TOPICARCHITECHTURE AS POWERFORTS AND SACRED PLACES
ArchitectureOf the visual arts of ancient and medieval India much architecture and sculpture have survived.The bricks building of the Harappan culture were utilitarian , strong and competent though they had little aesthetic merit.
Megasthenes mentions that the palace of Chandragupta Maurya which was large and luxurious was built of carved and gilded wood. Indian building in the mauryan period were not mean or primitive though they lacked a variety material . In the medieval period , the adoption of stones as a building medium was due to foreign contacts.
The craftsmen learnt their work from Persia and Greece. In this presentation we will study about the various styles adopted in making temples, the differences in the architectural styles of north and south , the Mughal school of architecture and regional influences.
There is an architectural difference between the temples of the north and those of the southThe 2 different styles are: NAGARA DRAVIDA
Nagara in the nagara style temples the tower (shikhara) of the temple is an inverted beehive shaped in structure with a bulge in the middle. the temples are usually surrounded by enclosures or boundary walls. the plan is based on a square but the walls are sometimes broken up to give a circular impression
the exterior of the nagara type of temples is characterized by horizontal tiers of layers eg Khajuraho temples The khajuraho temple have an entrace hall or mandapa and a holy place or garbha griha. The porch and hall have pyramidal roof made of several horizontal layers
Dravida in the dravida type temples the tower of the temple is pyramidal in shape and is composed of a series of tiers or layers that diminish in size as they ascend. the temple has many storeys each of which is smaller than the one below. it has an enclosure and a gateway called gopuram. eg Kailashnath Temple
The world famous kailashnath temple is a marvelous specimen of Rashtrakutas architecture. It is a rock cut temple and has four parts the body of the temple the entrance gate the main Nandi shrine a group of five shrine surrounding the courtyard
The Central Indian orVessara style of Architecture
Vessara is also a style of Indian architecture primarily used in temples this style contains elements of both Dravida and Nagara style. The trend was started by Chalkyas of Badami who built temples in a style that was essentially a mixture of the Nagara and Dravida styles further refined by the Rashtrakutas and Chalukya of Kalyani.
Alu-ud-din khilji , a great builder enlarged the quwat-ul-islam mosque in Delhi and added a gateway called Alai Darwaza. It has decorative windows and arched recesses. The gateway is a square structure and has a low dome over it. He built a new city of Siri (in Delhi) and embellished it with attractive buildings. He also constructed a new tank here. It was called hauz khas. Ferozshah tughlaq built many cities eg Firozabad , etc
The Mughal age is famous for its cultural developments and has been called the ‘Second Classical Age’ the first being Gupta age in northern India. The Mughals brought with them the Turko-Iranian cultural traditions which gave rise to the composite Mughal culture.
Three most important aspects are Mughal Culture was largely secular in nature. In this growth and enrichment of this culture , people from different parts of India and outside contributed equally. the cultural norms which the Mughals introduced in India in the field of architecture , painting , music , etc deeply influenced the future course of India culture.
Mughal Architecture Mughal architecture blended the Persian and Indian styles. Graceful domes, small domes at the corners standing on pillars, a huge palace hall and vaulted gateway are some of the salient features of Mughals architecture. The new style of building mausoleums in the middle of park like enclosures and double domes was introduced by the Mughals.
the provincial governors and independent rulers, besides the Delhi sultans, were also great builders of their capitals and forts. Ahmad Shah of Gujarat founded the Tin Darwaza and the Jama Masjid. The Tin Darwaza is a Triumphal gateway. the Bahmani rulers erected many buildings which are founded at Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur. These buildings have a distinct persian styles.
Ancient Period in the ancient period Buddhism, Jainism, Saivism and vaishnavism strove to grow independently with distinct entities in term of architectural design and the execution of structure. Each dynasty brought with itself different styles and techniques that enriched Indian architecture further and helped it reach its zenith.