      • EXTRACELLULAR INTRACELLULAR
      • SODIUM - Na + Na +
          • HIGH LOW
          • PASSIVE
          • ACTIVE
      • POTASSIUM - K + K +
          • LOW HIGH
          • PASSIVE
          • ACTIVE
      • CHLORIDE - Cl - Cl -
          • HIGH LOW
          • ELECTROSTATIC
      • NEGATIVE
      • HIGH PROTEINS -
      • SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
      • 2. Summary of Above Ionic Behaviors
      • 2a. Against maintaining the neuronal ionic gradient
        • Passive diffusion (high to low)
      • 2b. Favors maintaining the neuronal ionic gradient
        • Active transport of the Na + - K + pump
        • Electrostatic forces due to intracellular protein negative charge
          • Keeps chloride out
          • Binds to positive K + to keep intracellular
    • Figure 48.6 Negative Intracellular Electrical Charge
    • Fig. 48-7
    •  
    • II. A. 3.Terms:
      • a) potential difference - difference in electrical charge
      • b) polarized membrane - potential difference across membrane due to combination of membrane permeability and ionic concentrations
      • c) resting potential - non-conducting neuron with a potential difference across the membrane equal to -70 to -90 millivolts (mV) inside compared to outside
      • d) action potential or nerve impulse or spike a brief transient change in resting potential
    • Fig. 48.6 & 11.7 II.B. Action Potential 1. Stimulating and recording setup stimulator
      • ACTION POTENTIAL
      • +
      • -
      • -50
      • -70
      • TIME msec
      2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 mV
      • B. Action Potential
        • 2. Electrode enters the axon
        • 3. Excitatory stimulus - below threshold
        • 4. Threshold stimulus - (outside) sodium gates suddenly open and the Na-K pump OFF
        • 5. Depolarization - sodium continues to enter past 0mV (loss of polarization)
        • 6. Sodium inactivation around -35mV as (inside) gate closes - too much positive charge inside
        • 7. Repolarization - potassium out since Na + gates closed & K + no longer attracted to positive protein
        • 8. Hyperpolarization - pump actively back on as K + exit overshoots resting potential
        • 9. Equilibrium or normal resting potential
        • 10. Inhibitory stimulus - a hyperpolarizing stimulus, harder to excite neuron during this time period
    •  
    • Fig. 11.8
    • FIG. 48.8, 11.9
    • FIG. 48.9
    • FIG. 48.9
    • FIG. 48.9
    • FIG. 48.9
    • FIG. 48.9 or 11.12
      • 11. All - or - Nothing Phenomenon
        • Once threshold is reached, no variation in strength of response
        • How does stronger stimulus manifest itself?
        • Increase in frequency - not change in magnitude or height of action potential
      • 12. a) Absolute Refractory Period - impossible to stimulate a neuron a second time while the Na - K pump turned off, from threshold to repolarization (while K + moving inwards)
        • b) Relative Refractory Period - can stimulate a neuron with a stronger stimulus, to reach threshold, while neuron in hyperpolarization
    • Fig. 11.13
      • 13. Propagation
        • Signal does not die out before reaching the end of the axon, nor does it have to boosted
        • Each area act as stimulus for the next portion of the membrane
        • Depolarizing region with its positive charge moves into the adjacent negatively charges “sink”
        • Why doesn’t action potential go BOTH ways in the axon??
