Food                                                               Security in                                            ...
Contents1.0      Executive Summary ..........................................................................................
1.0     Executive Summary        This paper highlights the advocacy techniques we would like to use for our advocacy chall...
2.0     Introduction        This paper forms the final component necessary for completion of the Executive Certificate in‘...
3.0     Context and desired outcome3.1       Re-definition of the challenge          The food security concept is not only...
more than anywhere else15, yet they play a major role in agriculture and food production activities. In Malifor example, w...
acknowledged; there is information on it and in some cases, initiatives have already began to beimplemented. However, we a...
Infrastructural                                                                       Development                         ...
•   meets with Ministries of Finances and / or Development, parliamentarians, etc.        •   organizes seminars for NGOs,...
interaction between community and religious leaders, farmers associations and participation by ruralwomen.       CSOs can ...
productivity and incomes of resource poor farmers in Africa The next African Green Revolution          Forum 2012 will be ...
This will also help us in identifying potential campaign champions who will further our cause locally, in a longterm susta...
These graphics would be informative giving a sequence from a point of little or no knowledge to apoint of empowerment. We ...
For this crucial part of evaluation, we will rely on one of our members’ rigorous model. Indeed  Oxfams “Theory of change”...
TV broadcast                           (pilot-workshop)/local authorities and                                       leader...
4.Amount of funding received           communities                              created                                   ...
6.0    AnnexesInternational Land Coalition - Organization Chart                                                    17
Map of MaliProposed Republic of Azawad                              18
SWOT TableSTRENGTHS                                           WEAKNESS   • Abundance of arable land - Fertile southern    ...
Legal Framework of MaliLaw                                          Content1992 Constitution                            Ge...
Problem TreeLegal Framework.                  Climate change        Demographic pressureDifferences betweende jure and de ...
Stakeholder Mapping                  Positive                       Neutral             Negative   Corrective ActionGovern...
Advocacy Logic Model                       23
Communication Strategy                             Communication Objectives & Campaign Positioning                  Object...
Story of Hadeye, a Malian Woman          The Story:                   Hadeye has spent her life obeying her husband Yacoub...
Opinion Tracking and Media Analyses                                          Yes       No        Corrective Action needed?...
consultants               25% - Academia:               9% - Media:               14% - Others:               Corporate an...
•   Number of                 donors                        meetings(quantitati                        ve)                ...
BibliographyAfrica Human Development Report 2012. Towards a Food Secure Future, UNDP (2012).Agricultural Radio that Works,...
Putting the New Vision for Agriculture into Action: A Transformation Is Happening, World Economic Forum’sNew Vision for Ag...
Kachika Tinyade, Land grabbing in Africa, A review of the impacts and the possible policy responses (OxfamInternational, 2...
Interviews and MeetingsDate              Contact Name              Title16/03/2012 &      Manga Dembélé             Direct...
13/04/2012   Roni Amelan           UNESCO Press service editor13/04/2012   Fiona Flintan         Consultant at Internation...
Research in videosTitle                                     Author(s)                   Link                   DateAGRA in...
Research on Media Coverage of Food Insecurity issuesMedia outlet              Media type    Sentiment                     ...
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Food Security in Africa: advocacy campaign from a gender perspective. Women's access to land

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Food Security in Africa: advocacy campaign from a gender perspective. Women's access to land

  1. 1. Food Security in Africa Advocacy Case study: Women’s access to land Participants: Catherine Kamau, Ingrid Kragl Blerim Mustafa and Cécile Rivière “Imagine you are engaged to use advocacy techniques to create more momentum for initiativesto improve food security in Africa. Create a plan with a three year window to build momentum for food security initiatives in Africa. The plan should define focus, targets, strategies and tactics to achieve results.” Executive Certificate- Advocacy in International Affairs Submission date: 10.06.2012 1
  2. 2. Contents1.0 Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................................32.0 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................43.0 Context and desired outcome ..................................................................................................................5 3.1 Re-definition of the challenge ...........................................................................................................5 3.2 Gender and access to land ................................................................................................................5 3.3 Mali ...................................................................................................................................................64.0 Advocacy Logic Model .............................................................................................................................6 4.1 Actors in the Food Security issue ......................................................................................................7 4.2 Stakeholders and partners ................................................................................................................8 4.3 Target audiences ........................................................................................................................... 11 4.4 Message Framing .......................................................................................................................... 12 4.5 Communication Strategy ............................................................................................................... 12 4.6 Storytelling ..................................................................................................................................... 13 4.7 Key Performance Indicators, Monitoring and Evaluation and Activity Calendar .......................... 13 4.8 Budget............................................................................................................................................ 165.0 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 166.0 Annexes ................................................................................................................................................ 17 International Land Coalition - Organization Chart .................................................................................... 17 Map of Mali ............................................................................................................................................... 18 Proposed Republic of Azawad ................................................................................................................... 18 SWOT Table ............................................................................................................................................... 19 Legal Framework of Mali ........................................................................................................................... 20 Problem Tree.............................................................................................................................................. 21 Stakeholder Mapping ................................................................................................................................ 22 Advocacy Logic Model ............................................................................................................................... 23 Communication Strategy ........................................................................................................................... 24 Story of Hadeye, a Malian Woman............................................................................................................ 25 Opinion Tracking and Media Analyses ...................................................................................................... 26 Media Platforms ........................................................................................................................................ 26 Media Measurement ................................................................................................................................. 27 Social Media KPIs ....................................................................................................................................... 28 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 29 Interviews and Meetings ........................................................................................................................... 32 Research in videos ..................................................................................................................................... 34 Research on Media Coverage of Food Insecurity issues ............................................................................ 35 2
