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3.a&p i dna.2010

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  • 1. A&P I - DNA, RNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • 2. Readings for DNA and Protein Synthesis
    • Chap. 3: pages 93; 96; 100-107
    • Skim text - concentrate on lecture notes
  • 3.
    • Importance and structure of DNA: Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
    • A. Historical Review
      • 1. 1900s - Morgan’s studies with fruit flies showed that genes were located on chromosomes, and chromosomes consisted of protein and DNA
      • 2. 1952 - Hershey-Chase demonstrated that DNA (not protein) was the genetic material of a viral phage
  • 4. B. Structure of DNA
    • 1. Nucleotide monomers:
      • Phosphate
      • Pentose sugar(C 5 ) (Deoxyribose sugar)
      • Organic Nitrogen group: cytosine, adenine, guanine, thymine
  • 5. B. Structure of DNA (continued)
    • 2. Polynucleotide chain with linkage via phosphates to next sugar, with nitrogen base away from backbone of Phos-Sugar-Phos-Sugar
    • 3. Dehydration synthesis
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • 4. 1954 - classical one page paper in Nature by Watson & Crick using Franklin’s and Wilkins’ data
    • A double helix - 2 polynucleotide strands
    • Sugar-phosphate chains of each strand are like the side ropes of a rope ladder
    • Pairs of nitrogen bases, one from each strand, form the rungs or steps
    • The ladder forms a twist every 10 bases (all from x-ray studies!)
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • 5. Later confirmation that:
    • # of adenine equal to # of thymine
    • # of guanine equal to # of cytosine
    • This dictates combinations of N-bases that form steps/rungs
    • Does not restrict the sequence of bases along each DNA strand
  • 10. Fig. 3.32
  • 11. C. Replication / Duplication of DNA
    • 1. Due to complimentary base pairing – one strand of DNA polynucleotide determines the sequence of the other polynucleotide strand
    • 2. Therefore, each strand of double stranded DNA acts as a template
    • 3. The double helix first unwinds – controlled by enzymes and uses new nucleotides that are free in the nucleus to copy a complimentary strand off the original DNA strand
  • 12. Models of DNA Replication
    • View A&P Animation - Structure & Replication
    • View 16-07 L4 from BIO text
    • View animation 16-10 (3 and 2)
    • View 16-11
  • 13. 4. Information storage in DNA
    • The 4 nitrogen bases are the “alphabet” or code for all the traits an organism possesses
    • Different genes or traits vary in the sequence and length of the bases
    • ATTTCGGAC vs..... ATTTAC
    • Every three bases = one amino acid in a protein/peptide
  • 14. II. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    • A. Structure of RNA
      • 1. Nucleotide monomer
        • Phosphate
        • Pentose sugar = ribose (extra oxygen)
        • Nitrogen base = A / G / C plus U = uracil instead of thymine
        • Single stranded - possibly
        • 3 types (messenger/transfer/ribosomal RNA)
  • 15. B. Synthesis of RNA - Transcription
    • 1. DNA acts as template, but only one strand of DNA utilized at a given time
    • 2. This exposed strand is controlled by specific enzymes that pair the DNA nucleotides with free RNA nucleotides, which are also present in the nucleus
    • 3. These RNA nucleotides form a single stranded RNA nucleic acid
    • 4. DNA = ATTCGCAT
    • 5. RNA = UAAGCGUA
    • 6. Short segments of DNA transcribed at a time, with start and stop messages
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • View 17-02
    • View 17-06 movie
    • View 17-06 photos
  • 18. C. Three types of RNA
    • 1. m-RNA: messenger RNA
      • Transcribed from a specific segment of DNA which represents a specific gene or genetic unit
    • 2. t-RNA: transfer RNA
      • Transcribed from different segments of DNA and their function is to find a specific amino acid in cytoplasm and bring it to the mRNA
    • 3. r-RNA: ribosomal RNA
      • Transcribed at the nucleolus -with proteins function as the site of protein synthesis ( in cytoplasm)
  • 19. Three types of RNA
  • 20. III. Protein synthesis = Translation
    • A. Ribosomes = sites of protein synthsis
      • 1. 30 to 40% protein
      • 2. 60 to 70% RNA (rRNA)
      • 3. Assembled in nucleus and exported via nuclear pores
      • 4. Antibiotics can paralyze bacterial ribosomes, but not eukaryotic ribosomes
      • 5. 2 ribosomal subunits - a large and a small
      • 6. There are three sites on the ribosome that are involved in protein synthesis
  • 21. A. Ribosomes (continued) - bring mRNA together with amino acid bearing tRNAs
    • 8. Three ribosomal sites
      • P site - (peptidyl-tRNA) holds the tRNA carrying the growing peptide chain, after several amino acids have been added
      • A site - (aminoaccyl-tRNA) holds the next single amino acid to be added to the chain
      • E site - (exit site) site where discharged tRNA minus amino acids leave ribosome
  • 22.  
  • 23. C. Protein Synthesis
    • 1. One mRNA can bind to several ribosomes termed a polyribosome
    • 17-17 movie and stills
    • 17-18
    • 17-19
    • 17-20
    • 17-21
  • 24. Fig. 3.37 modified
  • 25.  
  • 26. Fig. 3.37
  • 27. Fig. 3.38 modified
  • 28.  
  • 29.  

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