      Fig. 48-10 & 11.12
    • Fig. 11.14
      • 14. Factors influencing conduction velocity
        • Size of axon - larger diameter means faster conducting velocity
        • Temperature - higher temperature means faster conduction velocity
          • Cold block on axon stops conduction
        • Myelin sheath faster conduction than non-myelinated axon
        • Fig. 11.16
    •  
    • III. Synaptic Transmission
      • 1. Synapse = space or gap between two neurons or a neuron and an effectors (muscle or gland)
        • Electrical synapse - smaller gap where electrical charge (action potential) of a neuron jumps the gap to stimulate second neuron (electric eel)
        • Chemical synapse - larger space or gap where a chemical diffuses across synapse
        • Large number of synapses on a neuron’s cell body and dendrites
    • Fig. 48-13
    •  
    • Fig. 11.16
      • 2. Anatomy of a synapse
        • Pre-synaptic unit - end terminals of axon that comes before the synapse, has action potential invading the end terminal where synaptic vesicles are located
        • Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters which will be released into the (chemical) synapse
        • Post-synaptic unit - dendrites or the cell body (possibly the axon) of the next neuron in the sequence, after the synapse, or could be an effectors
    • Signal travels from pre-synaptic, across synapse, to post-synaptic unit
      • 3. Neurotransmitter chemicals
        • a) Synaptic vesicle of the pre-synaptic side are membrane bound vesicles that contain specific chemicals = neurotransmitters
        • b) There are dozens of different types of neurotransmitters
        • c) Norepinephrine (norepi/NE)
          • Found in the CNS and the Autonomic NS
          • Stimulates different parts of the CNS
          • Can stimulate OR inhibit the ANS (see VI)
          • Often similar action to Epinephrine
      • 3. Neurotransmitters (continued)
        • d) Acetylcholine (Ach)
          • Found in the CNS and the Peripheral NS
          • Stimulates in the Somatic NS - skeletal muscles
          • Can stimulate OR inhibit the ANS (see VI) - involuntary muscle and glands
        • e) Serotonin
          • Found only in the CNS
          • Inhibits a variety of neurons
          • Anti-depressants (Prozac) work on serotonin
        • f) GABA - inhibitory in the CNS
      • 3. Neurotransmitters (continued)
        • g) Dopamine
          • Found primarily in the CNS
          • Can stimulate or inhibit different areas
        • h) Nitric Oxide (NO)
          • Gas molecule released as a local regulator peripherally
          • NO causes smooth muscle to relax
          • Work on blood vessels, smooth muscle of penis, etc.
    • A&P - Table 11.3
      • 4. Actions at the synapse
        • a) pre-synaptic unit fires / depolarizes / is active as an electrical charge is propagated down the axon (remember Na + /K + changes of part II)
        • b) the electrical signal invades the pre-synaptic area of the terminal branch and the electrical signal dies - Why might signal die in this area?
        • c) Calcium channels open and Ca ++ enters the pre-synaptic area from the extracellular environment
        • d) Ca ++ causes the synaptic vesicles to migrate towards the pre-synaptic membrane and fuse with the membrane = exocytosis
        • e) the vesicle contents - neurotransmitter - is released into the synaptic space and starts to diffuse across to the post-synaptic side
    • Fig. 48-12 A&P Flix
    •  
      • 4. Actions at synapse (continued)
        • f) as chemical reaches post-synaptic membrane, it reacts with specific receptors on this side to trigger a response by the post-synaptic unit due to a change in post-synaptic membrane permeability
        • g) if the post-synaptic membrane is now more permeable to Na + by opening sodium channels,
          • this neuron becomes excited and depolarizes
        • h) if the post-synaptic membrane is now more permeable to K + or Cl -
          • this neuron becomes inhibited and hyperpolarizes - WHY?
        • A single post-synaptic neuron will have different types of receptors on its membrane - like a door with several locks - each receptor can be activated by a different chemical
    • Fig. 48-14 or (11-19) EPSP = excitatory postsynaptic potential (depolarizing) IPSP = inhibitory postsynaptic potential (hyperpolarizing)
    • Fig. 11-6
      • 5. Summary
        • a) Excitation or Depolarization
          • due to increase in positive charges intracellular which brings membrane potential towards threshold which allows sodium gates to open and neuron fires
        • b) Inhibition or Hyperpolarization
          • Due to an increase in negative charges intracellular or positive charges leaving (K + ) which brings the membrane potential away from threshold, making it HARDER to fire this neuron
        • c) How do we turn off the neurotransmitter?
      • 5d) As long as neurotransmitter is present in the synapse, it will keep reacting with post-synaptic receptors and keep the gates/channels open or closed and the reaction continues.
        • 1. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine are transported AWAY from synapse or transported back into the pre-synaptic unit to be recycles
        • 2. Acetylcholine has specific enzyme in the synapse - Acetylcholinesterase - which cleaves the Ach into Acetyl plus Choline to be recycled
      • 6. Summation and Integration
        • Number of excitatory vs. inhibitory synaptic inputs determine post-synaptic response
        • Time course of inputs
        • Examples
          • Car - brake and gas pedal
          • Preying Mantis
      • 7. Effect of Drugs on Synaptic Activity
        • a) Insecticide or nerve gas
          • What is behavior of animal exposed to this poison?
          • Block the action the enzyme which destroys Ach
          • Acetylcholinesterase = rigidity of muscles
        • b) Curare
          • Derived from plants
          • Blocks receptors on skeletal muscle
          • Prevents Ach from working - muscle flaccid/relaxed
        • c) Stimulants / Amphetamines
          • Mimic action of Norepi in brain
          • Stimulate release of Norepi in brain
          • Dependency
          • What over counter pill a stimulant, but not used to keep you awake?
      • 7. Drugs (continued)
        • d) Depressants / Anesthetics
          • Inhibit many centers in the brain
          • Base of brain and higher up
          • Overdose = depresses respiratory centers
          • Alcohol?