  3. 3. 1.0 Executive Summary This paper highlights the advocacy techniques we would like to use for our advocacy challenge. Ourchallenge focus is on “raising awareness regarding women’s access to land”. We have decided to represent the International Land Coalition, a global alliance of variousorganizations working together to promote secure and equitable access to land for both poor men andwomen through advocacy. Mali was chosen as a pilot-country, but following the Tourag rebellion and their subsequent proposalto declare the Northern part as the Republic of Azawad, our main focus area is the Southern part that is stillreferred to as Mali. We have used the advocacy logic model, where we have highlighted the following; • Context • Target Audiences and Influencer Mapping • Opinion Tracking and Media Analysis • Strategy and Objectives • Messaging and Stories Development • Advocacy Campaign • Outcome Evaluation and Control • KPI’s • Outcome Mali has adopted the African Union Maputo Protocol of 2003, which enables women access to land,including ownership rights. Our challenge highlights that local customs and traditions are the main obstacles for women toreduce the illiteracy rates and claim their land rights, as well as receive acknowledgement from the localcommunities as equally contributing partners to agriculture, as men are. Communities on the ground, the Government, economic players, infrastructural DevelopmentPartners / players, international organizations, NGOs and civil society remain the most important actors. USAID, the United Nations, regional and local partners are our main potential partners for thiscampaign. This comes as a result of ILC’s widespread partner network which spans all continents. Several champions and celebrities have been highlighted in our case study and all of them have adirect link, in terms of ethnicity and nationality to Mali. Our communication objectives are three-fold: to foster recognition of women as farmers’ not justworkers; secondly, to sensitize local authorities on the benefits of empowering women; and third, to raiseawareness on women and their communities on their rights. The communication strategy will be a participative approach since our work will be based on theground. Our communication tools will be workshops, lobbying, micro workshops and public dialogue. Our campaign will span a three-year period and for this, a detailed calendar of activities as well as abudget overview has been drafted. The Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) related to the desired outcomesfor our proposed three year plan have also been defined and explained. 3
  4. 4. 2.0 Introduction This paper forms the final component necessary for completion of the Executive Certificate in‘Advocacy in International Affairs’. It will seek to outline a proposal for an advocacy campaign on addressinga global challenge in food security in Africa. It is the result of a group work. The concept of “food security” is a flexible one and has progressively gained momentum in theinternational arena since it originated in the mid-1970s1. Food security was defined in the 1974 World FoodSummit as: “availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steadyexpansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices”2. The definition used inthis paper is the definition adopted by the 1996 World Food Summit which encompasses three mainelements: • Food availability: food must be available in sufficient quantities and on a consistent basis. It considers stock and production in a given area and the capacity to bring in food from elsewhere, through trade or aid; • Food access: people must be able to regularly acquire adequate quantities of food, through purchase, home production, barter, gifts, borrowing or food aid; • Food utilization: Consumed food must have a positive nutritional impact on people. It entails cooking, storage and hygiene practices, individuals’ health, water and sanitation, feeding and sharing practices within the household3. The 1996 World Food Summit was a turning point in the way the food issue was addressed by theinternational community and lead to various initiatives4. This issue is addressed by various internationalorganisations5 as well as NGOs, governments and, lately, by private actors. Food security globally is an issuethat is raising a lot of global concern but in Africa, it is even more a challenge due to other structuralchallenges. Actors at stake in Africa often use advocacy techniques to draw attention and raise awareness. Aswell as “food security”, “advocacy” is a flexible word. It can be defined as “the act of arguing on behalf of aparticular issue, institution, idea or person”6. And it is “an on-going process aimed at change of attitudes,actions, policies and laws by influencing people and organisation with power, systems and structures atdifferent levels for a betterment of people affected by the issue”7. Advocacy is then both a process and anoutcome. That is why we shall use advocacy techniques to ensure that our challenge becomes successful,and that our outcome is achieved. The first part of this essay will present the context in which the campaign would take place and thedesired outcome. The second part will describe the techniques used to reach that goal.1 - http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e06.htm (accessed on 06.05.2012)2 Idem3 Idem4 Examples available on the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food website:http://www.srfood.org/index.php/en/right-to-food (accessed on 06.05.2012)5 Here we refer especially to the World Food Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the United NationsDevelopment Programme and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food.6 Christian D. de Fouloy, Fouloy’s Explanatory Lobbying Dictionary (Vilnius: AALEP Publishing Division, 2011)7 Idem 4
  5. 5. 3.0 Context and desired outcome3.1 Re-definition of the challenge The food security concept is not only a flexible one; it is also a complex and tangled one. The firsttask of our group was then to refine the assessment. After a first set of readings we identified the role playedby the women as one possible link between the three aspects of food security (i.e. availability, access andutilization). Further research was needed before we could decide to focus on the women’s access to land8and on Mali as the pilot country. This arose from our understanding that part of the food security challengein Africa can be attributed to land ownership, land access and access to agricultural inputs. These aspects arecompounded by the gender imbalance existing in land access matters in Africa. We have chosen to positionour efforts to fight food security from the point of advocating for recognition of the role of women in foodproduction in Africa and most of the developing world. Having thus agreed on these principles it becamedifficult to imagine the function of the World Economic Forum in this scheme, as it was first suggested, and itwas determined that we approach the challenge from another point of view. We decided upon theInternational Land Coalition (ILC). ILC is a global alliance of civil society and intergovernmental organisations working together topromote secure and equitable access to, and control over, land for poor women and men through advocacy,dialogue, knowledge sharing and capacity building9. As ILC is an alliance of civil society, it leverages onworking with non-governmental organisations already based in countries of interest. This works wellbecause the NGOs on the ground already have an understanding of the dynamics of the communities withinwhich they are domiciled; the communities know and trust them. ILC is not only comprised of local NGOs butalso global players such as Oxfam, the World Bank, the World Food Programme and the FAO10 which providethe organisation with legitimacy and enough financial strength to face new prospects. ILC works in manyAfrican countries, but is seemingly better rooted in Eastern and Southern Africa than in Sub-Saharan Africa.By choosing to work in the Sahel region, this study would not be seen as a plagiarism.3.2 Gender and access to land Land policy and administration projects can contribute inadvertently not only to gender inequalitybut also to more general social inequality11. Although the international community has increasinglyrecognized the importance of women’s rights, the gender aspect of this issue has only been recentlyintroduced in the public area. It is still difficult to have this dimension taken into account although the non-inclusion of women is part of the development programs general failure12. In Africa in 2008, 63% of female workers relative to 48% of male workers depended on agriculture-based livelihood13. Studies have shown that there is a lot of ‘inequality between men and women in controlover land use in many African countries’14. Indeed, women have less control of land in sub-Saharan Africa8 See problem tree attached (appendix section)9 See ILC website: http://www.landcoalition.org/fr/about-us/qui-sommes-nous (accessed 06.05.2012)10 For a comprehensive view of ILC’s members, see: http://www.landcoalition.org/fr/members/list (accessed06.05.2012)11 ILC, IFAD, Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook (Rome: 2009)12 This conclusion can be drawn from many reports and has been confirmed by Christine Verschuur, Senior lecturer atThe Graduate Institute, Director of Pôle genre et développement, during her interview on 03.04.201213 Bina Agarwal, Food Crises and Gender Inequality, DESA Working Paper n°107, June 2011.14 African Human Development Report, United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Africa, 2012. Pg.14 5
