INTRODUCTIONThere are 2 main types of temple architecture :NAGARA STYLE andthe DRAVID STYLE
In the Nagara style the tower(shikhara) of thetemple is an inverted beehive-shaped structure with a bulge in middle. The temples are usually surrounded by enclosures. The plan is based on a square but the walls are sometimes, broken up to give a circular impression. The exterior of the Nagara type of temples is characterized by horizontal layers .the best e.g. of Nagara type temple is Khajuraho temple .
KHAJURAHO TEMPLEKhajuraho temple had been built by the CHANDELLAS.Architecturally these temples are unique . While each temple in khajuraho has a distinct plan and design,several features are common to all . They are all built on high platforms ,several meters of the ground , either in a granite or a combination of light sandstones and granite. Each of these temples have an entrance hall (mandapa) ,and a holy place(garbha griha ).The roofs of these various sections have a distinct form . The porch and hall have pyramidal roofs made of several horizontal layers.
In the dravida style temples the tower (vimina) ofthe temple is pyramidal in shape and is composed ofa series of tiers or layers that diminish in size as they ascend. The temple has many storeys each of which is smaller than the one below. It has an enclosure and a gateway called GOPURAM. E.g. Kailashnath temple
VESSARA TYPE OF ARCHITECTUREVessara is also a style of Indian architecture primarilyused in temples. This style contains elements of bothNagara and Dravida style. The style is also described in some texts as the central Indian temple architecture style or Deccan architecture. oE.g. sun temple
THE ISLAMIC SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA With the advent of the Muslims, a new style of architecture began to emerge in India. This architecture also reflected the religious and social needs of the Muslims. While on the one hand ,Muslims had Persian architectural designs and ideas, On the other hand they had to employ local Hindu craftsmen and architects who introduced Hindu architectural designs and decoration in Muslim culture.
ABOUT SHAHJAHAN WHO LOVED ARCHITECTURE AND MONUMENTSShahjahan was popularly called Engineer king and the prince of builders. During his time the art of building reached its zenith. He was responsible for building grand edifices , palaces , mosques , forts and gardens in Agra and Delhi. Moti masjid and Taj Mahal and Red fort and Jama masjid in Delhi are some of his famous buildings .
Taj mahalThe Taj mahal , built by Shah jahan in memoriesof mumtaz mahal is the best work that was ever done by mughal dynasty. Ustad Isa was the master architect. Under whose guidance this monument was designed , executed andcompleted. It is made of pure white marble and is described as a dream in marble. All its partshave perfection of proportion. This structure on the bank of the river Yamuna is constructed on an elevated platform.
Red fort the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to found a fresh city at Delhi in the mid-seventeenth century. He called it Shahjahanabad, meaning City of Shah Jahan.At its centre stood the Red Fort, a vast walled complex of beautiful palaces andmeeting halls from which the Emperor ruled with unmatched public pomp and ceremony. Today, the surviving Fort buildings stand silently amid the still bustling city, now called Old Delhi. The Red Forts success was instant. It represented the pinnacle of Mughalpalace-fort building, and symbolized political and economic power. It was also perhaps the most extravagant and sophisticated theatre ever built for daily performances of one of the worlds most dazzlingly grand courts. But its glorywas short-lived; as the Mughal Empire waned, so did the Fort. Later Emperors abused the fine buildings, raiders snatched its treasures, marauders wrecked its buildings and finally the British, blind to its qualities, pulled down the greater part. Even this century, what remains has been largely ignored, unappreciated and uncared for. But, despite the ravages of time andhuman action, the extraordinary achievement of the Red Fort in plan and finearchitecture is still visible today, although it is unjustly ignored. It is time to set the record straight, to look again at the surviving buildings and to bring the Fort alive through the personality of its creator, Shah Jahan, and his Court.
JAMA MASJID Jama Masjid of Delhi is the largest mosque in India. The Jama Masjid stands across the road infront of the Red Fort. Built between 1644 and 1658, Jama Masjid is one of the last architectural works of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. The spacious courtyard of the Jama Masjid holds thousands of faithful. Jama Masjid is located on a mound in the heart of the old city and projects beautifully into the Old-Delhi skyline. Jama Masjid Mosque was built in red sandstoneand marble by more than 5000 artisans. Originally called the Masjid-i-Jahan-Numa, or "mosque commanding view of the world", the Jama Masjid stands at the center of the erstwhile capital city of the Mughals, Shahjahanbad.The Jama Masjid was completed under the supervision of Saadullah Khan, the Prime Minister of Shah Jahan. A sum of Rs 10 lakhs was spent on the construction of the Jama Masjid. The JamaMasjid is built on a red sandstone porch, about 30 feet (10 m) from the level of the ground and is about 1400 square yards (1200 m²) in extent. The Jama Masjid has three gateways, four towers and two minarets. The gateways in the north and south are led by a fleet of steps. The main entrance is on the eastern side facing the red fort. It was probably used by the emperors.The tower of the Jama Masjid is made up of five distinctive storeys. Each one of the storeys has a projecting balcony. The adjoining edifices are beautifully done with calligraphy.The first three storeys of the Jama Masjid tower are made of red sandstone and the fourth one is made of marble, while the fifth is made of sandstone. The Jama Masjid is covered with intricate carvings and has verses inscribed from the holy Koran. The grand Red fort (Lal Qila)stands on the eastern side of the Jama Masjid. The main prayer hall of the Jama Masjid is made up of high cusped arches and marble domes. The cabinet in the north gate of the Jama Masjidcontains a collection of Muhammads relics - the Koran written on deerskin, a red beard-hair of the prophet, his sandals and his footprints, implanted in a marble block.