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Carbohydrates Revised

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for use with biology and honors biology

for use with biology and honors biology

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  • 1. CARBOHYDRATES
  • 2. Characteristics of Carbohydrates
    • Consist of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
    • Energy containing molecules
    • Some provide structure
    • Basic building block is a monosaccharide (CH 2 O) n
    • Two monosaccharides form a disaccharide
    • More than two sugars connected together produces polysaccharides
  • 3. Sources of Carbohydrates
    • Sugars are simple carbohydrates that can be easily digested by your body and include foods like cake, soda, candy, jellies and fruits.
    • Starches are complex carbohydrates that take longer to be digested and include foods such as breads, grains, pasta, tortillas, noodles, fruits and vegetables.
  • 4. Tips for eating the right “Carbs”
    • If you eat white bread, switch to bread made with stone ground whole-wheat flour. You can use it for sandwiches or French toast or you can grind it into breadcrumbs.
    • If you like to snack on crackers that are high in fat and sodium, switch to whole-wheat crackers. For example, Triscuits are made with whole wheat, and come in reduced-fat and low-sodium varieties.
    • Drinking milk is a great way to load up on quality carbs, but whole milk has a high fat content. Choose 1%, skim or skim milk fortified with calcium instead. Begin weaning yourself off whole milk by using skim for cooking and baking first before using it on cereal.
    • Learn how to use sugar and oil replacements in your cooking. Instead of oil, use applesauce or pureed prunes in muffins and cakes. Instead of sugar, Splenda and other sweet-tasting replacements, can be used to prepare your food and drinks.
  • 5. Dehydration Synthesis of a Disaccharide
  • 6. Formation of Disaccharides
  • 7. Hydrolysis of a Disaccharide
  • 8. Important Polysaccharides: Starch
    • Consists of glucose subunits
    • Plant energy storage molecule
    • Glycogen is a very similar molecule in animals.
    • Starch and glycogen can be digested by animals.
  • 9. Important Polysaccharides: Cellulose
    • Composed of glucose subunits
    • Different bond formed than starch
    • Structural component in plants
    • Cannot be digested by animals
  • 10. Important Polysaccharides: Chitin
    • Glucose subunits
    • Partly derived from non-sugars (nitrogen)
    • Composes exoskeletons of insects
    • Note similarity to cellulose.
  • 11. November 2, 2006
    • Get two documents from counter.
    • Take out homework (carb lab questions)
    • WARM UP:
      • A. What are good sources of carbs?
      • B. What are carbs used for?
      • C. What happens if you get too many carbs?

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