The Future of Cataloging and Catalogers
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The Future of Cataloging and Catalogers Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Part 1: Whither Cataloging?
    • Libraries are no longer the first place people come for information
      • The Internet has changed the way people (including us) behave when seeking information
      • Our former “granularity consensus” is coming apart
    • To compete effectively for user attention, we must:
      • Join the larger world of information, where our users are
      • Learn how the competition attracts users, draws them in, and takes good advantage of their interest in participating
      • Find a better balance between protecting privacy and capturing usage behavior
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 3. And Why Must We Do This?
      • The comfortable certainties we know are coming undone, whether we’re ready or not
    • We have much experience and insight to offer the larger information world (but not everything we’ve learned is relevant)
    • We are collectively about the size of the Queen Mary, unable to turn on a dime—this change will take time
    • Resistance is futile—we are not in charge of this new world, and our options are two: adapt or retire
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 4. The Map of Change Charting Our Course 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 5. What We Must Leave Behind
    • A view of metadata based on catalog cards
    • Library software that can’t sort search results better than “random” or “alphabetic”
    • Search interfaces even Librarians hate (and we know the data)
    • Clunky static HTML pages that don’t attract our user’s interest, or guide them well
    • One silo for books, others for journal articles, images, digitized books, etc. (explain that to a user!)
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 6. Starting to Move Forward
    • A Starting Point: The Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control (Library of Congress)
      • “On the Record”—final report, January 2008 http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/
      • A good, comprehensive overview of our new world and what we need to do
      • Recommendations for LC, OCLC, ALA, library educators and all of us
      • Extensively discussed at the Library of Congress and within the profession at large
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 7. “The Web is our platform”
    • 1.2.4.2 All: Explore tools and techniques for sharing bibliographic data at the network level using both centralized and non-centralized techniques (e.g., OAI-PMH).
    • 3.1.2.1 All: Express library standards in machine-readable and machine-actionable formats, in particular those developed for use on the Web.
    • 3.1.2.2 All: Provide access to standards through registries or Web sites so that the standards can be used by any and all Web applications.
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 8. A New Look at Library Systems
    • 4.1.1.1 All: Encourage and support development of systems capable of relating evaluative data, such as reviews and ratings, to bibliographic records.
    • 4.1.1.2 All: Encourage the enhancement of library systems to provide the capability to link to appropriate user-added data available via the Internet (e.g., Amazon.com, LibraryThing, Wikipedia). At the same time, explore opportunities for developing mutually beneficial partnerships with commercial entities that would stand to benefit from these arrangements.
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 9. Enriching Library Data
    • 4.1.2.1 All: Develop library systems that can accept user input and other non-library data without interfering with the integrity of library-created data.
    • 4.1.2.2 All: Investigate methods of categorizing creators of added data in order to enable informed use of user-contributed data without violating the privacy obligations of libraries.
    • 4.1.2.3 All: Develop methods to guide user tagging through techniques that suggest entry vocabulary (e.g., term completion, tag clouds).
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 10. Exploring Our New World Avoiding the Traps of Wrongovia 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 11. Taking a Look Around
    • What’s this Semantic Web thingy all about, and why do we care?
    • Is RDA really going to happen?
      • Is it that different from AACR2?
      • Why can’t we use RDA with MARC?
    • How will RDA implementation affect cataloging?
    • How can we best prepare for all this?
