MANAGING OCCUPATIONALHEALTH AND SAFETYIN THE OFFICE / Multimedia Studio
OFFICEWISE – A GUIDE TO HEALTH & SAFETY IN THE OFFICE Officewise is designed to help employers and employees take a look at their workplace. It aims to: Raise awareness of health and safety issues in the office; Help identify existing and potential health and safety problems; Encourage consultation on health and safety issues; Help employers meet their legal responsibilities in relation to health and safety; Offer solutions and advice; and Give guidance on where to go for further information and help.
THE RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACHEmployers are required to provide information, training and supervisionso that employees can perform their work in a safe manner.Training should provide employees and their supervisors with anunderstanding of: health and safety legal responsibilities; The nature of the hazards in the workplace; The process of hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control; The arrangements for reporting; Circumstances likely to cause hazards; The reasons for and safe use of the risk control measures in place in The workplace; and Safe work practices.
WHY IS HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKMANAGEMENT IMPORTANT TO ABUSINESS?There is a legal obligation to provide ahealthy and safe workplace. Inaddition, effective management of healthand safety hazards makes good businesssense.It can lead to reduced costs, increasedproductivity, higher morale and betteremployee relations.
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HEALTHAND SAFETY? Everyone! Employers have a duty of care to provide a healthy and safe working environment under occupational health and safety legislation and common law. Employers should ensure that all managers, supervisors and employees are aware of their occupational health and safety responsibilities. This should be done through consultation, documenting responsibilities and ensuring there are processes in place to hold people accountable for occupational health and safety performance.
INTEGRATING HEALTH AND SAFETYINTO OFFICE MANAGEMENTSystems and processes for themanagement of health and safetyhazards in the office should be builtinto the day-to-day running of anybusiness. They should be viewed aspart of the normal operation of thebusiness.
HOW CAN THIS BE ACHIEVED?Occupational health and safety must bemanaged systematically. The best systemwill depend on the nature and size of thebusiness, however, there are a number ofaspects to be considered as a basis forany sound occupational health and safetymanagement system.
CONSULTATIONConsultative arrangements should be in place to enable effective cooperationbetween the employer and employees in developing and promoting measuresto ensure employees‟ health, safety and welfare at work.Consultation should involve:• managers and supervisors representing the employer; and• employees and elected Health and Safety Representatives (HSR) or otherparties representing the employees.An effective forum for consultation is a health and safety committee.Consultationabout specific issues and hazards should include direct discussion with relevantemployees.Further information about health and safety committees and Health and SafetyRepresentatives is found in the legislation.
DEFINITIONS AND PROCESSESHazard means the potential to cause harm (such as injury or illness).Risk means the likelihood of harm arising from exposure to any hazards and the consequences of that harm. For example, cleaning fluids may be a potential hazard but may not pose a risk of exposure unless they are incorrectly stored or handled.
HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONThis is the process of identifying all situations orevents that could give rise to injury or illness. Itgenerally involves consideration of the type ofinjury or illness possible, (for examplemusculoskeletal disorders (MSD)) and thesituations and events that could create potentialfor the injury or illness (for example, prolongedbending over a low desk during a collating task).
RISK ASSESSMENTThis process determines whether thereare any risks associated with the identifiedhazards. This generally involvesconsideration of the nature of exposure tothe hazards, including the frequency andlevel of exposure, pattern of exposure(continuous or intermittent) and adequacyof any existing risk control measures.
RISK CONTROLThis process determines and implements appropriate measures tocontrol risk.Factors that are assessed as posing an increased risk are required bylegislationto be controlled so far as is „reasonably practicable‟. „Reasonablypracticable‟ inthis case means you need to consider: The likelihood of the hazard or risk eventuating; The degree of harm that would result if the hazard or risk eventuated; What the person concerned knows, or ought reasonably to know, about the hazard or risk and any ways of eliminating or reducing the hazard or risk; The availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or reduce the hazard or risk; and The cost of eliminating or reducing the hazard or risk.
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT Is the elimination at source of risks to the health, safety and welfare of persons at work. If risks cannot be eliminated, occupational health and safety legislation requires that they be reduced so far as is reasonably practicable. You could use one or more of the following methods: Substitution of the hazard with something posing a lower risk; Isolation – for example, enclosing the hazard; or Engineering control – for example, a mechanical aid. If a risk to health and safety remains after the above methods have been used, administrative controls, for example work procedures and training, should be applied and, if relevant, personal protective equipment should be worn.