  6. 6. more than anywhere else15, yet they play a major role in agriculture and food production activities. In Malifor example, women only own 3.1% of the land16. This situation is the result of different factors. In sub-Saharan Africa there are three overlapping systems: customary, religious and statutory law. Womensresponsibilities and rights to land change over their lifetime as determined by their marital status17. Thisregion is also undergoing transformations in land tenure system with the establishment of local governmentstructures (decentralization), climate change threat and growing population18. Another important factor inchanging land rights is the commodification of land as it acquires a market value.3.3 Mali We would like to create awareness on the role of women in the food security arena and inparticular, we choose to focus on countries with fewer initiatives already in place. Our first campaign will bebased on a single country, before we can evaluate the potential to replicate the same initiatives, should theyprove successful. Our focus country will be Mali, for a variety of reasons. We did an internal SWOT-analysisand decided that Mali would be the appropriate country19. 75% of Mali’s labour force works in the agriculture sector and this activity represents 44% of thecountry’s GDP20. From a policy position, Mali ratified the Basic Human Rights Charter and the African UnionMaputo Protocol of 2003, where the economic and social rights of women (and others) were recognised, aswas the right to food security and sustainable development. In 2006, Mali adopted its Agricultural Policy Act,which set out policy guidelines for agricultural development in Mali. This Act has a strong stance on genderequity, on food sovereignty and support for small scale family farming. But despite the participatory andconsultative way in which the law was formulated, studies found that the majority of the communities arenot aware of its existence21. In addition to this, the process to formally register claims over land is complex,long and costly. This gender imbalance is reinforced, in the Malian case, by the last update of the MalianFamily bill passed at the end of 2011 and which undermines women’s rights. Mali used to be praised for its political stability but what was a local Tuareg rebellion spread to theNorthern part of the country in January 2012 and led to a military coup in Bamako last March 27th2012. Itwas followed by the effective splitting of the country by rebel forces in the north. On April 6th 2012, theTuaregs declared independence and formed the Azawad Republic22. As we had already highlighted at anearly stage in our SWOT-analysis, the potential difficulties of choosing Mali, we found it applicable andjustifiable to re-focus our target area to develop our advocacy campaign on the southern part of Mali. One ofthe main justifications being that arable land is concentrated in that region.4.0 Advocacy Logic Model When we considered the challenge, we concluded that within the advocacy cycle, the bigger issue offood security or insecurity for that matter, is at the acceptance and activation stage, where the issue is15 Idem16 http://www.fao.org/economic/es-policybriefs/multimedia0/female-land-ownership/en/ (accessed 06.05.2012)17 Marie Monimart and Su Fei Tan, Gender and access to land and natural resources in Mali and Niger, IIED, London.18 Idem19 See SWOT Table under Annexes, page 2020 UNDP Mali, Rapport national sur le développement humain durable, 2010.21 Marie Monimart and Su Fei Tan, Gender and access to land and natural resources in Mali and Niger, IIED, London.22 BBC 2012. “Mali Tuareg rebels declare independence in the north”. 06.04.2012. Online. URL:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17635437 (Accessed on 04.06.2012) 6
  7. 7. acknowledged; there is information on it and in some cases, initiatives have already began to beimplemented. However, we also recognised that the gender element is really at the awareness creationstage. There is research to prove that it is known, but for whatever reason, it has not been pushed much as apotential avenue to address the food insecurity challenge. As such most of our campaign will be projectedfrom an introduction and informational perspective. Within the regulatory cycle, gender and food securitycan be considered to be in the agenda setting stage. The theme of our campaign is ‘ENABLING WOMEN ACCESS TO LAND’ in Mali. We considered theelements of gender and the facts that have been researched upon and tabled that show that while women inAfrica till the most and are responsible for more than 78% of the food produced, only 3% of the land theywork on belongs to them. This is largely due to cultural practises.4.1 Actors in the Food Security issue The actors within the land and food security arena can be largely grouped into: • Communities on the ground • The government • Economic players • Supply Chain actors • Infrastructural Development Partners / players • International organizations • NGOs and Civil Society23 The intended outcome will have key performance indicators which will be based on the two impactswe have identified i.e. 1. Increasing food accessibility a. Increase in food types available b. Improved proximity of food stuff to the various communities and villages 2. Raising awareness to women’s rights a. Increase in land ownership statistics b. Increase in legislation changes, both type of legislation [soft, binding etc] and number of changes c. Number of summits addressing the issue [agenda setting indicator]Our advocacy plan will run for 3 years, with 2 years being spent on the ‘Awareness’ and ‘Acknowledgement’creation, and the third year, hopefully to get to the ‘Acceptance’ stage.23 An illustration of the actors is on page 7 7
  8. 8. Infrastructural Development Players e.g. World Bank NGOs and Civil International Society Organizations Land ownership and access Government for increased Supply Chain Actors food security Regional Communities Economic on the ground PlayersIllustration 1: Actors in the Gender and Land Access challenge4.2 Stakeholders and partners International Land Coalition, being a member-based organisation, has the critical mass through itsrelationships, network linkages and other capacities required to expand its influence beyond individualmembers and to constructively engage policy and decision-makers. Its actively engaged and balancedmembership, operating at global levels and / or through regional platforms, includes well-knownorganizations and institutions among them: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Oxfam International, IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), IFPRI (International Food PolicyResearch Institute), Secours Populaire Français, World Bank, WFP (World Food Programme). At the international level, recent developments have created opportunities to further push theagenda for securing land rights for poor people, particularly rural women24. Facilitating effective multi-stakeholder engagement on land issues is one of the Coalition’s major strengths. For the next three years,ILC will run targeted consultations and engagements with governments as well as bilateral and multilateralorganizations to advocate and influence global development priorities, while raising more resourcesdedicated to improving access to land for rural women.Partners in Europe The European institutions are just entering into a new cycle of budget planning and negotiationsknown as the Multi-annual Financial Framework (MFF). All aspects of the European Union (EU) budget,including external action and aid, are negotiated during this process that will lock-in the EU main policypriorities from 2014 for at least 5 years. By the end of 2013, an agreement should be reached regarding thesuggested aid amount of € 96,249.4 million. As decisions are mainly in the hands of Member States, ILC isalready engaged in the process of advocacy at both EU and national level and: • targets governments, parliaments and their Members of European Parliament • disseminates background papers and positions, and lobbying papers • collaborates with strategic civil society partners on joint lobbying and media work • publishes articles on the MFF in national NGOs newsletters and voluntary sector press • lobbies decision-makers with position papers24 See the recent World Economic Forum on Africa 2012 8
