Kitti Canepi
    Head, Info Resources Management
Southern Illinois University Carbondale
                   kcanepi@lib.si...
Canepi, Kitti.

“Fund Allocation Formula Analysis: Determining
  Elements for Best Practices in Libraries.”

Library Colle...
Limited funds to purchase library materials

    Formal or informal allocations

    Perception of fairness & rational b...
Featured in American library periodicals since

    the early 1900s
    Means to apportion materials funds equitably

  ...
Step One: Meta-analysis of published articles to
  ascertain the variables

Step Two: Establish a usable sample & elements...
Equal preference (57%)

    ◦ Enrollment (numbers of students)
    ◦ Cost (price of materials)
    Next (50%)

    ◦ Use...
Historical - past practice


    Demand - need or expected need


    Supply - what is available for how much


    Wei...
Enrollment/Number of Students
        Cost/Price of Materials
               Use/Circulation
            Number of Faculty...
f
Element                                   Type                 Mean/S.D.
Enrollment/Number of Students (F7)        Deman...
Factors related/likely found in same formula

    Pearson's R two-tailed analysis

    10 pairs of elements positively c...
Paired Elements                                    Pearson's R        F Code Pairing
1. Credit Hours + Grad vs. Undergrad ...
Student enrollment

    ◦ Readily available, university uses, funding from
      student tuition
    Cost of materials

...
Things intend to take into account but don’t

    5 variables not paired significantly with any

    other element
     ...
Credit hours             Scope of existing
                        
                             collection
    Publicat...
Fund allocation formulas measure by proxy

    what can’t measure directly
    Most frequently used factors of 28 example...
Kitti Canepi
kcanepi@lib.siu.edu
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Fund Allocation Formula Overview and Best Practices

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Fund Allocation Formula Overview and Best Practices

