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2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
2 A&P I The Cell 10
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2 A&P I The Cell 10

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Power Point II for Dr. Krasilovsky's Bio 110

Power Point II for Dr. Krasilovsky's Bio 110

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  • 1. BIO 110 UNIT II - THE CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Chap. 3 pp. 61 - 95
  • 2. I. Cell Theory A. History
    • 1. Robert Hooke - 1668
      • British scientist - microscope exhibit
      • Thin slice of cork - outer bark of tree
      • Coined the term “cell”
  • 3. 2. Different scientists examined many different plants and animals for the next 200 years - always found CELLS
    • B. Cell Theory - 1850s
      • Theory - based upon fact and many observations
    • 1. The cell is the basic unit of structure of all living things
    • 2. The cell is the basic unit of function of all living things
    • 3. All cells come from other pre-existing living cells
  • 4.  
  • 5. C. Form and Function 1. Something is built in a certain way, for the job it must do
    • Muscle cells contract - contain contractile proteins
    • Bone cells support and protect - hard calcium salts
    • 1mm = 1000micrometers(um)
      • Most cells 40 to 70 um
    • Surface - volume relationship
      • Surface increases as square of radius
      • Volume increases as cube of radius
      • Volume increases faster than surface area - what do cells do???
  • 6.  
  • 7. II. Cell Membrane Structure
    • 1. Physical barrier or boundary around cell
    • 2. Not just a barrier for blockage
      • Also a gateway for passage through
    • 3a. Permeable membrane = all materials (in question) can pass through
    • 3b. Semi-permeable or selectively permeable = some materials can pass through, but others cannot pass through
    • All biological/cellular membranes are semi permeable
  • 8. 4. Interested in the chemicals that make up the cell membrane
    • Fluid Mosaic Model of the Membrane
      • 1972 - Singer and Nicolson
    • Phospholipids or fats
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Cholesterol
  • 9.  
  • 10. 5. Functions of chemicals
    • a) phospholipids & cholesterol:
      • Strengthen membrane
      • Increase permeability to other fats/oils
      • Reduce permeability to water and water soluble chemicals
    • b) proteins: increase solubility to water soluble chemicals
      • Carriers for transport - aid other chemicals
      • Membrane enzymes - control specific reactions
      • Receptors - on outer surface to allow other chemicals to react with cell
  • 11. 5. Functions of chemicals (continued)
    • c) carbohydrates:
      • Found only on outside surface of membrane
      • Found associated with lipids = glycolipids
      • Found associated with proteins = glycoproteins
      • These chemicals allow the cell to be recognized as belonging to that individual……and not as a foreign cell
      • Basis of our immune reactions
  • 12. 6. Structural arrangement of chemicals
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. Fig.3.3
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Fig. 3.4
  • 24.  
  • 25. 7. Cell membrane has channels or pores (doorway) to let other chemicals pass in or out of the cell
    • Lipid pore allows fats to easily pass through
    • Protein pores allows water soluble materials to pass in or out of the cell
    • Either pores can be open or closed
  • 26. 8. Membrane is a dynamic structure - both in its chemical make-up and its functions
    • Constantly capable of change
    • As chemical change, so does the functions of that membrane/cell
    • Pores opening or closing
    • Solubility changes
  • 27. 9. Micovilli - folds of the cell membrane to increase surface area
    • Volume of the cell does not change
    • Surface area increases
    • Pancreas cells during a fast - flat surface
    • Same cells following eating - look to left
    • Increase transport across membrane
  • 28. 9. Micovilli - folds of the cell membrane to increase surface area
    • Volume of the cell does not change
    • Surface area increases
    • Pancreas cells during a fast - flat surface
    • Same cells following eating - look to left
    • Increase transport across membrane
  • 29. III. Passive Transport - cell does not expend any energy - is energy expended at all? A. Diffusion
    • 1. Movement of materials from one area to another
    • 2. Movement - built in to all chemicals - energy of vibration ( gases in air: O 2 CO 2 H 2 O N 2 )
    • 3. Factors influencing vibration
      • Temperature
      • Collisions
      • Charge + or -
      • Gas>liquid>solid
  • 30. 4. Solute - a chemical (solid) that is mixed or dissolved in a liquid
    • Solvent - a liquid that a chemical or solute is dissolved in
    • Concentration - how much solute/solvent ratio
      • 10% salt + 90% water = 100% solution
      • 3% sugar + 97% water = 100% solution
    • 5% sucrose solution in beaker & pool
      • Which is more concentrated?
  • 31.  