  9. 9. • meets with Ministries of Finances and / or Development, parliamentarians, etc. • organizes seminars for NGOs, other actors and decision-makers It should be said that the European Commission is facing considerable political pressure to respondto the European economic crisis rather than focussing on external objectives. ILC counts several memberstates among its strategic partners; which are already providing substantial long-term financial support tothe core activities of the ILC. We intend to keep them engaged and on board during the MFF negotiationphase.Partnering with the United Nations IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) is a member of ILC. Over the years, the Fundhas worked in partnership with various United Nations-affiliated organisations, international financialinstitutions (IFIs), specialized NGOs and civil society organizations in order to undertake joint initiatives foradvocacy, learning and capacity-building related to gender issues in agricultural and rural development.Partners in regional platforms The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) is an African-owned andled initiative with the aim of enhancing the capacity of African institutions, civil society and private sector tocomprehensively analyze and plan strategies and operational plans for food security. Major issues that cameout from the 8th Partnership Platform Meeting of the CAADP held in May 2012 in Nairobi included the needto focus on smallholder family farmers, especially women. The CAADP’s work has been recognized by theG20 Ministers of Agriculture. This year’s G8 meeting will have agriculture, food and nutrition security as oneof the focus areas and therefore will offer another opportunity to showcase the work of CAADP. The 9thCAADP Partnership Platform Meeting will take place in March 2013 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and ILCmembers will be there of course to advocate for its cause.Partnering with USAID In May 2012 at Camp David, US President Obama announced a multi-billion dollar initiative in Africacalled the ‘New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition’. “What makes this remarkable is that this isprobably the first time at a G8 Summit where, in addition to having the leaders involved, we also haveleaders of NGOs and business leaders involved.” Forty five companies have already pledged more than US$3billion to kick off this effort. When commenting on the initiative to lift 50 million people out of poverty andhunger over the next ten years through farming partnerships, USAID administrator Dr. Rajiv Shah insistedthat for the African countries to access this aid, “they must seriously reform access to land tenure for smallscale farmers so that women farmers can have title to their land”.25 ILC of course welcomes this strong signalto our targeted decision-makers.Local partners Notably, Civil Society Organizations are crucial in identifying and exploiting windows of opportunityopened by institutions, but that are not immediately visible to communities. This is done by facilitating25 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sPkLrMSIjf0 (at minute 4:50) 9
  10. 10. interaction between community and religious leaders, farmers associations and participation by ruralwomen. CSOs can also play an important role in highlighting to media organisations, problems faced bycommunities as well as successful stories. For instance the Coprokazan cooperative (a 3 hour drive, SouthBamako)26 involves 35 villages and 1000 women who benefit from the revenue generated by the shea butterproduction. Close collaboration with both local and international media can have a strong impact, especiallywhen addressing government. To increase this impact, ILC local partners will identify champions able toinfluence the local male leaders.Champions and celebrities As part of local partnerships, we propose to identify local celebrities who can act as our advocates inthe issue of gender and land. In particular, we hope to partner with: • Oumou Sangaré, who is a Goodwill Ambassador for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). She is a singer and musician who has been brought up by a single mother and thus understands first-hand the importance of empowering women. • Salif Keita, a direct descendant of Malian empire founder, Sundiata Keita. By virtue of his age, Salif may be a good ambassador to reach the older generation. • Frederic Kanoute, a popular football player who plays for FC Sevilla and has a foundation which focuses on ‘tackling poverty through jobs and opportunities’27. The foundation works through local partners. • Seydou Keita, Malian football player currently playing for FC Barcelona. By involving Seydou, we could leverage on FC Barcelona’s reputation, which would be an efficient way to reach out to the younger generation. We also want to identify local champions – male and female – who will spread our message to theircommunities. The partnership with the identified champions and celebrities would result in increased mediaattention for our cause, potential interest from financial donors, and potential partnerships with other actorsin the food security field.Public private partnershipsHere are some examples of public private partnerships that ILC leverages on: • The eudevdays.eu are a yearly forum initiated by Klaus Rudischhauser, Director of the European Commission DG Development and Cooperation, EuropeAid, to discuss innovative models and new approaches to private-public collaboration, in particular in the fields of agriculture, food security and the rural women specific needs. ILC will take part to the very selective debates and intend to put our cause forward on the stakeholders’ agenda. • The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) is an Africa based organization working in partnership with governments, agricultural research organizations, farmers, private sector, civil society and other rural development stakeholders to significantly and sustainably improve the26 http://www.coprokazan.org/27 http://www.kanoutefoundation.com/about_ho.ks (visited 06 June 2012) 10
  11. 11. productivity and incomes of resource poor farmers in Africa The next African Green Revolution Forum 2012 will be held in September 2012 in Arusha, Tanzania. ILC will attend these high-level panels and explore the opportunities to start a discussion with private stakeholders about innovative financing. • ILC will keep on partnering with Dimitra28, a FAO information and communication project that widely shares information and experiences, using both modern and traditional communication methods and tools, rural radio in particular. • ILC also intends to accept the African Farm Radio Research Initiative (AFRRI)29 as a new member and work in close collaboration with this action research project undertaken by Farm Radio International and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The major aim of the project is to design and implement a participatory, multi-stakeholder action research program to discover, document and disseminate best practices for using radio-based communications to enhance food security in Africa. Drawing on elements of adult learning and the theory of participatory communication for development, it builds a coherent, multi-month series of programs which feature farmers’ voices throughout, follow a dramatic progression, and use the best features of radio and related ICTs to engage farmers. PRCs are focused on a single farmer-selected “improvement” - in our case: women access to land - that can help farmers achieve their food security goals. • But in most cases, women do not own a radio set. As a result, they cannot have access to appropriate information, nor make better choices that benefit their families and their communities. ILC members have already approached private and logistics partners in order to launch a big public campaign to invite the developed countries to take part in their cause in an original way. For example: the “Put an end hunger in Africa with a solar radio” program, where negotiations have begun with Amazon.com which appears to be the perfect partner, not only to sell the radios but also deliver them. Although a key aim of the project is to strengthen the position of women within their community, the initiative targets the entire community. Focusing exclusively on women development actors could create tensions with the men of the villages. When supplying the villages with radio receivers, one-third of them will be offered to men, so that they would be fully involved in the project.4.3 Target audiences The larger target audience is the farmers and local communities so that they understand thedynamics of living with, and empowering, women. The underlying theme is that empowered women arebetter equipped to look after their immediate family and by extension, the larger community. Empoweredwomen are able to work and produce enough food to feed their families, and whatever surplus they have,they can use for barter or monetary trade. However, to consistently and sustainably do this, they need tohave access to land and other agricultural inputs. Engagement with this audience will enable us to establish aposition and to understand the actual facts on the ground. The second level target audience are the cultural and / or religious leaders, who influence andmaintain the status-quo within the communities. If they are enlightened about the positive implications ofwomen’s access to land, then they can begin to encourage the process from the grassroots. One of theprimary benefits of this engagement will be the potential for improving the campaign’s impact and outputs.28 http://www.fao.org/dimitra/about-dimitra/en/29 http://www.farmradio.org/english/partners/afrri/ 11