EVALUATION OF CONTROL MEASURESThis means checking to see whether the introducedchanges reduce the risk previously assessed. It mayinvolve repeating the process of hazardidentification, risk assessment and risk control to ensurethat all risks to health and safety from a particularhazard have been controlled as far as practicable. Thisdepends on the hazard, the nature of the assessedrisks and on the control measures used. Where theevaluation of risk control measures reveals someremaining risk, the process continues until risk isminimised as far as reasonably practicable.
IDENTIFYING HAZARDS IN THE OFFICEConsider the type of hazard present in your office Mechanical hazards, such as filing cabinets that tend to tip when heavily laden top drawers are open; tripping hazards. Physical hazards, like glare or reflections from screens; hot components of photocopiers; poorly designed chairs that do not provide the user with adequate back support; poorly designed jobs and tasks that demand prolonged work in a fixed posture. Chemical hazards, such as vapours in the atmosphere – for example, paint, solvents or airborne particles like photocopier toner. Psychological hazards, like the need to perform excessive workloads under pressure, lack of satisfaction from a job where there is inadequate recognition of work performed or repetitive work and insufficient task variety. Electrical hazards such as damaged electrical cords or overloaded power points that may lead to the risk of electric shock.Each of these hazards is discussed in more detail in other sections of this guide.
CHECK RECORDS OF INJURIES ANDINCIDENTSCheck injury records, first aid reports andworkers compensation claim forms forinformation about the work tasks, the areain which work is performed, the activitybeing undertaken at the time of injury,factors thought to be related to the incidentand the type of symptoms or injuryreported.
CONDUCT A WALK-THROUGH INSPECTIONOF THE OFFICE USING A HAZARDCHECKLISTA checklist is a useful method for identifying hazards.A good checklist provides a systematic method to ensure that you do not miss hazards. It enables you to gather important information and record it quickly so that it can be considered more thoroughly during the assessment.
WHAT TO CONSIDER WHEN ASSESSING RISKThe likelihood of the exposure leading to injury or diseaseTypically the common injuries include: musculoskeletal disorders of the back, neck and upper limbs; minor injuries due to cuts, trips or falls or being hit by an object; and stress-related conditions.The employer should assess the likelihood of these or otherinjuries at their workplace.
THE FREQUENCY AND DURATION OFEXPOSUREHow often and for how long employees may be exposedto a particular hazard should be estimated or measuredby consulting with employees, looking at duty rostersand observing employees performing the work.Who may be affectedDetermining tasks and areas that may be affected by aparticular hazard can help direct limited resources tothose areas where the most effect can be obtained fromcontrol measures.
WHAT TO CONSIDER WHENCONTROLLING RISKA range of measures for controlling risk involveselimination, substitution, isolation, engineering, administration and personal protective equipment.EliminationRedesigning the job to design out risks altogether is themost effective method of risk control. For example, theneed for excessive photocopying and collation can beeliminated if memoranda are circulated by email. Aquality photocopier can sort, collate and staple toeliminate manual handling.
SubstitutionMaterials, equipment or processes can be replaced withless hazardous ones. For example, a telephone handsetcan be replaced with a headset where there is prolongeduse of the telephone or where typing is required whileusing the telephone.IsolationEnclosing or isolating the hazard from employees caneliminate or reduce the risk of injury or illness. Forexample, a photocopier can be located in a separate wellventilated room to isolate noise and fumes.
EngineeringEngineering controls may involve the provision ofmechanical aids, barriers, guarding, ventilation or insulationto prevent employees being exposed to a hazard. Forexample, a heavy compactus system may have amechanical winder or electric controls to prevent the needfor pushing and pulling the sections.AdministrationThis may involve establishing policies, procedures and workpractices designed to reduce an employee‟s exposure to arisk. It may also relate to the provision of specific training andsupervisory practices. For example, by advising employeesagainst performing continuous keyboard work for longperiods, and increasing task variety.
