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Cell regulation cancer 5.3


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  • 1. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle KEY CONCEPT Cell cycle regulation is necessary for healthy growth.
  • 2. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Internal and external factors regulate cell division. • External factors include physical and chemical signals. • Growth factors are proteins that stimulate cell division. – Most mammal cells form a single layer in a culture dish and stop dividing once they touch other cells.
  • 3. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Two of the most important internal factors are kinases and cyclins. – Cyclin: group of proteins that triggers action of kinases – Kinase: enzymes that affect molecule’s activity - kin = Kinetics, kinein = “to move” - ase = enzyme – Together these both help a cell advance to different External stages of the cell cycle growth factors • External factors trigger internal factors, Triggered which affect the cell cycle. cell cycle Cyclins activities Kinases
  • 4. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Apoptosis is programmed cell death. – a normal feature of healthy organisms – caused by a cell’s production of self-destructive enzymes – occurs in webbed fingers development of infants
  • 5. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Cell division is uncontrolled in cancer. • Cancer cells form disorganized clumps called tumors. – Benign tumors remain clustered and can be removed. – Malignant tumors metastasize, or break away, and can form more tumors. (noun = metastasis) normal cell cancer cell bloodstream
  • 6. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Different growth patterns of tumors
  • 7. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Cancer cells do not carry out necessary functions. • Cancer cells come from normal cells with damage to genes involved in cell-cycle regulation.
  • 8. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Carcinogens are substances known to promote cancer. – UV radiation – Smoking – Other forms of radiation (nuclear radiation, x-rays, etc.) • Standard cancer treatments typically kill both cancerous and healthy cells.
  • 9. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Viruses can also cause cancer!
  • 10. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle How are cancers named? Type of tissue of origin: • Carcinoma: tumor of the internal or external lining of the body (skin & covering and lining of organs and internal passageways). • Sarcoma: cancer that originates in supportive and connective tissues such as bones, tendons, cartilage, muscle, and fat. • Leukemias("liquid cancers" or "blood cancers") are cancers of the bone marrow (the site of blood cell production). • Lymphomas develop in the glands or nodes of the lymphatic system, a network of vessels, nodes, and organs.
  • 11. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle How are cancers named? First site of origin: