On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Network planning OFC Network Planning Ist Step: Route Survey. Objective: To Asses the feasibility of alternative routes connecting rollout cities. Tools: Tourist Map, State map, District PWD map, Revenue map, Local Guidance. Points of Observation: Route name Brief about route (different sections of route i.e. towns, diversions, turning enroute Start and last point of route. Route length (measured with milometer or Km stones) Major Town/ commercial establishment on the route( Jurisdiction-MC/PWD) Villages & Towns with length Rivers/nallahs with details (Name,length,possible methods of crossing over/under/clamping etc) Bridges/culverts(Total no, Max width, total appox.length in each section & crossing methods) Railway crossings Road details (NH/SH/MCD/NHAI/Development agencies/panchayat/ Defense/) Road levels w.r.t ground (hilly terrain, embankment) Forest details Waterlogged area HT Lines details Details of existing OFC/Coax cables Gas pipeline , water pipe line crossings Future expansion plan of road Industrial Units Visible Rodent affected area Recommended location of ADM/Regenerators
Network Implementation Fiber Packaging : The fibers shall be bundled in –groups of 6,8, 12 fibers. Two bundling threads or tapes helically wrapped on the fiber groups shall be colour coded in the order: Group#1 Blue, Group#2 Orange Group#3 Green Group#4 Brown Group#5 slate Group#6 White Group#7 Red Group#8 Black All the fibers in the bundle of 12 fiber shall be color coded with UV curable ink as : Fiber#1 Blue , Fiber#2 Orange, Fiber#3 Green, Fiber#4 Brown, Fiber#5 Slate, Fiber#6 White, Fiber#7 Red, Fiber#8 Black, Fiber#9 Yellow, Fiber#10 Violet, Fiber#11 Pink, Fiber#12 Natural, Optical Characteristics :
PCM Sampling Speech Bandwidth 300 Hz to 3400 KHz Nyquist Theorem - 2 X to represent Signal Use 8KHz 128 Analogue levels, 8bit word 8000 Hz X 8 bits = 64 kb/s = 1 Voice Channel
Mutiplexing allows multiple voice channels on one physical circuit
Two common methods in electrical domain
a) Time Division Multiplexing
b) Frequency Division Multiplexing
TDM Primary rates:
-2Mbps in Europe
- 1.544 Mbps in US, North America
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
Plesiochronous is derived from the Greek meaning 'almost synchronous’.
Drawbacks of PDH
Complete de-multiplex required to access any particular channel.
Lack of Network Management information.
Line coding used in PDH systems
HDB3 Line coding
2.048 Mbps Frame structure 3.9 μ sec 1 Frame alignment word Network Signaling All time slots contain 8 bit words (PCM, Data, sub rate, n x 64 kbps 0 2 3..14 15 16 17..30 31 0 … .
Frame Alignment (PCM 31)
8Mb/s Frame Structure
34 Mb/s Frame Structure
Typical 140Mbps FOT System
Typical 140 M OLTE MUX & DMUX : Multiplexer & De Multiplexer SD CH: Service Data Channel SYNC & S/P : Synchronizer and Serial-to-Parallel Converter UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver/ Transmitter CC : Code Converter RSD INTF: Remote Service Data Interface.