Smilja Sindjelic - Communication


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Smilja Sindjelic - Communication

  1. 1. Introduction into communication <ul><li>Communication and its elements </li></ul><ul><li>Met h od s of training – our way in which we will work and the reasons for working in that way </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  2. 2. Methods of work on training <ul><li>Interactive work , active participation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning with experience </li></ul><ul><li>Many ways and methods of work ( games , group work , team work , roll play, study of chance , examples of good practice , group discussions </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  3. 3. Why this way of working? <ul><li>“ I heard and forgot, </li></ul><ul><li>I saw and remembered, </li></ul><ul><li>I did and understood .” </li></ul><ul><li>Old chinesse saying </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  4. 4. The need for knowledge <ul><li>Do you believe in the so called intellectual profit? </li></ul><ul><li>K ompanija Microsoft u vrednosti svoje deonice nominalne vrednosti 70 dolara samo 7 dolara predstavlja knjižnu tj. vidljivu vrednost dok sve ostalo otpada na nevidljivu v r ednost koju najvećim delom čini znanje. </li></ul><ul><li>Human knowledge has doubled from 1900 to 1950. From then, human knowledge doubles every five to eight years . (Stanford University research, USA) </li></ul><ul><li>In most professions, knowledge doubles every couple of years, which means that the knowledge of every one of us has to double every two to three years just to keep up with the rest of the world. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  5. 5. SUBJECTS <ul><li>What is communication at all and what is business communication? </li></ul><ul><li>What is its function ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the basic ways of communication or what are all the ways in which we communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>How does communication work and what are the key elements of its flow? </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  6. 6. Goals of day one <ul><li>Goals : </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding communication, the process of communication and its functions, especially its role in achieving business goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the elements of the process of communication and its back fall, especially in the business communication </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  7. 7. THE CONCEPTION OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Communication – sending messages with signs </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most significant interactions! </li></ul><ul><li>One of the key ways of satisfying the five most important needs (A.Maslov, Motivation and personality ) </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  8. 8. Functions of communication <ul><li>A big role in pleasing the basic human needs </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  9. 9. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>1. VERBAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>communication via words of a specific language: </li></ul><ul><li>a) orally ( significant and accompanying of verbal language verbal features of a language !) </li></ul><ul><li>b) written </li></ul><ul><li>2. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>communication involving : </li></ul><ul><li>a) movements ( body , body parts ) </li></ul><ul><li>b) facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>c) space relations between participants in communication </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  11. 11. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION <ul><li>The definition: A sending process of messages and information in the boundaries of formal and informal structures of business and the foundation of its connection with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Vladimir Cvetanov </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  12. 12. The principles of business communication <ul><li>Bernard’s principles of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communication channels have to be defined and well known. </li></ul><ul><li>Every one has to inform someone and everyone has to be subordinate to someone. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication lines must be as short as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortified lines of communication should be used. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Communication lines must not be interrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Every communication must be confirmed. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  13. 13. <ul><li>THE BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CRYTIRIES OF GOOD COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Printing out the principles in order to discuss and illustrate them in groups </li></ul><ul><li>( A PROPOSAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MANAGEMENT ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sender must explain/clear up his ideas before communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of every message or communication should be carefully examined. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff skills and physical limits within the communication framework must be emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>While making plans about the communication, other people must be consulted in order to avoid possible misunderstanding </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  14. 14. <ul><li>5. It is necessary to be careful with attractive messages. </li></ul><ul><li>6. To send messages, “good opportunities” should always be used. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The started process of communication should be controlled in order to find out if the message has achieved its desired meaning and if it is well understood. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  15. 15. <ul><li>8. Communication should not be limited only to momentary needs, but should also be directed on to the future. </li></ul><ul><li>9. If the message is successful, the action must support the communication. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Good communication depends on the will of the receiver to hear and understand the message. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  16. 16. INFORMATION/MESSAGE FLOWS IN BUSINESS <ul><li>1. Descending flux Silazni tokovi ( DOWNWARD communication ) Oriented from the top downwards through line authority. This includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Directives and instructions: when and how to do something; </li></ul><ul><li>Information about particular tasks; </li></ul><ul><li>Information about the business policy and its goals; </li></ul><ul><li>Information about products and services, as well as the results informacije </li></ul><ul><li>What is your opinion about the response to this type of communication? </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  18. 