PREVENTION & HAZARDS Reducing risk by using a telephone headset (Worksafe Vic, 2006)
SETTING UP YOUR WORKSTATIONThe following checklist is a step-by-step approachdesigned to be used when employees are located at anew workstation or whenever their tasks change. Whensetting up the position of this furniture and equipment itis important to try new positions to find the mostcomfortable arrangement for yourself. Give yourself achance to get used to any changes, as it may takeseveral hours or even days to determine the bestposition. Remember, it may take a few tries to get thebest arrangement, but it is worth the effort – and if achange doesn‟t work, you can always reset it.
CHAIR When adjusting your chair please refer to any instructions that are provided (Worksafe Vic, 2006) with the chair or have someone show you how to adjust it and use the controls. If there is no one available to assist you, work through this checklist with another person and observe each other‟s postures and body positions. Also, remember to try and avoid sitting for long periods of time. Some form of break from sitting every 20 – 30 minutes is helpful. Even getting up for 20 to 30 seconds to go to a printer or standing while talking on the telephone will provide some relief.
SEA Back support T Height – start by raising the backrest to its (Worksafe Vic, 2006) maximum height. Then sit in the chair and check the fit of the backrest to the curve of the lower back. If it‟s not comfortable, lower the height by several centimetres and try this position. Repeat this adjustment and try each new position until the most comfortable fit is found. Ensure that the backrest supports the curve of your lower back and is not placed tooHeight – adjust chair height so feet low.are comfortably flat on the floor, Forward/backward position – adjustthighs are the position of the backrest until aapproximately horizontal and the comfortable pressure is exerted on thelower legs approximately vertical. lower back area while seated inLow heeled shoes will improve theusual working posture at the desk.comfort of the legs with the chair atthis height.
The backrest position should not feel as though it pushes you out of the seat orthat you have to lean back too far to reach it. There should be a two-fingerclearance between the front of the chair and the back of the knee. Trial anumber of different positions until the best fit is achieved. A slight backward tiltis a preferred position as the force on the lower back is reduced. However,some people prefer to sit upright. You can vary this angle to provide changes inposture from time to time. (Worksafe Vic, 2006) Armrests Armrests are usually not recommended unless they are short, fit under the desk or are adjustable. However, if your chair has armrests make sure that they do not prevent you from getting as close to the desk as you require or that they impinge on your elbows while you are working. If this is the case, either remove them by unscrewing them, or replace them with a smaller or adjustable option.
DESKIF YOU HAVE A HEIGHT-ADJUSTABLEDESK (Worksafe Vic, 2006) Having first adjusted your chair to suit your body size, adjust the desk so the top surface is just below elbow height. To determine your elbow height, relax your shoulders and bend your elbows to about 90 degrees and check the elbow height against the desk height.
IF YOU DON‟T HAVE A HEIGHT- ADJUSTABLE DESK If the chair has been adjusted and the desk is higher or lower than the elbow, other forms of adjustment will be required. Start by measuring the height difference between the desk and your elbow. If the desk is too high Raise the chair by the measured difference and use a footrest. Set the footrest platform so that it is the same as the measured difference. OR Lower the desk by cutting the legs down by the measured difference.
IF THE DESK IS TOO LOW (Worksafe Vic, 2006) Raise the height of the desk by extending the leg length or sitting it on wooden blocks or something similar. Remember to ensure that any such changes are secure and stable.
CLEARANCE UNDER THE DESK (Worksafe Vic, 2006) General items, like computer hard disk drives, boxes of documents or files, rubbish bins and mobile drawers should not be stored under desks where they will decrease or interfere with the space required for the legs. This may force you to adopt a twisted or awkward posture of the spine.
DRAWERSMost commonly used items should be placed inthe top desk drawer to improve access andreduce reaching and bending movements.Where drawers are fitted to the desk, equipmentsuch as the keyboard and computer screenshould be arranged on the desk so that you cansit comfortably in the leg-well space.
GENERAL STORAGE ON THE DESK In/out-trays Place trays at the outer reach sector . In- trays should not be located above shoulder level. Stationery A variety of containers are available for mixed stationery items. These should also be stored at the outer reach sector or in the top desk (Worksafe Vic, 2006) drawer. Reference books and folders Large or heavy references such as telephone directories and manuals should either be stored within close reach or in a nearby position where you need to stand to access them. Handling of these items should not be conducted at the limit of your reach capacity while sitting, as this can result in undue strain on the back, shoulder and arm muscles.