  12. 12. This will also help us in identifying potential campaign champions who will further our cause locally, in a longterm sustainable manner. The third level will involve engaging with the government and policy makers to enact or at leastimplement laws that facilitate ease of access to land and agricultural inputs in general, to women. Already inplace, is the framework outlined in the Agricultural Policy Act, which may be used as the baseline and ourcampaign would seek to encourage implementation of gender-sensitive policies where land access andacquisition are concerned30. Legal officers / Govt officials Cultural / Religious leaders Farmers and local communitiesIllustration 2: Target audiences4.4 Message Framing As we consider the messaging and storytelling, it is fundamentally critical to identify clearly andcorrectly the senders, receivers and multipliers in the process. The senders in our case will be we, ILC, usingthe local non-governmental organization (NGO) networks. Use of these partnerships will help reduce thelearning curve necessary to understand the local communities. We shall also be capitalising on the goodwilland trust already established between the local NGOs and the communities. The receivers of the messages will be all our target audiences as the messages will clearly articulatethe issue as we understand it, as well as the call to action that we desire. The multipliers are the people whotake the message beyond themselves and encourage dissemination of the information they receive. In ourcase, we anticipate and expect the multipliers to be the women themselves, as well as community andreligious leaders.4.5 Communication Strategy On average the literacy rate of the Malian adult population is 22% (8.8%) for women31. Because ofthese low literacy levels coupled with low levels of communication infrastructure in Mali, we shall be usethree media for communication. The first and probably the best for gauging and evaluation initial responsesto our campaigns will be workshops. These will be held and run by our partner NGOs who have local trustand acceptance. The second medium will be radios as our primary broadcast tool, and third, the use ofgraphic illustrations of our messages through posters that can be put up in various communally available andaccessible sites e.g. outside the chief’s office, at the market place, perhaps even on vehicles that regularly plythe community / village routes.3230 An illustration of the target audiences is on page 11.31 According to the UNDP country report 201232 Illustration of the communication strategy under annexes – pg 21 12
  13. 13. These graphics would be informative giving a sequence from a point of little or no knowledge to apoint of empowerment. We anticipate developing material that can be put up as well as easily portable forthe multiplier effect. Due to challenges of multiple ethnic languages, our messages and stories will be simple enough toallow translation across the different languages. However, we have also found out that French is a dominantcommon language which we can utilise in the initial phase of information dissemination, but againdependent on feedback from our local NGO partners. While social media is not an option for the campaign on the ground, for our actors / partners in theWest, we hope to engage the social media as an avenue for creating awareness and encouragingacknowledgement.4.6 Storytelling We would like to use storytelling techniques to raise awareness regarding our cause. Our openingtheme is the neglected awareness of women regarding their entitled land rights. The message is related tothe fact that local communities and customs are accountable for the on-going situation. The proof point forthis is the illiteracy rate, which does not allow the women to be able to understand and claim their rights toown land. It is a right they are not even aware of because they are simply not informed. Our story33 will enable us to create an emotional and rational link to our campaign, which will resultin increased awareness, acknowledgement and interest from our partners, and recognition for our work onthe ground. In this context, the story will be translated to the different languages so that the localcommunities. – men and women -, justice and religious leaders understand that the more empoweredwomen are, the better they manage to take care of the family and the community It encapsulates the factswe have identified as being keys to a behaviour change, and it tells in a powerful way, the reality ourmembers and partners are facing on the ground. Because Mali has an oral tradition, we expect this story to be widely shared. It will also anticipatethat it will be told on the rural radio repeatedly. Indeed half of the listeners adopt a new practice when theyfeel they have learnt something and when a good story speaks to them, as Farm Radio studies within Malishow34. The story will be used by our celebrities/champions to convey our campaign message. Furthermore this story suggests that we can all be part of the solution that will work out well, if onlywe are allowed to do so.4.7 Key Performance Indicators, Monitoring and Evaluation and Activity Calendar In order to properly monitor an advocacy campaign, key performance indicators (KPIs) should bedefined while planning the overall campaign outcomes and strategy. However this is a challenge when thecampaign aims at changing behaviour. In this case, the qualitative KPIs are sometimes only measurable longafter the end of the campaign otherwise it becomes be difficult to distinguish between the changes due tothe campaign and those due to other structural factors. In addition to this, it may also be difficult to assessthe impact of such a campaign on our main target audience (i.e. rural women) due to the low rate of literacy. Ideally, this campaign should reflect ILC leadership style (i.e. participative approach) and the KPIsshould therefore be developed with stakeholder participation in mind. However, we defined indicatorsfitting with our desired outcomes. We also developed an activity calendar to guide our interactions. (Seetable below).We will carry out monitoring and evaluation from the very beginning of the campaign andduring the whole process. All the stakeholders will be engaged in the process without any exception.33 The story of Hadeye, a Malian woman is found in the annexes, pg 2534 Agricultural Radio that Works, Farm Radio International (2011) 13
  14. 14. For this crucial part of evaluation, we will rely on one of our members’ rigorous model. Indeed Oxfams “Theory of change” has proved to be very efficient. We will use their global performance framework, their process tracing protocol and systematically assess and document what is done under the project / campaign to achieve our desired outcomes. With advocacy logs, we will make a list of all the people we meet; this note helps to track which audiences are key to bringing about change. Because we will be trying to influence behavior change, there is lot to be done while the activities are running. We want to make sure our actions do have an impact on communal and individual behaviors. Evidence-based decision making is vital to re-adapting our strategy at different levels, if necessary. In addition, because we will have measured the media coverage regarding our campaign’s main theme, we will be able to say that the sentiment is aligned to the message we are sending (or not); (see appendix regarding the media coverage). Media monitoring tools such as Factiva™, Meltwater™ and Google™ will be used to track the media trends such as women’s human rights, land ownership and the Malian food security issue. Funding has already been secured from our donors for this part of the process. Taking into consideration that our challenge will start at awareness creation stage, and then enter the acknowledgement phase, we would like develop yearly media monitoring reports during our awareness creation campaign, since our work will mainly be on the ground. When we enter the acknowledgement / acceptance stage, we will start with monthly reports to assess the trends, and whether our work has been noted / publicized by the media. Moreover, this will enable us to map out the most prominent journalist(s), and media outlets showing a profound interest in our cause. Finally, media monitoring will also enable us to identify our foes, since we could track whether local community leaders have officially stated their opinion for or against our advocacy campaign and final outcome (see appendix Advocacy Cycle Presentation for more insights). We will capitalize on that sentiment and reinforce it in the local media (not only radio, but all possible). We have defined several goals targeting the media at some critical stages, like Mali Universal Periodic Review at the United Nations level, the MFF at the European level, the implementation at the ground level and of course successful stories to be shared. We have also developed an activity calendar to guide our interactions. (See table below). Illustration 3: Food Security Campaign – Activity Calendar – 2012 to 2015 Sept.2012 Sept.2013 Sept.2014 Sept.2015Actions planned Actions planned Actions planned1.Field analysis 1.Radio and TV first broadcast 1.Activation of celebrity2. Platform building: who are we 2.One meeting per month with 2.Adjustment of the campaign basedworking with on the ground? community and women on first feedback from the fieldInfluencers, connectors,multipliers 3.Transfer of competencies to local3.Preparation of material, 3.First workshop in selected region NGO to continue the programmetranslation: content for radio and 14
  15. 15. TV broadcast (pilot-workshop)/local authorities and leaders 4.Second wave of radio broadcast4.First negotiations with potentialPPP partner 4.First distribution of radio sets in 5.Workshops in more communities selected villages5.Launch of a posters contest inBamako 5.Evaluation of action 1,2 and 3 after 3 6.Completion report months (which feedback, can we roll-6.Identify community gathering out, best practices)and frequency 6.Activity report7.Lobbying during the MaliUniversal periodic reviewEvents to take into account: Events to take into account Events to take into accountRain season: June to October: Rain season Rain seasonmight be difficult to drive Harvest season: October to December. Harvest seasonRamadhan - July 2012 Do not organize workshops at that time RamadhanWorld Food Day, 16 October 2012/ FAO / Focus on cooperatives. Ramadhan Women’s’ Day (8 March)Opportunity to foster our coalition Women’s Day (8 March) World Food Day (16 October)Mali Universal Periodic Review(21 Jan- 1 Feb 2013) World Food Day (16 October)9th CAADP Partnership PlatformMeeting-March 2013Desired outcomes Year 1: Desired outcome year 2 Desired outcome year 31.Material and research concluded 1.Workshop are organised with the 1.Upgrade of program’s content agreement of local leaders2.Actual community gathering 2.Support from donorscalendar from grassroots 2.Awareness is raised among pilot communities about women’s land 3.Women-led cooperative are3.Met with layer 1 of officials in founded rightscity and in countryside 4.Development of women-tailored4.Have met women’s groups at farming programs/farmers unionleast 2 times at the end of the year 5.Statements from local leaders5.MoU with a private partnerKPI for Year 1 KPI for Year 2 KPI for Year 31.Number of local NGO endorsing 1.Reach of programme: number of 1.Increase in number of womenour programme workshops conducted and number of attending workshop women attending workshops2.Number of meeting organised 2.Increase in number of peoplewith officials and leaders 2.First measurement of radio aware of women’s land rights in programme: which % of people are communities targeted3.Rank or influence of leaders met aware of the campaign within the pilot 3.Number of women-led cooperative 15