18. <ul><li>2. Ascending flux Uzlazni tokovi ( UPWARD communication komuniciranje prema DOLE)- Used to explain orders, procedures and political firms. </li></ul><ul><li>Information about employee work capabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>Workers evaluation of what and how something should be done; </li></ul><ul><li>opinions , complaints , worker demands . </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  19. 19. <ul><li>3. Horizontal flows – the most common form of formal communication between employees inside the firm, but also with the environment and rarely includes higher levels of management. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think, can this communication flow be more relaxing </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  20. 20. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION WEBS <ul><li>CENTRALYSED WEBS : </li></ul><ul><li>Chain Y Wheel </li></ul><ul><li>DECENTRALYSED WEBS : </li></ul><ul><li>Circle Spider web </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  21. 21. PERSONAL ABILITY OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Attributes of an individual which contribute to successful communication </li></ul><ul><li>- Language and professional competence </li></ul><ul><li>Obj ectivity - Individual ity </li></ul><ul><li>Pr activity - Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Fle xible - Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation - Strategic ability </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  22. 22. Attributes of individuals that disrupt successful communication <ul><li>being: </li></ul><ul><li>- primitive </li></ul><ul><li>- reticent </li></ul><ul><li>- distrustful </li></ul><ul><li>- indifferent (phlegmatic) </li></ul><ul><li>- indolent </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  23. 23. Overcoming hold-ups and conflicts in communication <ul><li>Communication as the key condition of creating and overcoming conflicts. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  24. 24. Objektives <ul><li>Awareness development on the importance of knowing business communication skills for the purpose of prevention and resolving </li></ul><ul><li>the conflict situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of participants’ motivatin for making themsves better in the area of business communication. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  25. 25. Clash/Conflict <ul><li>Disagreement through which persons ( sides) experienced threat to their needs, interests and worries. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation in which two or more people want to realize some of their interests, a need or a goal; and since each side finds only one goal possible and realizable, the other person is seen as an obstacle. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  26. 26. Causes <ul><li>Personal ( Disagreement or personal and cultural values. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative ( Language difficulties, different approaches to conflict, e.g. assertive, passive, aggressive) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational ( indistinct limits of liability, bad allocation of means ) </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  27. 27. Obstructions and breaks in communication <ul><li>lack of planning </li></ul><ul><li>Unsolved assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>semantic distortion </li></ul><ul><li>badly uttered messages </li></ul><ul><li>communication obstructions in international surrounding </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  28. 28. Prepreke i prekidi u komunikaciji <ul><li>Loss of information while being transferred and bad memorizing </li></ul><ul><li>Unattentive listening and premature deducing </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Distrust, threat and fear </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient span of time for adjusting to changes </li></ul><ul><li>Being overloaded with information. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  29. 29. Confict styles and their consequences <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operating ٧ </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  30. 30. Answers to conflict: <ul><li>Emocional ( range of feeling from fear, despair to confusion; </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption that the others feel the same) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive ( ideas and thoughts about the conflict,inward </li></ul><ul><li>conversation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical (stres s ,ten sion , hard breathing , na u sea , vomiting,rapid heartbeat ) </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  31. 31. Styles of Behaving <ul><li>He cares for other people, he does not take care of himselvs much as </li></ul><ul><li>well as his needs and goal; once hi is displeased, he becomes furious </li></ul><ul><li>and loses his friends. </li></ul><ul><li>She neither cares for other people nor for herself; </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary and without initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>He is greatly consultig himself and his own interest; finds others enemie goes straight to his goal and often succeeds. </li></ul><ul><li>She is interested for herself and others; does not go openly. She is often </li></ul><ul><li>speculated about, always a little dissatisfied with herself. </li></ul>She cares for other people, but she knows to take care of herself, too; direct, assertive, does not offend other people’s feelings, needs and rights. She deals with problems and conflict situations well. October 2008. Kragujevac
  32. 32. Constructive conflict <ul><li>Problems are meditated openly. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions are actively sought. </li></ul><ul><li>Provocations are avoided, for example </li></ul><ul><li>insulting. </li></ul><ul><li>People really listen to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has a chance to give his own contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody withdraws </li></ul><ul><li>Problems are solved and decision are made. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  33. 33. Destru ctive conflict <ul><li>Making decisions are avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>Power and compulsion are used in order to reach an agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Insulting, maltreatment and other aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>ta c ti c. </li></ul><ul><li>Acting/Taking actions behind someone’s back. </li></ul><ul><li>New solutions are not noticed and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>are ridiculed. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems linger on, and the new ones emerge. </li></ul><ul><li>People feel angry and marginalized. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  34. 34. Obstacles to successful communication <ul><li>Badly developed listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Giving and receiving feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted perceptions and assumptios </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate non-verbal comunication. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  35. 35. How to achieve a desired result/outcome ? <ul><li>Both sides must see each other and hear the feelings and needs of other side. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear defining of both sides’ problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Accsept other person in his right to have different interests and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>To use our faculty of speech for talking, reaching agreements and making mutual decisions, NOT criticisms and attacks! </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  36. 36. <ul><li>When we cannot resolve the conflikt ourselves ... </li></ul><ul><li>The 3th person/mediator or go-between – he/she does not take sides and does not offer his/her own solutions; but enables conditions for conflicted sides to find solutions themselves. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  37. 37. TECHNIQUES OF SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>The power of active listening ٧ </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of communication contexts </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  38. 38. TECHNIQUES OF SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATION – ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>What we consider “successful communication” </li></ul><ul><li>The role of listening in successful communication </li></ul><ul><li>The conception and characteristics of active listening </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of active listening </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  39. 39. THE VALUE OF ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>There was once a wise old man who said that we have one mouth and two ears and that we should consider the relation 1:2 when we use both of them. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  40. 40. WHAT WE CONSIDER TO BE SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>When we “get it our way” sort of or… </li></ul><ul><li>When we successfully exchange messages and satisfy the communicative needs of both sides. </li></ul><ul><li>HOW SHOULD WE SPEAK IN ORDER TO MAKE EVERYONE TRULY LISTEN TO US? </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  41. 41. HOW SHOULD WE SPEAK IN ORDER TO MAKE EVERYONE TRULY LISTEN TO US? <ul><li>Listing the ideas of people </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping the ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  42. 42. WHAT DOES TRULY SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATION DEMAND <ul><li>The knowledge of the needs of the other side </li></ul><ul><li>Attention/knowledge so that the message could be constructed to be clear, accurate, understandable and “reachable to the other side”. </li></ul><ul><li>Calmness, control over the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the techniques of successful communication – the language of accepting (“me” speech or “you” messages) </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  43. 43. SEGMENTS OF “LANGUAGE ACCEPTANCE” <ul><li>Passive listening ( I see. Interesting . Really . Yes, yes ; I would like to hear a little more about that , I would like to hear your opinion on the matter, Let’s consider it, Looks like it’s important.) </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening ( it implies opinions about the participants in communication - understanding of needs , their transience, having a true desire to solve the problem but also some technical solutions that can be easy to adopt ) </li></ul><ul><li>Me ‘’ messages ’’ ( special advancement training ) oppose to ‘’ you ’’ messages </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  44. 44. FORMS OF ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>Diagnostic listening </li></ul><ul><li>In this for of listening WE DO NOT JUDGE because every objection keeps people from talking about deeper things and keeps us from learning their real feelings, attentions and needs. We pay attention to pauses in speech, repetition, hesitation, we analyze faces, gestures and movements. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  45. 45. FORMS OF ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>Reflective listening / most important for business communication / </li></ul><ul><li>We occasionally reformulate what the collocutor is saying to us in order to check if we understood well what we heard and to avoid eventual misunderstandings. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  46. 46. FORMS OF ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>Compassionate listening </li></ul><ul><li>In this form of listening we try to get in to the collocutors “shoes”, in order to see the problem from his angle. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  47. 47. COMMON MISTAKES IN ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>Manipulation through guiding </li></ul><ul><li>Open the door – and then close it </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating the collocutors words </li></ul><ul><li>Listening without enjoying </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening at the wrong time </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  48. 48. THE RISKS OF ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>‘’ Something is happening within us while we actively listen. To understand correctly what the other person thinks and feels from its own angle, to be worthy of placing ourselves into that angle and seeing the world through his eyes, we as listeners are at risk to change our opinion .’’ </li></ul><ul><li>HOW MUCH IS THE RISK IN COMPARISON WITH THE BENEFITS?!!! </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  49. 49. AN EXERCISE OF ACTIVE LISTENING <ul><li>The participants are divided to pairs of “listeners” and “talkers”, they also get work material and an assignment ; </li></ul><ul><li>When the exercise is finished, they sum their impressions on the flip chart in two rows. </li></ul><ul><li>Ending discussion and conclusions in the forum. </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  50. 50. THE CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION What is useful to know about another country? <ul><li>Full official name of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Main city </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the president </li></ul><ul><li>Religion and religious customs </li></ul><ul><li>National and religious holydays and customs at holydays. </li></ul><ul><li>The specifics of the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics and other data about the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Key facts about history and geography </li></ul><ul><li>Some celebrities </li></ul><ul><li>Favorite sports </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  51. 51. Forbidden or taboo topics in business communication <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Humor – jokes </li></ul><ul><li>Sex , disease and death </li></ul><ul><li>Personal money in all combinations </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  52. 