AngleKEYBOARD Tilt the keyboard using the feet at the back to suit your level of comfort. The common and preferred setting is where the feet are lowered so the keyboard sits flat on the desk. This assists in preventing awkward postures of the wrists. Position on the desk Place the keyboard as close to the front edge of the desk as is comfortable. Do not (Worksafe Vic, 2006) place documents between the keyboard and the front edge of the desk while using the keyboard as this increases the reach distance to the keyboard and may result in excessive bending of the neck to look at the documents. Ensure that there is room to put the keyboard to one side when it is not in use.
Place the mouse mat directly beside the end of the keyboard on yourMOUSE preferred side. Use the mouse in this position and always aim to keep the mouse on the mat during use. If you frequently use the mouse in your work you may wish to: • learn to use it with both hands so that you can swap between the right and left sides for improved comfort; • set the tracking speed of the mouse to a setting that suits you; • maintain your mouse to keep it in(Worksafe Vic, 2006) good working order (for example, keeping it clean inside); and • where possible, try and avoid holding on to the mouse when not in use.
COMPUTERSCREEN The screen should be positioned once the chair and desk heights have been established. Height The screen should be positioned so that the top of the screen is level with, or slightly lower than, your eyes when you are sitting upright . If the screen does not have a raising device such as a monitor stand, you may be able to use telephones books to raise the screen height(Worksafe Vic, 2006) on a temporary basis. Distance from the eye First place the screen so that it is approximately an arm‟s length away from your usual seated position .Trial this position and if necessary move it further away or closer as required.
POSITIONING THE SCREEN The screen should be placed so that it does not face windows, catching reflections from the windows, or have a window directly behind it causing glare from the (Worksafe Vic, 2006) window.
DOCUMENT HOLDERThe position of the document holder depends onyour need to view and reach the documents andthe type of document holder that is used.For continuous or frequent data entry where thesource document is observed more than, or thesame amount as, the screen:• place the screen slightly to one side so that thedocument holder is directly in (Worksafe Vic, 2006)front of the user OR• place the document holder in a similar positionto the screen where it is slightly to one side andyou look evenly between the two . An A-frame A lever or swivel arm documentstyle book rest that sits on top of the desk is the holder suspends the documentmost practical and can be set at different angles. above the desk at eye level. AnchorIt is usually best placed so that it supports it to the desk on either the left or rightdocuments on an inclined angle between the or the screen, according to yourkeyboard and the screen. preference, and place it directly beside the screen.
TELEPHON EThe telephone should be placed either within or at the limit of theoptimum reach sector, depending on the amount of use. The placementshould enable the user to operate the telephone without the need tomove their trunk to grasp the handset or to operate the numeric andfunction buttons.When making a lot of calls, it may be best to place the telephone on thesameside as the dominant hand so that this hand can comfortably operate thenumeric and function buttons. When mostly receiving calls, it may bemore comfortable to place it on the non-dominant side.Learn and utilise the functions of your phone, such as redial and thestorage of commonly used phone numbers, to improve the efficiency ofits use. Also, wherethe phone is used very often or for prolonged periods, a headset shouldbe used.
ANGLED READING AND WRITING SURFACE An angled board can(Worksafe Vic, 2006) improve neck comfort where a job involves a lot of reading and handwriting. It should be placed immediately in front of the user on top of the desk .
PLACEMENT OF SCREEN TO REDUCEREFLECTIONS (Worksafe Vic, 2006)
SCREEN POSITION WITHUNDESIRABLE REFLECTIONS (Worksafe Vic, 2006)
EXERCISES FOR OFFICE WORKERSNeck stretchKeeping your chin tucked in, gentlylower ear to shoulder and hold for 10seconds Stop, get up and moveon either side. Repeat several times. Getting up and walking around is the (Worksafe Vic, 2006) best exercise you can get to provide a break from sitting, concentrating and using the muscles of the arms and hands. About every 20 to 30 minutes is a guide to how often it is helpful to move around. Even getting up for 20 to 30 seconds to pick up papers from the photocopier or get some water is a way to change your posture and give muscles a chance to recover.