  1. 1. Kitti Canepi Head, Info Resources Management Southern Illinois University Carbondale kcanepi@lib.siu.edu
  2. 2. Canepi, Kitti. “Fund Allocation Formula Analysis: Determining Elements for Best Practices in Libraries.” Library Collections, Acquisitions, and Technical Services 31, no. 1 (2007): 12-24. doi:10.1016/j.lcats.2007.03.002. Also available in OpenSIUC: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/
  3. 3. Limited funds to purchase library materials  Formal or informal allocations  Perception of fairness & rational basis  Historical expenditures alone are suspect  Impact of  ◦ monographs v. serials ◦ budget cuts
  4. 4. Featured in American library periodicals since  the early 1900s Means to apportion materials funds equitably  Former academic department control  switched back to libraries since 1960’s Measure by proxy what users want  Do libraries adopt similar protocols? 
  5. 5. Step One: Meta-analysis of published articles to ascertain the variables Step Two: Establish a usable sample & elements Step Three: Determine frequency of elements & any significant correlations
  6. 6. Equal preference (57%)  ◦ Enrollment (numbers of students) ◦ Cost (price of materials) Next (50%)  ◦ Use (circulation) Next (38%)  ◦ Number of faculty Next (25% or less)  ◦ Everything else
  7. 7. Historical - past practice  Demand - need or expected need  Supply - what is available for how much  Weighted - what has more impact/value 
  8. 8. Enrollment/Number of Students Cost/Price of Materials Use/Circulation Number of Faculty Courses (Number/Nature) Grad versus Undergrad Programs Research Budget or Output Publication Output Credit Hours Scope of Existing Collection Historical Adequacy of Current Collection Citations Library or University Goals Formats Faculty Needs or Wants Interlibrary Loan Subjects Published Other Weighted Factors Honor Students Inflation Faculty Research 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
  9. 9. f Element Type Mean/S.D. Enrollment/Number of Students (F7) Demand 16 0.571 (0.503) Cost/Price of Materials (F19) Supply 16 0.571 (0.503) Use/ Circulation (F3) Demand 14 0.500 (0.314) Number of Faculty (F8) Demand 10 0.357 (0.487) Courses (Number/Nature) (F5) Demand 7 0.250 (0.440) Grad vs. Undergrad (F21) Weighted 7 0.250 (0.440) Programs (F13) Demand 6 0.214 (0.417) Research Budget or Output (F14) Demand 6 0.214 (0.417) Publication Output (F18) Supply 6 0.214 (0.417) Credit Hours (F6) Demand 4 0.142 (0.356) Scope of Existing Collection (F15) Demand 4 0.142 (0.356) Historical (F1) Historical 3 0.107 (0.314) Adequacy of Current Collection (F2) Demand 3 0.107 (0.314) Citations (F4) Demand 3 0.107 (0.314) Library or University Goals (F12) Demand 3 0.107 (0.314) Formats (F16) Supply 3 0.107 (0.314) Faculty Needs or Wants (F9) Demand 2 0.071 (0.262) Interlibrary Loan (F11) Demand 2 0.071 (0.262) Subjects Published (F20) Supply 2 0.071 (0.262) Other Weighted Factors (F23) Weighted 2 0.071 (0.262) Honor Students (F10) Demand 1 0.035 (0.188) Inflation (F17) Supply 1 0.035 (0.188) Faculty Research (F22) Weighted 1 0.035 (0.188) Elements Found in Fund Allocations by Frequency (N=28)
  10. 10. Factors related/likely found in same formula  Pearson's R two-tailed analysis  10 pairs of elements positively correlated at  0.01 significance level 7 additional pairs correlated at 0.05  significance Highly faculty- and student-centered 
  11. 11. Paired Elements Pearson's R F Code Pairing 1. Credit Hours + Grad vs. Undergrad 0.707** F6, F21 2. Inflation + Subjects Published 0.694** F17, F20 3. Faculty Needs or Wants + Scope of Existing 0.679** F9, F15 Collection 4. Number of Faculty + Grad vs. Undergrad 0.602** F8, F21 5. Formats + Inflation 0.556** F16, F17 6. Formats + Faculty Research 0.556** F16, F22 7. Credit Hours + Number of Faculty 0.548** F6, F8 8. Credit Hours + Publication Output 0.533** F6, F18 9. Number of Faculty + Programs 0.519** F8, F13 10. Scope of Existing Collection + Formats 0.518** F15, F16 11. Scope of Existing Collection + Faculty 0.471* F15, F21 Research 12. Use/Circulation + Enrollment -0.433* F3, F7 13. Historical + Enrollment -0.400* F1, F7 14. Historical + Cost -0.400* F1, F19 15. Citations + Cost -0.400* F4, F19 16. Research Budget or Output + Formats 0.382* F14, F16 17. Adequacy of Current Collection + Research -0.382* F2, F14 Budget/Output Correlations and Significance Levels ** p > .01, * p > .05
  12. 12. Student enrollment  ◦ Readily available, university uses, funding from student tuition Cost of materials  ◦ Price variance between disciplines Use statistics  ◦ Past use as predictor of future need Number of faculty  ◦ Faculty research, requests, politics
  13. 13. Things intend to take into account but don’t  5 variables not paired significantly with any  other element Courses (number/nature) ◦ Library or university goals ◦ Interlibrary loan ◦ Honor students ◦ Other weighted factors (not grad/undergrad or ◦ faculty research)
  14. 14. Credit hours Scope of existing   collection Publication output  Formats Graduate versus   undergraduate Inflation  Programs Faculty research   Faculty needs or Subjects published   wants
  15. 15. Fund allocation formulas measure by proxy  what can’t measure directly Most frequently used factors of 28 examples:  enrollment/number of students ◦ cost/price of materials ◦ use as measured by circulation ◦ number of faculty ◦ Inclusion of them is highly recommended  Create your own allocation formula that  incorporates what is most important to you
  16. 16. Kitti Canepi kcanepi@lib.siu.edu
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