  16. 16. 4.Amount of funding received communities created 3.% of people aware of women’s land 4.Number of statements from local rights in the pilot communities leaders 4.8 Budget It would require more investigation to be able to define the budget needed for such a campaign and set of actions. Furthermore, ILC works through platforms where each participant organization funds its own initiatives. We think that some members would not be able to financially support this initiative but could participate by providing in-kind resources e.g. providing staff, technical assistance or didactic material for the workshops. The contribution would then be difficult to assess in terms of money. ILC has secured its funding for the period 2011-2015 and can rely on strong and stable donors. To be able to launch this campaign however, it is important that our partners succeed in leveraging enough resources. This can be difficult for the Malian NGOs already facing great challenges. ILC role would be then to help these partners to apply for grants as well as building their capacity to respond to tender processes. Along to the European Development Fund, we identified the FLOW program (Funding Leadership and Opportunities for Women) launched by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs35 and the Swiss cooperation Agency. This last one is already in Mali working with local farmer association as well as feminine NGOs. Another source of funding is to be found within ILC global members. Some of them are running interesting programs which could also complement local NGO funding: one example is Oxfam’s GROW initiative36. With regard to media monitoring, the Public Relations department at the ILC European Headquarters, will do the monitoring since they already have an established relationship with Factiva™ and Meltwater™. The Google™ service is free of charge. 5.0 Conclusion Because the food security issue encompasses different aspects and dimensions, it will not be solved easily. It requires the international community actors to act in synchrony, at a macro and micro level. For this case study, and subsequent campaign, we have chosen to target one of the most hit and vulnerable group: women in sub-Saharan Africa. However these women are not only victims as they are often represented. We strongly believe that they are actors and that their action is part of the solution to tackle the food security issue in that region. This is why this campaign is gender focused. ILC’s experience shows that there is a significant overlap and interdependence of women’s empowerment and securing women’s land rights37. We are convinced that raising awareness among rural women about their rights and enable them to access to land would help them to assert their claim within the community and will foster their recognition as farmers. We need farmers to feed Africa, not victims. 35 http://www.minbuza.nl/en/key-topics/development-cooperation/grant-programmes/flow-funding-leadership-and- opportunities-for-women 36 http://www.oxfam.org/en/grow/what-is-grow 37 PALLAS Sabine, Womens land rights and womens empowerment: one and the same? In Du grain à moudre. Genre, genre, dévelopement rural et alimentaire. (Dir) C.Verschuur 269-289. Actes des colloques genre et development. Berne: DDC-Commission nationale suisse pour lUNESCO: Genève: IHEID. 16
  17. 17. 6.0 AnnexesInternational Land Coalition - Organization Chart 17
  18. 18. Map of MaliProposed Republic of Azawad 18
  19. 19. SWOT TableSTRENGTHS WEAKNESS • Abundance of arable land - Fertile southern • Low land ownership statistics for women part of Mali [less than 5%] • Family farming techniques and • Low literacy rate among rural women arrangements still working • Food price crisis impact • HIV infection rate is relatively low • Low technology – may deny them access to • Good corruption rating38 resources that they could use • Improvement in water and power • Customs and traditions infrastructure39 • Seemingly active civil societyOPPORTUNITIES THREATS • Possibility to enhance already existing family • Desertification of land mostly farming techniques / arrangements • Cost of land o lobby the government to maintain • Escalation of the internal conflict between the arrangements as such Bamako and the Tuareg rebels o lobby the government to improve land access for family farming to be extended • Signed the AU Maputo Protocol of 2003 – Rights of women, so possibility to enforce some of the terms therein • Emergence of Gender approach in development projects38 http://www.fao.org/docs/up/easypol/506/snapshot_africa_mali.pdf39 http://www.akdn.org/mali_economic.asp 19
  20. 20. Legal Framework of MaliLaw Content1992 Constitution Gender equality: Art.2: "All Malians are born and remain free and equal in rights and duties. Discrimination based on social origin, color, language, race, sex, religion and political opinion is prohibited. " Guarantees citizens the right 1992 Constitution to own property: Art. 13: "The right to property is guaranteed. No one may be expropriated for public purposes and against prior and just compensation." Provides for the protection of property2000 Land Code amended Recognizes state land, land owned by individuals and entities (art.1)(Ordinance No 00-27/P-RM of March2000 Pertaining to the State Property and Recognizes use-rights to customary land held by groups and individualLand Code) group members In the Land Code, the same land rights are recognized to the men and women. These may, like men, to appropriate the land through a 40 title . However, in custom, the womens land rights recognized by the code, are not always applied.Agricultural Orientation Law (Law No. 06- Agricultural development policy (modernizing family farming, investments)045 of September 2006) which also includes article on securing land rights - Art. 3 Chapter 2: "the promotion of women and men living in the agricultural sector in respect of equity, particularly between rural and urban areas, the right to food security for all research in the context of food sovereignty." Art. 8 and 9: The agricultural development policy aims: the promotion of women, youth and men in rural areas (...)Pastoral Charter (Law No. 01-004) of 2001 Recognizes pastoralism and the right of pastoralists to move their livestock(implementation decree in 2006) Requires local authorities, who have primary responsibility for managing pastoral land, to work with pastoralists, traditional authorities, and farmers to maintain pastoral tracks and paths Requires local authorities to create calendars of use of natural resourcesLaw No. 95-034 ANRM of 12 April 12 1995 Gives local authorities (the Regional Assembly, the Circle Council, and community councils) responsibility for land administration, land use planning and development, and organizing rural activities, including agro- forestry-pastoral productionConvention of the elimination of all forms Article 15 calls for equality between women and men before the law, andof discrimination against women Article 16 calls for equality between women and men in all matters relating(CEDAW) to marriage and family relations, including “the same rights for bothSigned 05.02.1985, ratified 10.09.1985 spouses in respect of the ownership, acquisition, management, administration, enjoyment, and disposition of property.” CEDAW has been used to achieve landmark victories for women to gain their property and inheritance rights.(GOM 1992; GOM 2000, GOM 2001; Konate 2003; FAO country report)40 http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/en/#bib_country_id=41 20
  21. 21. Problem TreeLegal Framework. Climate change Demographic pressureDifferences betweende jure and de factosituation. Allocation of land by government to foreign investors Individualization of Causes property Lack of information about womens rights Lack of access and control over land for women Difficulty to procure food for households Reduced access to other agricultural resources Defeminization of Women farming is agriculture in some restricted to low- countries Effects productivity agriculture Increase food insecurity Undermine women’s empowerment 21
  22. 22. Stakeholder Mapping Positive Neutral Negative Corrective ActionGovernments Maputo protocol, Verify with research position onMali agriculture, women and land,IGOs FAO, WFP, UNDP Verify with research who is most UNWomen, , UN Special active, and what program they are Rapporteur runningNGOs AGRA, Oxfam, Save the Identify the ones with programs or Children, HR Watch, List objectives close to ours of civil societyMedia Farm Radio – already info Explore use of traditional media. on Mali Identify existing media options then Mali Weekly – leading zero in newspaper All AfricaInfluencers and Feminist activist Feminist activist associationsAcademics associations, Legal Legal practitioners – to tell us what practitioners , Universities legislation is in place, what is not, for research and info what is without enforcement etcSocial media Check social media stats andinfluencers demographics for social mediaCelebrities Musicians –Kandia Verify thru research whether they kouyate, Oumou Sangare, are viable champions for our cause. Salif Keita, Souleymane Cisse (Film Director)Peers and We will try tocompetitors build real participative campaign & avoid confrontation and competition with other NGOsOther 22