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 12. Acronymia, We Are Here
    • RDA: Resource Description and Access
    • FRBR: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
      • FRBRoo: Object Oriented FRBR (harmonized with CIDOC CRM)
    • FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data
    • FRASAR: Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 13. Standards Upgrade! 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar Type of Standard Old Standard New Standard(s)? Bibliographic Model None FRBR, FRBRoo Metadata Content AACR2 RDA Metadata Structure MARC21 Bibliographic RDAVocab Name Authority MARC21 Authority FRAD Subject Authority MARC21 Authority FRASAR, SKOS Encoding MARC21 XML, XML/RDF
  • 14. The RDA You’ve Heard About …
    • 4 th quarter calendar 2008 – Full draft of RDA available for constituency review (ending in early February 2009)
      • http://www.collectionscanada.ca/jsc/rdafulldraft.html
    • 2 nd quarter calendar 2009 – RDA content is finalized
    • 3 rd quarter calendar 2009 – RDA is released
    • 3 rd and 4 th quarters calendar 2009, possibly into 1 st quarter calendar 2010 – Testing by national libraries
    • 1 st and 2 nd quarters calendar 2010 – Analysis and evaluation of testing by national libraries
    • 3 rd -4 th quarters calendar 2010 – RDA implementation ?
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 15. What You Might Not Have Heard
    • JSC has gradually backed away from their original stance that RDA could be expressed easily in MARC21
      • Full integration of FRBR entities into RDA has made that problematic
    • RDA has been developed explicitly to take advantage of the Semantic Web (although there are still residues of past practice)
    • Well supported rumors indicate that LC is considering discontinuing update of MARC21 sometime in 2010
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 16. Under the RDA Hood
    • A FRBR-based approach to structuring bibliographic data
    • More explicitly machine-friendly linkages (preferably with URIs)
    • More emphasis on relationships and roles
    • Less reliance on cataloger-created notes and text strings (particularly for identification)
    • Less reliance on transcription
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 17. JSC Scenarios
    • Scenario 1: separate records for all FRBR entities with linked identifiers
    • Scenario 2: composite bibliographic records (with authority records representing each entity)
    • Scenario 3: one flat record, with all Group 1 entities on a single record
      • This is the only scenario that MARC can handle
      • Not really a viable option, and as far as I know, no one is explicitly planning for it
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 18. The Rest of the Story
    • RDA elements, roles and vocabularies have been provisionally registered
      • The vocabularies and the text will be tied together in the RDA online tool
    • Some efforts have begun to consider how MARC21 data can be parsed into FRBR entities and RDA
      • eXtensible Catalog Project moving strongly in this direction
      • Unfortunately, we don’t know what OCLC is planning
    • Discussions about long term maintenance of both RDA and the vocabularies have yet to occur
    • The push is already on for a multi-language RDA Vocabulary
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 19. RDA & FRBR: Registered!
    • RDA Elements:
      • http://metadataregistry.org/schema/show/id/1.html
    • RDA Roles:
      • http://metadataregistry.org/schema/show/id/4.html
    • RDA Vocabulary: Base Material
      • http://metadataregistry.org/vocabulary/show/id/35.html
    • FRBR Relationships (Sandbox version)
      • http://sandbox.metadataregistry.org/vocabulary/show/id/90.html
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 20. Who’s Doing This?
    • DCMI/RDA Task Group
      • See: http://dublincore.org/dcmirdataskgroup/
      • Set up during the London meeting between JSC and DCMI
      • Gordon Dunsire and Diane Hillmann, co-chairs
      • Karen Coyle & Alistair Miles, consultants
    • IFLA Classification and Indexing Section
      • Gordon Dunsire, Centre for Digital Library Research, University of Strathclyde, will be registering FRBR entities and relationships
      • Possible inclusion of ISBDs, FRAD, etc., in future
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 21. How Soon Will All This Happen?
    • The bad news: This isn’t like 1981, when there was a “start date” and we knew exactly when to change gears
    • More bad news: This transition is likely to be a pretty messy one, and last longer than we would like
    • One unknown is OCLC’s role—at present they seem to be focused on consolidating control over library data and promoting WorldCat
    • The good news: library vendors are starting to wake up and smell the coffee!
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 22. What Are the Challenges?
