Historical Point of View Stereotypes and Discrimination Communication Styles Power in the Workplace Laws Regarding the Workplace and Enforcement Career Theories Workplace Programs Role of the Counselor
“Before the Industrial Revolution, both men and women worked, not for wages, but for family survival and maintenance. In this context, men and women were considered partners. However, with the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution, labor was divided into a male work sphere that was paid, public, and external to the family and a female family sphere that was unpaid and private” (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000, p. 6).
“With the onset of WWII, women increased their presence in such fields as teaching, nursing, and clothing manufacture. Additionally, women entered lumber mills, auto and aircraft factories, electrical and munitions industries, and telephone operation…. Once the war was over, women returned to more female-dominated work”(Cleveland et. al., 2000, p. 8)
"By 1985, men provided the sole income in less than 15% of U.S.households." (Cleveland, et. al., 2000, p. 10)
“Studies show that women are often stereotyped as the ones who “take care” while men are stereotyped as the ones who “take charge,” the latter being a notion more connected to prerequisite behaviors for top-level job positions” (Brantner, 2006).
ex-role spillover refers to the carryover ofgender-based expectations aboutbehavior into the workplace. When womenare outnumbered by men, as in atraditionally masculine occupations, theytend to "stick out" and to be seen aswomen rather than as workers (Stockdale,Visio, & Batra, 1999, p. 638).
Gender stereotyping, one of the keybarriers to women’s advancement incorporate leadership, leaves women withlimited, conflicting and often unfavorableoptions no matter how they choose tolead.” (Bobinski, 2011)
Women are relatively well represented inlower and midlevel management positionsin American and European organizationsbut are woefully underrepresented in toplevel executive positions " (Cleveland et.al., 2000, p. 146)
The Glass Ceiling- women can only get so far in executive level careers "Women comprise only 15.4 percent of corporate officers in Fortune 500 companies" (Nixdorff & Rosen, 2010)
An interesting question is whether women who use strong influence tactics are equally disliked or whether they are more disliked than men who use such tactics. Well-known female leaders such as Hillary Rodham Clinton and Margaret Thatcher have been heavily criticized for their use of direct, assertive influence strategies. Thatcher, for example, who is not known for her feminist tendencies, has had her share of thinly disguised hostile comments on her style and tactics of influence. When she received the following backhanded compliment from a Labour Party official (the opposing political group), "May I congratulate you on being the only man on your team," she replied, "Thats one more than youve got on yours!" (Cleveland, et. al., p. 140)
“Once obtained, mens strong use of power may provide yet another barrier for women. Because of the metamorphic effects of power, women, who are more likely to be in powerless positions compared to men, may be perceived as weak, ineffective, and unable to influence others. Indeed, decades of stereotyping research…shows that given no specific information to the contrary, women are perceived to be weak, dependent, passive, and unmanagerial” (Cleveland et. al., 2000, p. 147)
The Equal Pay Act of 1963 represents one of the first post-World War II attempts to address gender discrimination in the workplace. The act forbids paying men and women different rates for "equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions."
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 states that it is illegal for an employer to "fail to hire or discharge an individual, or to discriminate with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because of such individuals race, color, gender, religion or national origin."
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission enforces Federal laws prohibiting employment discrimination. These laws protect employees and job applicants against employment discrimination when it involves:
Unfair treatment because of race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability or genetic information. Harassment by managers, co-workers, or others in the workplace, because of race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability or genetic information.
Denial of a reasonable workplace accommodation that the employee needs because of religious beliefs or disability. Retaliation because the employee complained about job discrimination, or assisted with a job discrimination investigation or lawsuit.