S-T-R-E-T-C-H AND CHECK!Head turns Stretching exercises help to relax musclesTurn head slowly to look over which have been working and move thoseleft shoulder. Turn head theother way. Repeat several which have been in a fixed position. If possible,times. stand up to do your stretches. (Worksafe Vic, 2006) While you are exercising, read the notes alongside each instruction and consider whether your workstation is adjusted to suit you. • Do a few of these exercises a few times everyday. • Dots show the muscles that you are exercising. • Make sure you relax and perform them gently. • Hold the stretch or repeat as indicated on the diagram. • Do not over-stretch. • Stop if you feel discomfort when performing an action. • Remember to do each side.
CHIN TUCKS Check neck posture (Worksafe Vic, 2006) • Position the top of your screen at eye level. • Use a document holder directly beside or below the screen – it saves you looking down.Raise the head to straighten the neck.Tuck the chin in and upwards creatinga double chin. This also results in aforward tilt of the head. Repeat severaltimes.
SHOULDERSShoulder rollsCircle shoulders forward several Check shoulder posturetimes, then backwards. Repeat 3 to 5times. Relax your shoulders and rest your hands on your lap. Bend your elbows to no more than 90 degrees and check the height of your finger tips against your current work height. If the work (keyboard or desk) is higher than your (Worksafe Vic, 2006) hands you may be hunching your shoulders unnecessarily. If so, try and raise your chair height or lower your desk height and try and relax your shoulders while working.
WRISTS, HANDS AND ARMS Wrist and elbow stretch Interlace fingers, palms outward, and straighten arms in front. Hold for 10 seconds and repeat several times. Wrist stretch Straighten your arm in front and bend your wrist forward, gently assist the stretch with your other (Worksafe Vic, 2006) hand. Hold for 10 seconds then stretch your wrist back and hold for 10 seconds. Repeat with other arm.
CHECK HAND AND WRISTPOSTURE • While keying, keep your wrist straight while your fingers are suspended over the keyboard. • Keep elbows at keyboard level. This may mean adjusting the desk or chair height. • Don‟t rest your wrists on the desk or keyboard while keying. (Worksafe Vic, 2006) Keep hands suspended. • Rest on the desk between periods of keying.
UPPER AND LOWER BACK Upper and lower back stretch Interlace fingers and turn palms upwards above head; straighten arms then slowly lean slightly from side to side. Repeat movement several times.(Worksafe Vic, 2006)
BACK ARCHING Stand up. Support your lower back with hands and gently arch back and hold for 5 to 10 seconds. Repeat as(Worksafe Vic, 2006) often as is needed.
PECTORAL STRETCH Raise both arms to shoulder height and bend elbows. Pull both elbows back slowly to bring shoulder blades towards each other. Repeat several times. Check back support • Sit well back in your chair – if your feet need support, use a(Worksafe Vic, 2006) footrest. • Adjust the backrest on your chair to support your lower back.
LEGS (Worksafe Vic, 2006) Check leg comfort • If the seat of your chair is digging into the backs of your thighs check that it is not too high or whether it is tilted backwards. • If the seat is too high, lower the chair and desk or use a foot rest toFoot pump supportStand up, holding the chair for your feet.balance if necessary, and • Also check the tilt of the seatalternately raise heels and and, if necessary, adjust it to atoes. Repeat 10 times. horizontal position.
EYES Eye exercise Sit up straight, face forward and repeat this sequence several times without moving your head. Look up, then down. Look left, then right.(Worksafe Vic, 2006)
VISUAL REST (Worksafe Vic, 2006)Check eye comfort• Is there enough light fallingon your documents?• Do windows or light fittingscause glare or reflection onthe screen? If so, try turningthe screen or blocking thepath of the light.• Use a screen with a light Look up and away from thebackground when working screen. Focus on a distantwith text. Software with a light object (more than 3 metresbackground for text is more away). For example, look out ofcomfortable for the eyes. the window or at a picture on a far wall. Shift vision back to screen and refocus.
FIRE & EXPLOSIONSFires can occur in both indoor and outdoorworkplaces. Fires and explosions can becaused by batteries, chemicals, andunsafe habits and storage practices. Planand practice a fire safety plan at yourworkplace and at home. Post theevacuation maps.