    • Coordination with JSC (or it’s successor, given the need to move beyond “Anglo-American”) on long-term maintenance planning
      • Need for lightweight process, where change is not a multi-year marathon
    • Continuing development towards a more Semantic web-friendly RDA (less reliance on transcription, for instance)
    • Tool development (at all levels, including ILS vendors)
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 23. Yet More Challenges
    • Application profiles that express more than one notion of “Work” and more than one point of view
      • JSC still seeing the process through the lens of a text cataloger
      • Their “core elements” only make sense for traditional books, serials, and other text-based objects
    • Moving the MARC legacy data into RDA
      • OCLC’s silence is worrisome, makes planning difficult
    • Multi-lingual and specialized extensions
      • Non-Anglo-American communities eager to participate
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 24. Multi-lingual RDA
    • The DCMI Registry approach:
      • Translations of labels, definitions and comments
      • URIs stay the same, as do relationships
      • Responsibility for updating translations rests with translation “owner”
    • Disadvantages
      • Translations tend to become outdated over time without sophisticated notification services to flag new areas needing attention
      • Communication with translation “owners” is managed loosely by a committee—support needs still unknown
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 25. Part 2: Whither Catalogers What Happens When The Revolution Comes? 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 26. Focus on Catalogers
    • What do we anticipate will be different about our changed working environment?
    • How will workflow change?
    • How will the data look?
    • What will the library vendor systems do with it?
    • How will we integrate user data? What kinds of user data?
    • What do we need to know to operate in this new environment?
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 27. Approaching Change
    • Catalogers will need to separate what they know about information based on their current systems
      • Much of the knowledge is portable, but needs updating
      • The new environment is not as well organized (yet), so much learning will need to be self-directed
    • Catalogers’ role may become closer to that of Metadata Librarian
      • Managing data at a more abstract level (not yet a stable structure to fit data into)
      • Understanding of the goals of changes anticipated and new requirements will be essential
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 28. Walking through a concrete example … From the Cataloger Scenarios 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 29. A Cataloger Scenario Jane Cataloger is assigned to work on a gift collection. Her first selection is a Latvian translation of Kurt Vonnegut's "Bluebeard: a novel." She searches the library database for the original work, and finds: * Author : Kurt Vonnegut * Title of the Work : Bluebeard: a novel * Form of Work : Novel * Original Language : English 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 30. with links to the following expression information : * Language of Expression : English * Content Type : Text and one manifestation : * Edition : 1st trade edition * Place of Production : New York * Publisher’s Name : Delacorte Press * Date of Production : 1987 * Number of Units : 300 pages * Resource Identifier : [ISBN]0385295901 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 31. Jane begins her description by linking to the existing Work entity. She then creates an expression description: * Language of Expression : Latvian * Translator : Arvida Grigulis She creates an authority record for the translator since none yet existed. She continues by creating a fuller description for the new manifestation, linking to the authority record for the Latvian publisher (what luck, it already existed!). * Title : [in Latvian] * Place of Production : Riga * Publisher’s Name : Liesma * Date of Production : 1997 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 32. A Cataloger Scenario: Updating Jane Cataloger is assigned to work on a gift collection. Her first selection is a Latvian translation of Kurt Vonnegut's "Bluebeard: a novel." She searches the library database for the original work, and finds: * Author : Kurt Vonnegut * Title of the Work : Bluebeard: a novel * Form of Work : Novel * Original Language : English 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 33. A Cataloger Scenario: Updated Jane Cataloger is assigned to work on a gift collection. Her first selection is a Latvian translation of Kurt Vonnegut's "Bluebeard: a novel." She searches the library database for the original work, and finds: * Author : http://lcnaf.info/79062641 * Title of the Work : Bluebeard: a novel * Form of Work : http://RDVocab.info/genre/1008 * Original Language : http://marclang.info/eng 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 34. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar with links to the following expression information : * Language of Expression : English * Content Type : Text and one manifestation : * Edition : 1st trade edition * Place of Production : New York * Publisher’s Name : Delacorte Press * Date of Production : 1987 * Number of Units : 300 pages * Resource Identifier : [ISBN]0385295901