        • e) LSD / Hallucinogenic Drugs
          • Normally - there is inhibition between the different sensory inputs
          • Smell goes to one place, sight another region
          • These drugs cause overspill of one input to different areas of the brain, so you see a sound, taste a light
          • Yellow Submarine experiment
    •  
    • IV. Spinal cord A. Definitions
      • 1. Grey Matter - collection of neuron cell bodies and dendrites within the CNS
      • 2. White Matter - collection of myleinated axons within the CNS
      • 3. Nucleus - a cluster or collection of related neurons within the CNS
      • 4. Ganglion - a collection of related neuron cell bodies outside the CNS, in the periphery
      • 5. Interneuron or Association neuron - connecting neuron within the CNS
    • Fig. 12.31/33
      • 6. Ascending tracts - related sensory axons within the white matter of the CNS
      • 7. Descending tracts - related motor axons within the white matter of the CNS
      • 8. Meninges - three membranes that cover the entire CNS (brain and spinal cord)
        • Dura Mata - tough , fibrous outer membrane that protects
        • Arachnoid membrane - middle layer that supports the blood vessels in a sub-arachnoid space (web like appearance)
        • Pia Mata - inner most membrane, (gentle) tissue paper thin but helps shape CNS, which normally has a jell-like consistency
    • Fig. 12.24
      • 9. Cerebral Spinal Fluid - CSF
        • a) Formed in ventricles of brain as a filtrate of blood, CSF circulates through ventricles and central canal
          • Stabilize extracellular environment
          • Tight junctions between capillary cells plus glial cells
          • Selective, not absolute permeability - varies in different parts of the brain (hypothalamus, vomit center)
        • b) Ventricles - fluid-filled spaces of brain (large lateral, 3rd, 4th ventricles)
        • c) CSF carries nutrients, hormones, white blood cells and acts as shock absorber
        • d) After circulating in the CNS, CSF returns to veins on the surface of the brain, carrying wastes
    • Fig. 12.26
    • Fig. 12.26b
      • 9. CSF (continued)
        • e) Meningitis - inflammation of the meninges, bacterial or viral, can spread to the nervous tissue of the CNS
        • f) Encephalitis - brain inflammation
        • g) Hydrocephalus - water on the brain - CSF forms normally, but there is an obstruction to flow and it accumulates in ventricles
          • New born - enlarged head since skull bones not fused
          • Adult - compresses blood vessels and crushes soft nervous tissue
          • Remove obstruction or insert shunt to drain CSF
      • 10. Spinal Puncture
        • Removal of CSF below L 1 where spinal cord has ended
        • Nerves exiting at this point drift away from needle
        • Fluid removed from subarachnoid space and analyzed
        • Look for infection, excessive white blood cells, proteins, removal of hydrostatic pressure on the CNS
    • IV. B. Spinal cord anatomy
      • 1. Spinal cord runs from base of brain to L 1 segment with enlargements in cervical and lumbar areas for serving arms and legs and 31 pairs of mixed spinal nerves
      • 2. Dermatome - area of skin that has sensory innervations from a specific spinal nerve, there is some overlap
      • 3. Spinal cord cross-section: Identify
        • Deeper anterior/ventral median fissure
        • Shallow posterior/dorsal median sulcus
        • Central canal in middle of grey matter
        • Surrounding white matter
        • Dorsal and ventral horns connecting to a spinal nerve
    • Fig. 48-16
    • Fig. 13.12
    • IV. B. Spinal Cord anatomy (continued)
      • 4. Trace the following pathway: (use diagram in notes)
        • Sensory receptor or dendrites (stimulus)
        • Myelinated dendrite passes through spinal nerve
        • Travels up dorsal root
        • Dendrite finds its own sensory cell body in dorsal root ganglion
        • Central process/axon exits ganglion and travels in dorsal root to spinal cord
        • Enters dorsal horn proper of grey matter and synapses with an interneuron
        • Interneuron sends branch to brain AND branch to ventral area of grey matter and
        • Synapses with motor cell body in ventral horn
        • Motor axon exits spinal cord via ventral root and enters same spinal nerve (mixed)
        • Motor axon innervates an effector and a response occurs
      • 5. There are synapses -
        • One between incoming sensory axon and dendrite/cell body of interneuron
        • Second between the terminal branch of the interneuron and the dendrite/cell body of the motor neuron
        • Third between the motor terminal branch and the effector (neuromuscular junction)
        • Why is there not a synapse in the dorsal root ganglion?