The FMLA entitles eligible employees of covered employers to take unpaid, job- protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee had not taken leave. Eligible employees are entitled to:
Twelve workweeks of leave in a 12- month period for: › the birth of a child and to care for the newborn child within one year of birth; › the placement with the employee of a child for adoption or foster care and to care for the newly placed child within one year of placement;
› to care for the employee’s spouse, child, or parent who has a serious health condition;› a serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform the essential functions of his or her job;› any qualifying exigency arising out of the fact that the employee’s spouse, son, daughter, or parent is a covered military member on “covered active duty;” or
“Although career development theories can contribute to our understanding of womens career development, these theories may not fully explain this process. …career-development models have emphasized mens aspirations and accomplishments and are based on nearly exclusively male samples” (Cleveland, et. al. , 2000, p. 259)
Studies show that "marital status, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and career choice directly affect the career development of women." (Gibbons, Woodside, Hannon, Sweeney & Davison, 2011)
Donald Super classified career development for women: › Stable › Homemaking › Conventional › Stable working › Double track › Interrupted › Unstable › Multiple Trial *as cited in http://freedownload.is/ppt/career-counseling-with-special-populations-26534871.html
Ginzberg noted three lifestyle dimensions: › Traditional (homemaker oriented) › Transitional (more emphasis on home than on work) › Innovative (equal emphasis on job and home) Gottfredson’s theory addresses the fact that men and women tend to differ in their occupational aspirations
Sexual Harassment training is mandatory in California › all California employers with 50 or more employees › must provide two hours of sexual harassment prevention training to their supervisors and managers › every two years, starting in 2005 ("Harassment training regulations," 2007)
“Affirmative action” means positive steps taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded. When those steps involve preferential selection—selection on the basis of race, gender, or ethnicity— affirmative action generates intense controversy” (Fullinwider, 2011).
“Diversity programs may espouse high ideals around gender parity, but unless these programs incite male leaders to action, unconscious bias and hidden mindsets will hold back women from participating fully in the corporate world, says Gary Namie, senior consultant at Work Doctor and author of The Bully-Free Workplace” (Mannino, 2012).
"A woman might enter the workforce to satisfy survival, pleasure, and contribution needs. However, this employment outside of the home is in addition to, rather than instead of, work in the home" (Nevill, 1997)
“A career counselor can also help the client investigate her outcome expectations and goals when her roles interplay in the work-family interaction. Outcome expectations provide the counselor with insight into the clients estimate of the probability of an outcome” (Slan-Jerusalim & Chen, 2009)
Educate client of the laws Assist in evaluating the balance of being a working woman Salience Inventory: › “help the client and counselor gain a better understanding of the womans participation in, commitment to, and values expectations for major life roles, which could provide the basis for an intervention” (Slan-Jerusalim & Chen, 2009)
Assist in the examination of: › multiple roles of women › clarifying personal beliefs and values › help to prioritize time and energy (Slan- Jerusalim & Chen, 2009) Inform of workplace rights Encourage a support network
Bobinski, D. (2011, July 24). Retrieved from http://www.workplace-excellence.com/gender- stereotypes-in-the-workplace-are-far-from-healthy-yet- they- persist/ Brantner, P. (2006, December 1). Gender stereotyping in the workplace and the discrimination it creates. Retrieved from http://www.todaysworkplace.org /2006/12/01/gender-stereotyping-in-the-workplace-and- the-discrimination-it-creates-danica-dodds/ Cleveland, J. N., Stockdale, M., & Murphy, K. R. (2000). Women and Men in Organizations Sex and Gender Issues at Work. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24471461
Fair Employment and Housing Commission, (2007). Harassment training regulations. Retrieved from website: http://www.fehc.ca.gov/act/harass.asp Fullinwider, Robert, "Affirmative Action", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2011/entries/affir mative-action/>. Gibbons, M. M., Woodside, M., Hannon, C., Sweeney, J. R., & Davison, J. (2011). The Lived Experience of Work and Career: Women Whose Parents Lack Postsecondary Education. The Career Development Quarterly, 59(4), 315+. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst? a=o&d=5049737221 Mannino, B. (2012, June 12). Mens role in breaking gender stereotypes in the workplace read more: http://www.foxbusiness.com/personal-finance/2012/06/12/men- role-in- breaking-gender-stereotypes-in-workplace/
Nevill, D. D. (1997). The Development of Career Development Theory. The Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 288+. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037622138 Nixdorff, J. L., & Rosen, T. H. (2010). The Glass Ceiling Women Face: an Examination and Proposals for Development of Future Women Entrepreneurs. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 13(2), 71+. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5048267346 Slan-Jerusalim, R., & Chen, C. P. (2009). Work-Family Conflict and Career Development Theories: A Search for Helping Strategies. Journal of Counseling and Development, 87(4), 492+. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst? a=o&d=5033047626 Stockdale, M. S., Visio, M., & Batra, L. (1999). The sexual harassment of men: Evidence for a broader theory of sexual harassment and sex discrimination. Psychology, Public Policy, And Law, 5(3), 630-664. doi:10.1037/1076-89220.127.116.110