  • 32. 5. Equilibrium
    • A B
    • 10% salt 20% salt
    • 90% H 2 O 80% H 2 O
    • permeable membrane
    • A B
    • 10% salt 20% salt A B
    • 90% H 2 O 80% H 2 O
    • A B
    • 15% salt 15% salt
    • 85% H 2 O 85% H 2 O EQUILIBRIUM = equal and opposite
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • B. Facilitative Diffusion 1. no expenditure of cell energy
    • 2. BY ITSELF -a chemical cannot penetrate the cell membrane
      • Amino acids - glucose
    • 3. Chemical plus protein carrier in the cell membrane - together - can move across the membrane
    • 4. Combination of carrier + chemical net diffuses from area of high to area of lower concentration
  • 35. Facilitative Diffusion
    • (a) channel (b) revolving
    • door channel
    See Fig. 3.7b-c in text
  • 36. C. Osmosis - passive transport(continued)
    • 1. Osmosis - movement of solvent (water) across a semi-permeable membrane
      • Why is it semi-permeable?
    • 2. Net Osmosis - movement of solvent across a semi-permeable membrane from area of higher solvent concentration to lower solvent concentration
  • 37. Fig. 3.8a
  • 38. Fig. 3.8b
  • 39. 3a. Another example of osmosis
    • 10% sucrose surrounded by 100% H 2 O
    • water
    • Will sucrose move through membrane?
    • Will water move through membrane?
      • Which direction or directions?
      • Net osmosis has water moving into the cell
    10% sucrose 90% water
  • 40. 3c. Another example of osmosis
    • 10% sucrose surrounded by 100% H 2 O
    • water
    • after net osmosis
    • into the cell/bag
    • before water
    7+% sucrose 93-% water 10% sucrose 90% water
  • 41. 3b. Another example of osmosis
    • 10% sucrose surrounded by 100% H 2 O
    • water
    • Water enters due to Water leaves due to
    • CONCENTRATION PRESSURE INCREASE
    • GRADIENT WITHIN BAG
    10% sucrose 90% water
  • 42. 4. Osmotic pressure
    • Measure of the tendency for water to move into a solution due to osmosis
    • Pressure that develops (or can be calculated) due to net osmosis of water across a semi-permeable membrane
    • Pressure pushes water one way EQUAL to water moving other way due to concentration gradient = Equilibrium
    • At equilibrium, pressure does not change
  • 43. NOTE - WE NAME THE SOLUTION, BUT IT IS CELL THAT CHANGES SIZE
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47. D. Passive Transport Summary
    • 1. Diffusion is a slow process
      • Narrow the space or gap for diffusion - lungs and capillaries
      • Artificially increase concentration gradient to speed up net diffusion by compartmentalizing a chemical
      • A
      • B
  • 48.
    • 2. Protista - singled celled organism in a hypotonic environment - need a contractile vacuole to remove water that net osmosed into hypertonic cell
    • 3. Plants
      • Young plants hypertonic to environment
      • Water enters
      • Pressure increases inside - turgor pressure
      • Aids in support and growth of young plant since cell wall not yet rigid
      • Problem with too much fertilizer????
  • 49.  
  • 50. IV. Active transport
    • 1. Cell expends energy
      • ATP = cellular energy
      • Cell must be alive to produce ATP
    • 2. Carrier protein in membrane requires energy to work (not like facilitative diffusion)
    • 3. Chemical movement from an area of LOW concentration to area of HIGHER concentration (push a rock uphill)
  • 51. 4. Endocytosis - change in membrane structure to bring a chemical into the cell
    • a) Phagocytosis - engulfing solid materials
    • b) Pinocytosis - engulfing fluids / water and solutes dissolved in fluid
    • 5. Exocytosis - release of wastes or secretions from the cell to the outside environment
  • 52. Fig. 3.12-13
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55. V. Internal Area of Cells
  • 56. A-B. Nucleus
    • 1. Function - controls metabolism of cell and its related activities - growth..development..reproduction
    • 2. Nuclear Membrane - semi-permeable (double) membrane that separates nucleus from rest of cell (cytoplasm)
      • Contain pores/breaks in the membrane to increase permeability
  • 57. Fig. 3.29
  • 58. 3. Nuclear Membrane basis of cell classification
    • Prokaryotic Cell - cells with NO nuclear membrane and no internal membrane structure
    • Eukaryotic Cell - cells with nuclear membrane plus complex cytoplasmic membranes
  • 59.
    • 4. Chromosomes a) consist of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) & proteins
    • b) units of genetic information or heredity -”genes”
    • c) human cell has 46 chromosomes in every cell of the body, except the sex/germ cells
    • d) all cells have the same 46 chromosomes - how do you “make” a muscle cell vs. bone cell???
      • Different piano tunes with the same 88 keys
      • Selectively turn genes on and off
  • 60. 5. Nucleolus
    • a) 1 or more “balls” of DNA within nucleus
    • b) function - synthesis of Ribosomes
    • c) ribosomes - make proteins in the cytoplasm after leaving the nucleus
  • 61.  
  • 62. C. Cytoplasm and its Organelles
    • 1. Variety of chemicals that all interact, within an area between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
      • Cytoplasm contains membrane bound organelles
    • 2. Solvent water with solutes -
      • Salts Sugars
      • Amino acids Proteins
      • Fats
      • This combination of solutes gives cytoplasm an interesting property -
  • 63.