      • 6. Injections:
        • Epidural - outside the dura mater and outside the spinal cord (more sensory in effect)
        • Subdural - into the CSF area of the middle arachnoid membrane and penetrates the spinal cord (both sensory and motor in its effects)
    • IV. C. Spinal Cord Reflexes
      • 1. Reflex - innate, automatic response to a given stimulus
      • 2. Reflex arc - functional unit of the stimulus-response mechanism, highly specific neural pathway involving above (B.4.)
      • 3. Two types of reflexes
        • Inborn / inherited
        • Learned / acquired / conditioned
    •  
    • Fig. 48-3& A&P Flix
    • Fig.13.18
      • 4. Inborn or inherited or 2 neuron reflex
        • Pupillary eye reflex to light, heart rate
        • Patellar knee reflex, respiration
        • 2 neuron reflex - sensory synapses directly with motor output, monosynaptic
        • No interneuron - no involvement of brain
        • No conscious control over response
      • 5. Learned or conditioned or polysynaptic or 3 neuron reflex
        • Finger on hot stove
        • 3 neurons - sensory, interneuron, motor, multisynaptic
        • Interneuron involves the brain which adds a conscious control over the motor response
        • Can you leave your finger on a hot stove for 30 seconds?
      • 6. Crossed Reflex
        • Interneuron crosses to opposite side of the spinal cord as well
        • Reflex excites extensor on one side and flexor on the other side
        • Think of balancing on see-saw or stepping on a sharp tack
      Fig. 13.19
    • Figs. 12.1/2 V. BRAIN
    • V. Brain
      • A. Cerebrum or Cerebral Hemispheres
        • 1. Mammals - grows over other, older parts of the brain, assumed functions or control over older portions
          • Furrows and convolutions of surface to increase surface area of gray matter
          • White matter of cortex = ascending and descending tracts plus interneurons within cortex
          • Left - Right Hemispheres connected via the Corpus Callosum - band of connecting interneuron axons
          • Ventricles and CSF
          • Function of the left brain?? Anatomical control??
          • Function of the right brain?? Anatomical control??
          • Lobes = frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
    • Fig. 12.5
    • Fig. 12.4
    • Fig. 12.10
      • Figs. 12.6
    • Fig. 48-24
    • Fig. 28-25 or 12.9
      • A. Cerebrum (continued)
        • 2. Function and locations
          • Controls learned behavior
          • Highest reflection of sensory input (parietal)
            • Vision - occipital
            • Hearing - temporal
            • Olfaction - temporal
          • Highest origin of motor output (frontal)
          • Integrative functions for both
          • Intelligence
          • Memory
          • Language and speech (frontal & temporal)
          • Emotions (see limbic system)
    • Fig. 12.8
    • Fig. 12.8
    • Fig. 28-20
    • Fig. 28-27 or 12.18
      • A. Cerebrum (continued)
        • 3. Cut corpus callosum = split brain
        • 4. Limbic System
          • Emotion due to interactions with sensory input and association centers
          • Memory - Hippocampus
          • Frontal lobotomy
        • 5. Basal Ganglia
          • Conscious and unconscious movements
          • Movement sequencing
          • Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases
          • Dopamine involvement ( Awakenings )
    • Fig. 12.11b Basal Ganglia
    • Fig. 12.17
      • B. Cerebellum
        • 1. Under cortex, above medulla
        • 2. Convoluted surface with internal axons
        • 3. Communicates with many other areas (F 4 .)
          • Sensory and motor areas
        • 4. Monitors and corrects motor activities
          • Posture
          • Muscle coordination
          • Error control compares intention with performance
    • Fig. 12.12
    • Fig. 12.13
      • C. Thalamus
        • 1. Collection of nuclei bordering the third ventricle
        • 2. Communicates with other areas (see F 4 below)
        • 3. Relay for sensory input to the cerebrum
        • 4. Conscious recognition
      • D. Hypothalamus
        • 1. Below the thalamus, above the pituitary gland
        • 2. Communicates with other areas (see F 4 below)
        • 3. Psychosomatic disorders ??
          • Endocrine functions - produces different hormones that control the pituitary and other body organs and functions
        • 4. Nuclei controlling Autonomic Functions
          • Food intake Fluid balance
          • Temperature regulation Sex Drive
          • Pleasure - Pain
      • E. Pons
        • 1. Posterior to the hypothalamus, part of the Brain Stem
        • 2. Communicates with other areas (F.)