  • 35. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar with links to the following expression information : * Language of Expression : http://marclang.info/eng * Content Type : http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text and one manifestation : * Edition : 1st trade edition * Place of Production : http://www.getty.edu/tgn/7007567 * Publisher’s Name : http://onixpub.info/2039987 * Date of Production : 1987 * Number of Units : 300 pages * Resource Identifier : urn:ISBN:0385295901
  • 36. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar Jane begins her description by linking to the existing Work entity. She then creates an expression description: * Language of Expression : Latvian * Translator : Arvida Grigulis She creates an authority record for the translator since none yet existed. She continues by creating a fuller description for the new manifestation, linking to the authority record for the Latvian publisher (what luck, it already existed!). * Title : [in Latvian] * Place of Production : Riga * Publisher’s Name : Liesma * Date of Production : 1997
  • 37. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar Jane begins her description by linking to the existing Work entity. She then creates an expression description: * Language of Expression : http://marclang.info/lat * Translator : http://lcnaf.info/88007685 She creates an authority record for the translator since none yet existed. She continues by creating a fuller description for the new manifestation, linking to the authority record for the Latvian publisher (what luck, it already existed!). * Title : [in Latvian] * Place of Production : http://www.getty.edu/tgn/7006484 * Publisher’s Name : http://onixpub.info/6770094 * Date of Production : 1997
  • 38. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar A Dublin Core View of the World DCMI Abstract Model: http://dublincore.org/documents/abstract-model/
  • 39. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar A Dublin Core View of the World DCMI Abstract Model: http://dublincore.org/documents/abstract-model/
  • 40. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar Anatomy of a Statement Place of Production : New York Property Value Value String
  • 41. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar Anatomy of a Statement Place of Production : http://www.getty.edu/tgn/7007567 Property Value Related Description
  • 42. A Related Description 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 43. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar Description Sets a Key Concept!
  • 44. Description Set= “A set of one or more descriptions , each of which describes a single resource .”* *DCAM Definition 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 45. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar A Description Set “Package” Work Manifestation Expression
  • 46. New Tools, New Knowledge Getting There From Here 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 47. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 48. What’s This Semantic Web?
    • RDF: Resource Description Framework
      • Statements about Web resources in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions, called triples
      • E.g. “This presentation” –“has creator” –“Diane Hillmann”
    • RDF Schema
      • Vocabulary description language of RDF
    • SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation System
      • Expresses the basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri and other types of controlled vocabularies
      • An RDF application
    • OWL (Web Ontology Language)
      • Explicitly represents the meaning of terms in vocabularies and the relationships between them
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 49. Semantic Web Building Blocks
    • Each component of an RDF statement (triple) is a “resource”
    • RDF is about making machine-processable statements, requiring
      • A machine-processable language for representing RDF statements
        • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
      • A system of machine-processable identifiers for resources (subjects, predicates, objects)
        • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
        • For full machine-processing potential, an RDF statement is a set of three URIs
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 50. Things Requiring Identification
    • Object “This presentation”
      • e.g. its electronic location (URL)
    • Predicate “has creator”
      • e.g. http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator
    • Object “Diane Hillmann”
      • e.g. URI of entry in Library of Congress Name Authority File (real soon now?)
      • NAF: nr2001015786
    • Declaring vocabularies/values in SKOS and OWL provides URIs—essential for the Semantic Web
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 51. What Happened to XML?
    • Nothing: XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is most likely how library systems will evolve after MARC
      • It makes sense to use XML to exchange data between libraries, and some external services
      • But RDF is gaining ground, and libraries will need to be able to accommodate it, and understand it
    • An XML record is essentially an aggregation of property = value statements about the same resource
      • RDF triples can also be aggregated using XML, but this isn’t necessarily the best way to realize the potential of RDF
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 52. User Participation Bringing Users (and Usage) Into the Circle 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 53. User Data “R” Us
    • Sources of ‘active’ user data
      • Tagging, etc.