STORING FLAMMABLE & EXPLOSIVEMATERIALS Store flammable or explosive materials such as gasoline, oil and cleaning agents apart from other materials Keep flammable and explosive materials in proper containers with contents clearly marked Dispose of greasy, oily rags and other flammable materials in approved containers Store full barrels in an upright position Keep gasoline and oil barrels on barrel racks Store empty barrels separately Post signs prohibiting smoking, open flames and other ignition sources in areas
STORING FLAMMABLE & EXPLOSIVEMATERIALS CONTINUED…. Where flammable and explosive materials are stored or used Store and chain all compressed gas cylinders in an upright position Mark all empty cylinders with the letters “mt,” and store them separately from full or partially full cylinders Ventilate all storage areas properly Ensure that all electric fixtures and switches are explosion-proof where flammable materials are stored Use grounding straps equipped with clamps on containers to prevent static electricity buildup Provide the appropriate fire extinguishers for the materials found on-site Keep fire extinguisher stations clear and accessible
WORKPLACE VIOLENCEWorkplace violence includes any physical or sexual assault from apatient, client, supervisor, or co-worker. Behaviour such aspushing, hitting, pinching, or biting is violence. Verbalabuse, threatening language and harassment are also violence.Another form of workplace bullying and violence is destruction ofproperty.In addition to the physical injuries it causes, workplace violence cancause unseen stress and a dysfunctional work environment. Manyemployers are unaware violence is even occurring. Employers andworkers must cooperate to create a violence-free workplace. Manyemployers adopt a zero tolerance policy to prevent workplaceviolence.
ZERO TOLERANCE POLICYI am an employer or manager - what can I do to prevent workplaceviolence?Many employers are unaware that violence is occurring theworkplace.You can help prevent workplace violence by creating a writtenpolicy. This policy must: Apply to anyone who has a relationship with your company (including management, employees, clients, and independent contractors) Use precise language to define workplace violence State in clear terms your organization‟s view toward workplace violence and your commitment to the prevention of workplace violence Provide concrete examples of unacceptable behaviour Precisely state the consequences of making threats or committing violent acts
ZERO TOLERANCE POLICYCONTINUED…. Encourage reporting of violence by explaining: o All reports are confidential o How to report acts of violence o How to submit the reports (to whom) o Reassure them there are no reprisals for submitting a report Explain how complaints are investigated and resolved. Describe how potential risks of violence will be communicated to employees Make a commitment to provide support services to victims of violence Offer a confidential Employee Assistance Program (EAP) to allow employees with personal problems to seek help Offer violence prevention training for all workers within the organization
OH&S SafetyRepresentative isSteven Segal.Steve has worked in theoccupational health andsafety area for more than 15years and has an extensiverange of experience thatshows through his work. Hi!If there are any concerns orsuggestions that you mayhave, you can contact Steveon 0400123456 or email on:email@example.com
Induction process for new employeesUnder the workplace health and safety act,Disney Designs have an obligation to let theiremployees know about the OH&S policies andprocedures in the company. Employees also havean obligation to abide by these rules andprocedures in the correct way. As a newemployee for Disney Designs, here is a list ofOH&S requirements that need to be addressedand marked off: *Continued on next slide:
Knowledge of the nearest fire and emergency exits Posture when sitting needs to be in the correct position so that the back is fully straight not slouching. Daily exercise and stretches need to be done to improve circulation and improving the posture of the body Eyes need to be relaxed every 10 minutes by glaring at another object then back to the computer screen. When lifting heavy items, need to bend the knees not the back and if unable to then have to call someone else for assistance. If dealing with dangerous goods, need to make sure that the correct procedure is followed as stated on the information on the goods. Employee‟s duties to report any hazards or potential hazards in the workplace to the duty manager and/or the safety representative Steve Segal and document these in the company‟s intranet service. Aware of where the first aid kit is.I ...........................................have read the OH&S policies and procedures and haveunderstood it. I have been explained what my obligations are and who to contact ifhave any questions. Staff number: Staff name: Title:Date......................
EQUIPMENT SAFETY CHECKSTo maintain occupational, health and safety within a business like Disney Designs, equipment needs to be maintained on a regular basis. Things such as: Tagging items of where certain items are like first aid kit, up to date fire extinguishes. Furniture and fixtures are in good condition and in working order. Maintaining the condition of the computer peripherals such as cables wires and making sure that it is not broken or damaged. First aid kits are in date.