  23. 23. Advocacy Logic Model 23
  24. 24. Communication Strategy Communication Objectives & Campaign Positioning Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Foster recognition of women as farmers not just Sensitize local authorities on benefits of Raise awareness to women and their workers empowered women communities on their [womens] rights Communication Strategy Also participative approach Also participative approach Participative approach Target: local authorities, local judicial officers, Target: mainly women but also the entire Target: Farmers Unions and Organizations religious leaders community Tools & Activities Radio & television micro programs Interactive Workshops 2-pronged: posters & public visual presentations Public Dialogue Lobbying workshops monitored by local people because of culture By whom: local partner NGOs, local cooperative societies, women By whom: Partner NGOs - both local & intl Interactive Workshops community leaders 24
  25. 25. Story of Hadeye, a Malian Woman The Story: Hadeye has spent her life obeying her husband Yacouba. She was married when she was 15 to a man from a very isolated village at the center of Mali. Yacouba was captured during a Tuareg rebel raid. At the age of 33, she is a widow facing a hopeless situation that could lead her and her six children to die from hunger. Like 90% of the Malian women, Hadeye grew up in a traditional family. She cant write or read. She has always been told to be obedient and that is exactly what she did. Hadeye obeyed when Yacouba decided that their elder daughter would leave school and go to another village to take care of her sick uncle. Hadeye obeyed when Yacouba decided he would marry three wives. And Hadeye nodded in agreement when Yacouba decided to join the rebel army. But it all turned out badly and now Yacouba is dead. Two of Hadeyes sons escaped to the Niger border with their grandmother. Hopefully the displaced boys will get food in the refugee camp... Hadeye still has three young mouths and herself to feed. The rebels did not manage to steal her only goat. The tiny portion of land her husbands family left her is a long distance away from home and it is not a fertile ground. In addition, the drought has really been tough this year. The poor harvests have failed yet again because of rainfall shortage. Hadeye has to look for money to take care of her childrens needs. But from where? Her local leader has already warned that her garden may soon be sold to international investors. In this strongly patriarchal society where many women need to ask permission from their husbands just to leave the house, Hadeye doesnt have a single clue how to claim any ownership rights, or that she even has any. Above all she does not understand why Yacoubas two other wives do not seem to be starving and struggling the way she does. They show up every day at the market place and make some money by selling onions and okras. This way they decently feed their numerous children. No one ever told Hadeye how to survive without her husband. Strangely enough she has mixed feelings. With no husband around, those two wives gather each evening to listen to the radio. Could it be that the radio knows the secret to put an end to hunger? On that night, Hadeye falls asleep feeling as usual the tiny bodies of her children against her skin. She is so desperate and hungry that all she can think of is that she must find a way to get the information...). It will be a long night for Hadeye….. 25
  26. 26. Opinion Tracking and Media Analyses Yes No Corrective Action needed?Should you pole stakeholders and √ No action neededGeneral public regarding your issue ororganization?Would qualitative surveys bring new √ Yes, the local NGOs and local regionalinsight to your messaging? authoritiesHave the media reported about your √organization recently? Was it positive?Is the sentiment on the issue and your Not applicableorganization positive in social media?Are there trends and issues you need to √ 1) Africa cannot feed itselfbe aware of in the media? 2) Islam is the greatest enemy of women’s rights 3) Careful how we communicate concerns on land-grabbingAre there important social influencers √ Yes, Global Development Blog in theincluding bloggers? Guardian influences donorsHave you measured your share of voice √ Not applicable, difficult right nowvs share of mind?Other opinion tracking or media √ 1) Social media impact assessment /analysis required? analysis 2) Assessment / analysis of traditional media presence, impact, influence and opinion of our issuesMedia PlatformsTitle Reach Main subjects Forward Top Journalists FeaturesAll Africa Aggregated African newsAfrica Journal TV features on Pan – African weekly sustainable news development reach Africa’s most important 20 million homes in stories and interviews in Africa trade & economic development, ,IRIN IRIN audience 52% - Humanitarian workers: 52% - International and national NGOs, UN, governments, donors, humanitarian and development 26
  27. 27. consultants 25% - Academia: 9% - Media: 14% - Others: Corporate and private sector, military, etc.Farm Radio 330 radio The African Farm Radio organizations in 39 Research Initiative African countries (AFRRI) • Radio Libre Bamakan Bamako, Mali Community Radio Listeners: 2,000,000 • Radio Jigiya Mali Community Radio Listeners: 500,000 • Radio Yeelen Kadiolo, Mali Community Radio Listeners: 300,000 • Radio Dionakan Koulikoro, Mali Community Radio Listeners: 116,983Media Measurement Awareness Acknowledgement Acceptance ActivationActivity • Meetings with officials • Radio & TV program • Posters • Workshops on the ground • Community gatheringIntermediary • Reach of programs • Upgrade of • Donors’ funding • Number of program’s participant to content gatherings • Support from 27
  28. 28. • Number of donors meetings(quantitati ve) • Rank of officials met (qualitative)Target audience • Discussion by/in • Agree to discuss • Trend change ineffect farmers’ unions by religious judicial process meeting leaders (both • Women-led judges+prosecuto cooperatives are rs) funded • Development of women-tailored farming programs/farmers union • Statements from local leadersSocial Media KPIsOBJECTIVE OUTPUT MEASURES - OUTCOME MEASURES - Quantitative QualitativeInform stakeholders and public Blogs Blogs(CREATING AWARENESS STAGE) • No. of relevant articles we • Other blogs referring to our write stories / articles • Acceptance of articles by • No. of requests received to top-tier media / blogs blog from top-tier mediaInteract with stakeholders Twitter Twitter(CREATING AWARNESS AND • No. of re-tweets • Follower ratioENCOURAGING • No. of mentions (hash tag • No. of tweets initiated byACKNOWLEDGEMENT) Mali, land rights, land 3rd parties coalition etc) 28
  29. 29. BibliographyAfrica Human Development Report 2012. Towards a Food Secure Future, UNDP (2012).Agricultural Radio that Works, Farm Radio International (2011).Développement économique – Mali, Rapport dapprentissage, International Institute for Communication andDevelopment, (2011).Doing business – Mali, The World Bank (2012).Farming money, How European banks and private finance profit from food speculation and land grabs,Friends of the Earth Europe (2011).Gain in Africa, Fact Sheet, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (2011).Gender and Economic Empowerment of Women, Africa Partnership Forum, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), NEPAD (2007).Gender dimensions of agricultural and rural employment: Differentiated pathways out of poverty, Status,trends and gaps, FAO, IFAD and International Labour Office (2010).Gender dimensions of agricultural and rural employment: Differentiated pathways out of poverty, Status,trends and gaps, FAO, IFAD and International Labour Office (2010).Gender Equality and Development, World Development Report 2012, The World Bank (2011).Gender in Agriculture. Sourcebook Module 4. Gender issues in Land Policy and Administration, InternationalLand Coalition and IFAD (2010).Gender sensitive indicators, Draft framework of indicators to gauge gender sensitivity in media operationsand content, UNESCO, 28th Session of the Intergovernmental of the IPDC (2012).How can women’s land rights be secured?, Collection of contributions received, Discussion No. 75 from 23January to 5 February 2012, Online discussion leading up to an FAO-IFAD-ILC side event at the Commissionon the Status of Women (CSW), 27 February – 9 March 2012, New York.IFAD Policy on Gender Equality and Womens Empowerment, IFAD (2012).ICT for rural development: five years of learning, International Institute for Communication and Development(2012).Investing in people, Monitoring the G8 promises to Africa, The data report 2010, One (2010).Mali: Women’s cooperatives and land agreements, in Dimitra N, Rural women, gender and development(February 2012).October Voice: Gender Perspective on Food Justice, Oxfam International (2011). 29