    • 3. Cytoplasmic Streaming a) sol = liquid/fluid properties
    • b) gel = semi-solid solute held in 3-D array
    • c) cytoplasmic streaming = cyclosis
      • Amoeboid movement
      • White blood cell movement
    • d) factors influencing cyclosis
      • Temperature
      • Pressure
      • Salt concentration
  • 64.  
  • 65. 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Ribosomes
    • a) network of membranes within the cytoplasm
    • b) functions of ER:
      • System of channels for transport within the cell
        • Channels can connect the cell membrane and the nuclear region
      • Area in cell where steroids (chemicals) are produced ( smooth ER )
  • 66. c) Ribosomes
    • (1) produced in the nucleus by the nucleolus
    • (2) function in protein synthesis by attaching amino acids together to produce proteins
    • (3)found in two places
      • Free in cytoplasm = making proteins that stay in the cell
      • Ribosomes + ER = Rough ER - make proteins that leave the cell and work extracellularly
  • 67. Fig. 3.18
  • 68.  
  • 69. 5. Golgi Bodies/Apparatus
    • a) Structure - stack of flatten membranes
    • b) Function of Golgi - after leaving the ER, many transport vesicles travel to the Golgi and are modified, sorted and shipped
  • 70. Figs. 3.20
  • 71.  
  • 72. b) Function continued
    • 1) store proteins made in the ER
    • 2) Some Golgi synthesize or modify carbohydrates (previously synthesized)
    • 3) combine carbohydrates to proteins (glycoproteins) (or glycolipids)
    • 4) package glycoproteins in vesicles
    • 5) vesicle moves towards cell membrane and releases glycoprotein outside the cell (Secretion)
    • 6) vesicle can become part of the membrane
  • 73.  
  • 74.  
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77. 6. Lysosomes
    • a) vesicles that are produced by the Golgi, but remain within the cell, and contain strong digestive/hydrolytic enzymes
    • b) function:
      • Destroy bacteria that enter cell
      • Join with endocytosis vacuole that enters cell with food source - Protista - and digests food
      • Destroy worn out organelles that do not function anymore
  • 78. 6. Lysosome (continued)
    • c) problem if lysosomes become unstable and its membrane ruptures
      • Digestive enzymes released into cytoplasm
      • Start destroying cell - “suicide bags”
      • Aging has been associated with lysosomal instability
      • Degenerative diseases of muscles (MD) and nervous system
      • Attempt to treat with drugs that stabilize lysosomal membranes
  • 79.  
  • 80. Fig. 3.21
  • 81.  
  • 82. 7. Vacuole
    • a) membrane bound storage area of cytoplasm
    • Store water…food…wastes
    • Animal cells contain numerous, small vacuoles
    • Plant cells contain one centrally located vacuole
      • Turgor pressure
  • 83.  
  • 84.  
  • 85. 8. Mitochondria
    • a) “powerhouse” of the cell - production of aerobic cellular energy (ATP)
    • b) muscle cells need energy - contain many mitochondria
  • 86.
    • c) structure - double mosaic membrane with outer and inner membranes
      • Inner contains folds = Cristae to increase surface area (more chemical reactions = more ATP)
    Fig. 3.17
  • 87. d) Mitochondria contain DNA
      • Different from nuclear DNA
    • e) mitochondria from different organisms contain similar DNA
    • f) billions of years ago - mitochondria were a free living Prokaryotic bacteria that could use oxygen = Aerobic
  • 88. Mitochondria Origin- Hypothesis Endosymbiosis Aerobic Anaerobic
  • 89. 10. Microtubules and Microfilaments (Fig. 3.24)
    • a) part of cell / cytoplasm but no membrane surrounding each structure
    • b) Filaments
      • Protein in nature
      • Thick and thin
      • Function - contractile and/or shape of cell
        • Muscle protein/contractile protein
        • Movement of Golgi vesicles to outer membrane
  • 90.  
  • 91.  
  • 92.  
  • 93. c) Microtubules
    • Arrangement of several microfilaments
    • Transport of materials
    • Maintenance of cell shape
    • Component of cilia and flagella for cell motility
  • 94.  
  • 95. 11. Centrioles
    • a) animal microtubular arrangement
    • b) pair
    • c) cell division - organize formation of spindle fibers
  • 96.  
  • 97. 12. Cilia and Flagella
    • a) microtubular in structure
    • Cilia - numerous, small projections from the cell surface
      • cell movement or transports materials along the surface of cell
      • Oar like motion - power stroke plus recovery
    • Flagellum - 1 or 2 longer microtubular structures for movement of entire cell
      • Sperm or Euglena
  • 98.  
  • 99.  
  • 100.  
  • 101.  
  • 102. Cells
  • 103. 13. Summary: Form and Function something is built in a certain way, for the job it will do
    • Function Cell Structure
    • Stores fats adipose/fat
      • large vacuole
    • Contracts muscle cell
      • contractile filaments and
      • mitochondia / energy
    • Phagocytosis Bacteria
      • white blood cell
      • lysosomes
    • Release Digestive enzymes - Pancreas
      • Golgi
      • Rough ER
      • Microvilli
  • 104. THE END

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