      • Review and rating systems
      • Courseware systems
    • Sources of ‘passive’ user data
      • Logs of user activity
      • Circulation or download data
    • “ Making data work harder …” –Lorcan Dempsey
      • Collaborative filtering
      • Data mining
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 54. Active User Data
    • User tagging and description
      • Ex.: The LC Flickr Project
      • Ex.: LibraryThing
    • Review and rating systems
      • Ex.: Penn Tags
      • Ex.: Amazon
    • Courseware Systems
      • Making connections so that courseware can reuse catalog information; catalogs can know what has been used in courses, when, and who assigned it
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 55. LC-Flickr Project
    • Library of Congress and Flickr--“In a very elegant way, Flickr solves the authority conundrum of exposing collections content to social process. No need to worry if some comments or tags are misleading, arbitrary or incorrect - it’s not happening on your site, but in a space where people know and expect a wide variety of contributions. On the other hand, LC selectively reaps the benefit of these contributions.”
    • ( http://hangingtogether.org/?p=401 )
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
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  • 65. Passive User Data
    • Logs of user activity
      • Usually locally maintained and analyzed
      • Services like Google Analytics can provide important aggregate information
    • Circulation or download data
      • Tricky in library settings, where user privacy an important value
      • Anonymized data can be stored and used for relevance ranking
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 66. 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 67. Hard Working Data
    • Collaborative filtering
      • Wikipedia: “ … the process of filtering for information or patterns using techniques involving collaboration among multiple agents, viewpoints, data sources, etc.”
      • Ex.: Amazon (people who bought “X” also bought “Y”)
    • Data mining
      • Wikipedia: “ … statistical and logical analysis of large sets of transaction data, looking for patterns that can aid decision making.”
      • Ex.: LibraryThing Zeitgeist
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 68. User Data Issues
    • Privacy
      • Being able to use information about a contributing user without violating personal privacy
      • Complicated by differences in generational ideas about what privacy is
    • Authority (who said?)
      • Librarians have traditionally valued “objectivity,” but there’s no evidence that users see this as a value
    • Management
      • Keeping spammers out
      • Filtering language and malicious intent
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 69. Sharing User Contributions
    • Note how LibraryThing pulls Amazon descriptions
      • Amazon has an API that allows other services to use its data
      • Positioning Amazon data in other sites drives users back to Amazon
    • As libraries move more of their unique data to the Web, they need to be aware of the marketing value of sharing data and allowing other services to combine it in new ways
    • To do this, libraries will need to be able to package the data in ways hat others can capture it
      • Ex.: XC Project is planning to share Courseware information
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 70. Preparing Ourselves Figuring Out What We Need To Know 12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 71. Learning Strategies
    • Group Learning
      • Seminars (like this one!)
      • Conference presentations
      • Local study groups
    • Self-directed learning
      • Tutorials
      • Blogs
    • Keeping up with the discussion--You need a plan!
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 72. Self-directed Learning
    • Web tutorials:
      • http://www.w3schools.com/
    • Blogs
      • Get a Bloglines account (free)
      • Start with a few, and expand:
        • Lorcan Dempsey ( http://orweblog.oclc.org/ )
        • Karen Coyle ( http://kcoyle.blogspot.com/ )
        • The FRBR Blog ( http://www.frbr.org/ )
        • Catalogablog ( http://catalogablog.blogspot.com/ )
        • Cataloging Futures ( http://www.catalogingfutures.com/ )
        • Metadata Matters ( http://managemetadata.org/blog/ )
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 73. Mailing lists
    • Evaluate your current reading habits
      • Are you spending too much time on lists that focus on MARC and AACR2 problem solving?
      • Do you hear too much whining about change?
    • Migrate to some of the lists discussing newer ideas
        • [email_address]
        • [email_address]
        • [email_address]
        • [email_address]
    • Ask questions! Network!
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar
  • 74. Thanks & Acknowledgements
    • Thanks for your attention!
    • Slides and ideas from Karen Coyle, Gordon Dunsire, and too many others to count!
    • Contact for Diane:
      • Email: [email_address]
      • Website: http://managemetadata.com/
    12/5/08 NELINET Seminar