  30. 30. Putting the New Vision for Agriculture into Action: A Transformation Is Happening, World Economic Forum’sNew Vision for Agriculture (2012).Rural Women and the Millennium Development Goals, Inter-Agency Task Force on Rural Women led by FAO,IFAD and composed of: ITC-ILO, SPFII, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNIDO, UNAIDS, UN Women,WHO (2011).The economics of rural radio in Africa, An Introductory Study into the Costs and Revenues, African Farm RadioResearch Initiative (2008).The Future We Want Rio+20, United Nations (2012).Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Contextof National Food Security, FAO (2012).What Women Farmers need: A Blueprint for action, Action Aid International (2011).What works for Women, Proven approaches for empowering women smallholders and achieving foodsecurity, by CARE, Christian Aid, Concern Worldwide, Find Your Feet, Oxfam, Practical Action, Save theChildren, Self Help Africa, and the University of East Anglia (2012).Bina Agarwal, Food Crises and Gender Inequality (DESA Working Paper n°107, June 2011).Rebecca Black, Discours, Rencontre sur la science, la recherche et les nouvelles technologies au service dudéveloppement au Mali (USAID, 2012)Cheibane Coulibaly, Decentralization in Mali: a constrained « responsability transfer » process ( Land Tenureand Development Technical Committee Pedagogic Factsheets, December 2010)Riccardo Del Castello, FAO’s Experience in Mainstreaming Communication for Development to Reach theMDGs (the Inter-Agency Roundtable on Communication for Development, 2007).Fiona Flintan, Womens empowerment in pastoral societies (WISP, UNDP, IUCN, 2008).Christophe Golay, Deux approches pour lutter contre la faim et la discrimination contre les femmes : le droità l’alimentation et la souveraineté alimentaire. In Du grain à moudre. Genre, genre, développement rural etalimentaire. (Dir) C.Verschuur 341-359. (Actes des colloques genre et développement. Berne: DDC-Commission nationale suisse pour lUNESCO: Genève: IHEID, 2011).Riccardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson and Saadia Zahidi, The Global Gender Gap Report 2011 (World EconomicForum, 2011).Ingrid Helsingen Warner, To what extent can Twitter help Grow Africa become a successful public privatepartnership to ensure food security in Africa? (2011).Isabelle Hillenkamp, Genre, systèmes agraires et vulnérabilités alimentaires : une analyse nécessaire. In Dugrain à moudre. Genre, genre, développement rural et alimentaire. (Dir) C.Verschuur 367-443. (Actes descolloques genre et développement. Berne: DDC-Commission nationale suisse pour lUNESCO: Genève: IHEID,2011). 30
  31. 31. Kachika Tinyade, Land grabbing in Africa, A review of the impacts and the possible policy responses (OxfamInternational, 2010).Mary Kimani, Women struggle to secure land rights (African Renewal, vol.22 #1, April 2008).Kathambi Kinoti, Land grabs: the threat to African womens livelihoods ( Open Democracy, 2012).Mariatou Kone, Women and land (Land Tenure and Development Technical Committee Briefing Note, March2011).Augusto Lopez-Claros and Saadia Zahidi, Women’s Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap (WorldEconomic Forum, 2006).Marie Monimart, Sahel : sécheresse, crises alimentaires et défiminisation des systèmes agraires, in Du grainà moudre. Genre, genre, développement rural et alimentaire. (Dir) C.Verschuur 133-151. (Actes des colloquesgenre et développement. Berne: DDC-Commission nationale suisse pour lUNESCO: Genève: IHEID, 2011).Marie Monimart and Su Fei Tan, Gender and access to land and natural resources in Mali and Niger (IIED,London).Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid. Why Aid is Not Working and How There is a better way for Africa (Garar, Strausand Giroux, New York, 2009).Sabine Pallas, Womens land rights and womens empowerment: one and the same? In Du grain à moudre.Genre, genre, développement rural et alimentaire. (Dir) C.Verschuur 269-289. (Actes des colloques genre etdéveloppement. Berne: DDC-Commission nationale suisse pour lUNESCO: Genève: IHEID, 2011).Sabine Pallas and Luca Miggiano, Womens legal empowerment: lessons learned from community-basedactivities (ILC Briefing Note, 2012).S. Turrall, Innovative approaches to gender and food security ( IDS Knowledge Service, 2012). 31
  32. 32. Interviews and MeetingsDate Contact Name Title16/03/2012 & Manga Dembélé Directeur de la Communication, Malian Embassy in Paris03/05/201203/04/2012 Christine Verschuur PHD Senior Lecturer, Responsable Pour Genre et Developpement (IHEID)03/04/2012 Dr. Christophe Golay Research Fellow at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Right to Food expert and Former Legal Advisor to the UN-Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food05/04/2012 David Gressly UNICEF West and Central Africa Regional Director05/04/2012 Grant Leaity UNICEFs head of operations in West Africa and Central Africa06/04/2012 Marie-Rose Van Den Service Public Fédéral des Affaires étrangères de Belgique, Commerce extérieur et coopération au Driesch développement11/04/2012 Benjamin Fiafor Regional Field Manager (West Africa) at Farm Radio International12/04/2012 François Laureys Regional Manager West-Africa at International Institute for Communication & Development (IICD)13/04/2012 Michael John Taylor Programme Manager Global Policy and Africa at ILC secretariat at IFAD13/04/2012 Olivier de Schutter United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food13/04/2012 Mamadou Sibibe Président du Conseil National du Patronat du Mali 32
  33. 33. 13/04/2012 Roni Amelan UNESCO Press service editor13/04/2012 Fiona Flintan Consultant at International Land Coalition14/04/2012 Martin Vogl BBC journalist in Mali18/04/2012 Glenn Payot Délégué auprès des Nations Unies pour la Fédération International des Ligues des Droits de lHomme18/04/2012 Ulrik Halsteen Human Rights Officer, Special Procedures Branch, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights28/04/2012 Dr. Alfred de Zayas Independent UN Expert30/04/2012 Elisabeth Sola Co-founder and President Idées Elles NGO & Prométhée NGO30/04/2012 Alexis Zufo Dembelé Journaliste (Radio San), prêtre et Responsable de l’Université catholique de Bamako02/05/2012 Mamoudou Kassambara Director Prométhée NGO in Mali02/05/2012 Dramane Sidibé Director CARE Mali11/05/2012 Modibo Coulibaly Farm Radio Mali11/05/2012 Sabine Pallas Programme Officer, Womens Land Rights and Resource Mobilisation at International Land Coalition30/05/2012 Joëlle Turbe Commission des droits humains de lUnion internationale du notariat 33
  34. 34. Research in videosTitle Author(s) Link DateAGRA in Mali Alliance for a Green http://bit.ly/KkTNUc 2009 Revolution in AfricaDavos 2012 - Ensuring Food Security World Economic Forum http://bit.ly/AAURpi 2012Documentary : Planet for sale – Food CAPA Presse http://bit.ly/jfvI6e 2011crisis and the global land grabDocumentary : Le Jardin de Laila, des Association suisse de DVD 2004microcrédits pour les femmes solidarité internationalemaliennes IdéesElles – Prométhée ONGFemmes Rurales du Mali: le rôle des UN Women http://bit.ly/L85nFb 2012femmes dans les défis de sécuritéalimentaireGendered Impact of Food Prices: How IFPRI Food Portal http://bit.ly/tYsCSV 2011do rising food prices affect men and (International Foodwomen differently? Policy Research Institute IFPRI)Gender Equality and Development : Co- The World Bank http://bit.ly/pXOrMx 2012Directors Ana Revenga and SudhirShetty talk about the main findings ofthe World Development Report 2012Growing Impact: Three inspiring stories African Women in http://bit.ly/LCGtN1 2010from AWARD Fellows, showcasing Agricultural Researchagricultural innovations serving rural and Developmentwomen in Sub-Saharan Africa (AWARD)Mali : Edition spéciale, coup dEtat au TV5 Monde Afrique http://bit.ly/LCG2lQ 2012Mali sur TV5MONDE AfriqueMobile Network and Citizen Journalists Internews http://bit.ly/w0I4p7 2012Empower CommunitiesNew Film Exposes the Devastating ON Broadcast http://bit.ly/MrHoyy 2012Impact World Bank Backing for Land CommunicationsInvestments is having in MaliPériode de lancement du Programme CARE Mali http://bit.ly/MrGjXx 2012Pathways: entretien avec DramaneSidibé, CARE MaliPresident Obama speaks to the press at White House http://bit.ly/L84axM 2012the end of the G8 Summit at CampDavid. May 19, 2012.World Bank creating poverty BBC http://bit.ly/dqb5IF 2008 34
  35. 35. Research on Media Coverage of Food Insecurity issuesMedia outlet Media type Sentiment LinkAfrican Business Review Business Positive-innovation in agriculture http://bit.ly/H6Otam MagazineAfrique en Ligne News Portal Positive- Financial Support to http://bit.ly/Ie3cfJ farmersallAfrica News Portal Positive-innovation in agriculture http://bit.ly/GSzv5FallAfrica News Portal Positive- How to use web to http://bit.ly/GUjfjO collaborate (farmers)allAfrica News Portal Positive- Technology http://bit.ly/HS4CPvallAfrica News Portal Positive- Investments in http://bit.ly/JkisNr agricultureBBC Radio and Positive and alarming http://bbc.in/d6aTck News portalBloomberg News Portal Negative- Sahel Food Crisis http://bloom.bg/HjxspvThe Financial Times Newspaper Negative- Land grab http://on.ft.com/KpxEZxThe Financial Times Newspaper Positive-micro credits http://on.ft.com/KT8DBgGhana Web News Portal Negative- women vulnerable to http://bit.ly/KewPUN climate changeGuardian (The) Newspaper Negative- Sahel Food Crisis http://bit.ly/HhVSoyGuardian (The) Newspaper Negative – Family codeIPS NEWS (Inter Press News agency Positive – Many interviews http://bit.ly/IPcX63Agency covering our subjectIRIN News News agency Positive and alarming http://bit.ly/Nl6C7mMorning Star News Portal Negative- Int. Community http://bit.ly/H7bmv6 suspends aid to MaliMSN News News Portal Positive- Guidelines on land http://bit.ly/J5GTca grabbingNew Business Ethiopia Business Positive- Agricultural http://bit.ly/KpuhBR Magazine developmentUN News Centre News Portal Negative- Sahel Food Crisis http://bit.ly/HFoRkjUN News Centre News Portal Positive-agricultural development http://bit.ly/x6cSFi 35

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