        • 3. Influences other breathing centers of brain
      • F. Medulla (oblongata)
        • 1. Part of the Brain Stem, connects the brain to the spinal cord
        • 2. Conduction pathway for incoming sensory axons and outgoing motor axons
        • 3. Nuclei that control Vital Reflexes
          • Cardiac Respiratory centers
          • Swallow Cough Vomit centers
        • 4. Origin of the Reticular formation
    • Fig. 12.16a/b
    • Fig. 12.16c
    • Fig. 28-21 or 12.19
    • F. Medulla 4. Reticular formation (continued)
        • Ability to facilitate or inhibit incoming sensory and outgoing motor activities
          • Aids in ignoring certain stimuli as brain processes other inputs
        • Responsible for normal arousal of the higher centers of brain
        • Patient in coma
        • Muscle jerk as one falls asleep
          • Response???
      • G. EEG or Brain Waves
        • External detection of depolarizations and hyperpolarizations over brain
        • Alpha = quiet rest Beta = active
        • Theta = stress Delta = sleep
    • Fig. 48-22 Fig. 12.20
    • Fig. 13.5
      • H. Cranial Nerves
        • 1. 12 pairs exiting/entering from the brainstem
        • 2. Olfactory (#1) - sensory
        • 3. Optic (#2) - sensory to optic chiasm
        • 4. Trigeminal (#5) - mixed - chewing and facial sensations
        • 5. Vagus (#10) - mixed from.to all over body including cardiac, visceral and skeletal
      • I. Neural Disorders
        • 1. Polio - viral degeneration of ventral horn motor cell bodies of spinal cord
        • 2. Cerebral palsy - voluntary muscles are poorly controlled due to brain damage during fetal development or birth (oxygen deprivation)
      • I. Disorders (continued)
        • 3. Parkinson’s Disease - degeneration of dopamine producing cells of the substantia nigra, which target Basal Ganglia cells of the inner cerebrum
          • Tremors
          • Slow in initiating and executing voluntary motion
          • L-dopa compounds, fetal tissue, genetically engineered adult cells
        • 4. Multiple Sclerosis - autoimmune loss of myelin from motor and sensory neurons causes short-circuiting of signals
          • Since axon healthy, variable remissions occur
      • 5. Alzheimer’s Disease - progressive degeneration of the brain resulting in dementia (genetic factors)
        • Ach problems
        • Structural changes in cerebrum and hippocampus
        • Protein bound to beta amyloid protein plus neurofibrillar tangles in cell body
      • 6. Stroke or CVA - blockage of blood circulation to brain and brain tissue dies
        • Caused by clot, compression by hemorrhaging or edema
        • Atherosclerosis - narrowing of blood vessel by deposits
    • VI. Autonomic Nervous System
      • 1. Peripheral Nervous system
        • Somatic NS -
        • Autonomic NS - involuntary motor system that connects to cardiac and smooth muscles and glands
      • 2. Two divisions of the ANS
        • Parasympathetic NS
        • Sympathetic NS
      • 3. Dual Innervations - both parasympathetic and sympathetic systems connect to the same effectors
        • Heart Intestine Salivary glands etc.
        • Why have two systems to same organs?
    • Fig. 14.2
    • Fig. 14.3
      • 4. Antagonist Functions of the 2 ANS divisions
        • One system excites and the other system inhibits
      • Organ Parasympathetic Sympathetic
      • Heart
      • Smooth
      • muscle
      • Of
      • Digestive
      • System
    • Organ Parasympathetic Sympathetic Inhibits Heart Rate & Strength of beat Heart (cardiac muscle) Increases HR & Strength of beat Stimulates Peristalsis - smooth rhythmic contraction of gut Smooth Muscle of Digestive System Inhibits Peristalsis
      • 5. Properties of Parasympathetic NS
        • a) 80% of all parasympathetic activity from brain is associated with the Vagus Nerve (10th cranial nerve), all parasympathetic nerves originate from the top or bottom of the spinal cord
        • b) main neurotransmitter released is Acetylcholine
        • c) main functions: conserve or restore energy levels in the body
          • Appetite related
          • Digestion
          • excretion
    • Figs. 14.4/6
      • 6. Properties of Sympathetic NS
        • a) no one single nerve, but nerves originate from the middle of the spinal cord
        • b) main neurotransmitter released is Norepinephrine plus these nerves also release hormones of the adrenal gland to prolong the actions of the sympathetics
        • c) main function: utilize energy
          • Fight or Flight Syndrome
          • Stress Related - opposite of homeostasis
        • d) too much stress causes imbalance between these two systems resulting in changes in blood pressure, ulcers, heart arrhythmias, etc.
        • e) reduce stress in your life - don’t let Biology get to you!
    • Fig. 14.9 Levels of ANS Control
    • THANKS FOR A GREAT SEMESTER