52. Basic prerequisites for communication between two different cultures <ul><li>perception </li></ul><ul><li>spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>avoiding stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>flexibility </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  53. 53. Example : Italy <ul><li>formality in behavior but with a dose of relaxation. Politeness and good manners are appreciated. </li></ul><ul><li>Italians love to work with people they already know so they will spend some time to familiarize and to talk intimately </li></ul><ul><li>family and children are highly appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>many Italians speak english, but if you’re not sure, bring a enterpreteur </li></ul><ul><li>Italians are noisy and bold in communication </li></ul><ul><li>In conversations, polite plural is most frequently used </li></ul><ul><li>Humor, enjoyment and good mood is appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>Being humble, quiet and arrogant doesn’t pay off </li></ul><ul><li>Expect bargaining and deadline rescheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Your status, finances, origin and education level will be judged by your appearance </li></ul><ul><li>You should avoid talking about politics in Italy, religion, Vatican politics, taxes, World War Two and mafia; do not criticise the Italian culture, state administration or some football clubs </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  54. 54. LITERATURE <ul><li>Z.Tomić,Komunikologija, 2000. Čigoja </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Ellen Guffey Essentials of Business Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Miles, R., Snow, C. (1978) Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process, McGraw-Hill, New Yor </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>October 2008. Kragujevac
  55. 55. FORMS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION <ul><li>MEETINGS </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  56. 56. SUBJECTS <ul><li>Meetings as a form of “live communication” </li></ul><ul><li>Prerequisite of successful meetings and presentations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Live” meetings – roll play exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of direct experience and conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient written business communication and IT in business communication </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  57. 57. MEETING – BASIC RULES <ul><li>1. Business meetings should be scheduled, if possible, enough time in advance </li></ul><ul><li>2. Do not schedule meetings on Mondays and Fridays. The most efficient meetings are scheduled in the middle of the week, in the morning hours. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Meetings have their introduction, middle and conclusion parts. </li></ul><ul><li>4 . There are organizations which obey the rules, but in Serbia people often do not know about them, so the recommendation is to know the rules and to adapt when there are no rules. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  58. 58. FIVE SIMPLE STEPES TO EFFICIENT MEETINGS <ul><li>Step one: Hold meetings only when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Step two: Only people who should attend the meeting should be called </li></ul><ul><li>Step three: Prepare and send the agenda of the meeting in advance to the participants </li></ul><ul><li>Step four: Document and respect the decisions and responsibilities arranged at the meeting </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  59. 59. STEP ONE <ul><li>Do not hold meetings which are obviously to expensive to be useful. The expense of the meeting = the price of work hours of all participants in the duration of the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>A meeting should be held when you need the group energy which is provided by the interaction between participants. </li></ul><ul><li>A meeting should be held when you want result which can be get if all participants are assembled in one place. </li></ul><ul><li>And finally, a meeting should be held when you want others to accept a decision, program or idea. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  60. 60. STEP TWO <ul><li>Those people who are in charge of the application of decisions or those who influence them, should attend the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be not more than 8 to 12 people on the meeting. Those who, by your judgment, don’t need to attend, should get a written record of the meeting in order to know what was decided. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  61. 61. STEP THREE <ul><li>The agenda of the meeting: goals, predicted time needed for the agenda and instructions to everyone of how to get ready for active participation on the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Every thing above mentioned should be sent in advance so the participants could prepare for the meeting and not to speak by heart. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  62. 62. STEP FOUR <ul><li>For you to run the meeting adequately you must: stick to the agenda, have control over the time and the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally return to the goals of the meeting defined in the agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally sum up all that has been spoken. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional l y encourage those who haven’t participated to speak ( thus not letting intrusive people to dominate ). </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  63. 63. STEP FIVE <ul><li>A record of the meeting should be written. The record is a tool which helps you to uphold the responsibilities which are assigned and accepted by the participant. A record should tell you who will be doing what and in what given time. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  64. 64. FOR THE END <ul><li>If you obey these five steppes, you will control your meetings instead of them controlling you. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  65. 65. HOW TO DEVELOP THE SKILL OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>Considering the goal which we wish to accomplish and meeting the target group to whom we are speaking to. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning your performance : </li></ul><ul><li>- The skill of verbal and nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>- Interactive relation with the listeners </li></ul><ul><li>- How to handle with difficult questions and negatively disposed listeners. </li></ul>negativelyOktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  66. 66. TYPES OF WRITTEN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Business letter and memorandum </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic written business communication: e-mail, the web and chat. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  67. 67. BUSINESS LETTER <ul><li>The most common form of business communication . </li></ul><ul><li>It is written and send in person to every business partner. </li></ul><ul><li>A business letter is a document about a certain business. </li></ul><ul><li>Its basic characteristic is that it represents an answer. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  68. 68. PARTS OF THE BUSINESS LETTER <ul><li>Heading </li></ul><ul><li>Date and place Supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Receivers address Way of sending </li></ul><ul><li>Call signs Copy order </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Addition or P.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The content of letter </li></ul><ul><li>Regards </li></ul><ul><li>Signature </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  69. 69. MEMORANDUM <ul><li>Memorandum are short intern messages . </li></ul><ul><li>They are mostly on one page, informal and imply to one particular subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandums hold space to enter dates , names of receivers and senders , the subject of the message and space for the message . </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandums should be written positively, with a specific purpose, clear language, should be condensed and interesting. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  70. 70. E - mail <ul><li>E- mail or electronic mail is a type of business communication which is used in intern and extern communication. </li></ul><ul><li>A business e – mail should consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>heading or protocol which includes: e-mail address of the sender and receiver, address of the copies, subject of the message, list of attachments and the time and date which are given automatically. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  71. 71. THE WEB <ul><li>Business web communications of a company are being taken in one of two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Manufacture and maintenance of web pages </li></ul><ul><li>2. Manufacture and maintenance of commercial web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Presentative web pages are use to present the company to the public. They consist of basic information about the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial web pages are used by merchant societies to offer specific goods. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  72. 72. CHAT <ul><li>Chat is a type of direct, written business communication which is a replacement for maintaining meetings between participants from different locations. </li></ul><ul><li>A conversation between the participants of a web meeting is being held in a written form in real time which means that every participant of the meeting communicates by examining and watching the meeting on the computer screen, and by writing comments. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  73. 73. LITERATURA <ul><li>web portal, pisano poslovno komuniciranje , , </li></ul><ul><li> , </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  74. 74. <ul><li>VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  75. 75. SUBJECTS <ul><li>Types of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of verbal communication . </li></ul><ul><li>How we communicate nonverbally . </li></ul><ul><li>Types of nonverbal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of nonverbal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the percentage of nonverbal communication in standard communication . </li></ul><ul><li>Physical appearance </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  76. 76. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  77. 77. <ul><ul><li>Indirect communication is conducted without the use of a mediator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct communication is conducted via some type of media </li></ul></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  78. 78. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  79. 79. <ul><li>Indirect communication has two components </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal, which represents words </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal, which implies to all other forms of communication except words (body language, face expression, gesticulation…) </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  80. 80. <ul><li>Verbal communication besides words has two more components </li></ul><ul><li>Voice (color, tone, volume, pauses, expression, speed), </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance (body position, gesticulation, mimic). </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  81. 81. <ul><li>Some types of direct communication can have ,besides a verbal communication component, a nonverbal communication component, but it is less noticeable. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  82. 82. <ul><li>Confirms the pronounced </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes, changes, fills in verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses emotions, intentions and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Gives information about reactions to given announcement, </li></ul><ul><li>Gives information about us. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
  83. 83. Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  84. 84. <ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Head movement </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures and body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Pose and posture </li></ul><ul><li>Distance and orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac CHANELS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
  85. 85. Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  86. 86. Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  87. 87. <ul><li>Body language consists of: body posture, body orientation, hand gestures, head nods and touch. </li></ul><ul><li>A detailed description of the content which we verbally explain is followed by frequent gesticulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Before conducting anything, we often do preparation movements of which we are not even aware of. </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac BODY LANGUAGE
  88. 88. Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  89. 89. Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac
  90. 90. <ul><li>Psychological classification of space: </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate space: 15 – 45 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Personal space: 45 – 120 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Social space: 1,2 – 3,5 m </li></ul><ul><li>Public space: more than 3,5 m </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac Distance and orientation
  91. 91. INSTEAD OF A CONCLUSION Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac Business communication besides allowing us to work on accomplishing the goals and assignments of our company, also participates in the creation of the hole image of the company.
  92. 92. LITERATURE <ul><li>N.Rot, ‘’Z nakovi i z na č enja ’’ , 198 2. Filozofski fakultet, Beograd </li></ul><ul><li>E dicije „Znanje za uspešno poslovanje I i II”, E- magazin, Beograd 2005-2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Hogan , ‘’ U mijeće utjecanja’’, 2008. , P rofil internacional </li></ul>Oktobar 2008. Kragujevac