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The Americans Chapter 10 America claims an empire

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The Americans Chapter 10

The Americans Chapter 10

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  • 1. CHAPTER 10
  • 2. Americans sought to increase the size of their nation  wanted to establish colonies overseas. – the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. Imperialism was already a trend around the world.
  • 3.  Japan formed a strong central govt. and joined in the competition for China in the 1890’s.
  • 4. 1. Desire for military strength 2. Thirst for new markets 3. Belief in cultural superiority
  • 5.  Many Americans thought they were superior to other peoples because they were Anglo- Saxon.  felt they should inferior peoples of Christianity and “civilization”
  • 6. oformer Secretary of State for Lincoln and Johnson. 1867 – arranged for the US to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million. Some people thought it was silly
  • 7. Alaska was often called “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox”
  • 8. 1959 – Alaska became a state •Cost was about 2 cents per acre •Land was rich in timber, minerals, and oil. Oil was not discovered until after the purchase.
  • 9. 1867- The US took over the Midway Islands  Lie in the pacific Ocean abt. 1300 miles north of Hawaii.  Uninhabited
  • 10. Mid 1900’s ¾ of the island’s wealth came from American owned sugar plantations. - laborers for plantations were imported from Japan, Portugal, and China. 1900 – foreigners and immigrant laborers outnumbered Hawaiians about 3 to 1. Hawaiian grown sugar was not charged a tariff by the US until the McKinley Tariff of 1890. American planters wanted the US to annex the islands to avoid the tax.
  • 11.  1887 – the United States persuaded Hawaii to allow them to build a naval base there.  Pearl Harbor – the kingdom’s best port  Became a refueling station for American ships
  • 12.  1887 – King Kalakua was forced by white business owners to amend the Hawaiian constitution.  Amendment limited voting rights to wealthy landowners only.  King Kalakua died and his sister Queen Liliuoklani came to power.
  • 13. Queen Liliukalani  She had only Hawaiians in mind for her agenda and wanted to revise the constitution leaving the white businessmen out.  Ambassador John L. Stevens organized a revolution.
  • 14. REVOLUTION  was aided by marines  The queen was overthrown and a government was set up headed by Sanford B. Dole
  • 15.  President Cleveland directed that the queen be restored to her throne.  Dole refused to refused to surrender  Cleveland recognized the Republic of Hawaii  Would not consider annexation unless a majority of Hawaiians favored it.
  • 16.  1897 – McKinley became president  August 12, 1898, Congress proclaimed Hawaii an American territory.  Hawaiians were never given the chance to vote  1959 – Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States.
  • 17. Section 3
  • 18.  When Puerto Rico became part of the U.S. Puerto Ricans feared that the U.S. would not give them the same freedom of self-rule they had under Spanish rule.
  • 19. -Puerto Rican statesman and publisher 1900-1916 – lived primarily in the U.S. and worked for Puerto Rico’s independence. Spoke to Congress May 5, 1916 He died Nov. 1916 Independence to Puerto Ricans was granted 3 months later.
  • 20.  Not all Puerto Ricans wanted independence.  Some wanted statehood.  Military Rule  During the S/A War, U.S. forces, under direction of General Nelson A. Miles, occupied the island.  Miles told Puerto Ricans that troops were there for protection.
  • 21.  The U.S. would control Puerto Rico until Congress decided otherwise.  Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S.  For maintaining a U.S. presence in the Caribbean  For protecting a U.S. canal that leaders wanted to build in the future.  Foraker Act – ended military rule in PR and set up a civil govt.
  • 22.  The act gave the president of the U.S. power to appoint members of Puerto Rico’s governor and members of its upper house of legislature.  Puerto Ricans could only appoint the lower house of legislature.  Insular Cases – Congress ruled that the Constitution did not apply to people in acquired territories.  Congress retained the right to extend citizenship  Granted that right to Puerto Ricans in 1917.
  • 23.  When the U.S. declared war on Spain in 1898, it recognized Cuba’s independence. Teller Amendment –  Stated that the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. Treaty of Paris – ended the war  Guaranteed Cuba’s independence
  • 24.  Cuba was occupied by American soldiers when the war ended.  The same officials who served Spain remained in office.  Cuban’s who protested this policy were imprisoned or exiled.
  • 25.  Provided food and clothing for families  Helped farmers put land back into cultivation  Organized elementary schools.  Helped eliminate yellow fever through improvement of sanitation and medical research.
  • 26.  1900 – Cuba wrote its own constitution for independence, leaving out the relationship between the U.S. and Cuba.  1901 – U.S. demanded that several provisions be added to the constitution.  These provisions were known as the Platt Amendment.
  • 27.  Provisions were as follows:  Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control any part of its territory.  The U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba  Cuba was not to go into debt that its government could not repay  The U.S. could buy or lease land on the island for naval stations and refueling stations.
  • 28.  The U.S. made it clear that troops would not withdraw from Cuba until the Platt Amendment was approved.  Cubans marched in protest against the U.S.  1903 – the Platt Amendment became part of the treaty between the two nations.  Remained in effect for 31 years.  Cuba became a U.S. protectorate - a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
  • 29.  The most important reason for the U.S. to maintain a strong political presence in Cuba was to protect American businesses that invested in the island’s:  Sugar  Tobacco  Mining industries  Railroads and public utilities
  • 30.  Many business people were convinced that annexing and imposing colonial rule on new territories was necessary to protect American interests.  Some were concerned about colonial entanglements.  Andrew Carnegie argued against the taking of nations as colonies.
  • 31.  Treaty of Paris – Filipinos were outraged by the annexation of the Philippines by America.  Emilio Aguinaldo  Rebel leader  believed that the U.S. had promised independence.  vowed to fight for freedom once they realized the terms of the treaty.
  • 32.  2/1899 - the Filipinos rose in revolt with Aguinaldo as their leader.  U.S. imposed authority on them.  Forced Filipinos to live in designated zones.  Poor sanitation, disease, and starvation killed thousands.  Just like Spain did with Cuba  Americans looked on Filipinos as inferior  Many of the troops sent to the Philippines were African Americans – 70,000.  Many deserted to the Filipino side – did not want racial prejudice.
  • 33.  Took 3 years to put down the rebellion  About 20,000 of them died fighting for independence.  4000 Americans died  Cost of war $400 million
  • 34.  After the war the U.S. set up a govt. similar to the one Puerto Rico had.  Philippines became an independent republic on July 4, 1946.
  • 35.  U.S. saw the Philippines as a gateway to the rest of Asia.  China was seen as a vast potential market for American products.  Opportunity for railroad construction
  • 36.  China had been weakened by war and foreign intervention.  Known as the “sick man of Asia”  France, Germany, Britain, Japan, and Russia had established settlements along the coast.
  • 37.  1899 - U.S. Secretary of State John Hay issued a series of policy statements called the Open Door notes.
  • 38.  The notes were letters addressed to the leaders of imperialist nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the United States, creating an open door.  No nation would have a monopoly on trade with any part of China.
  • 39.  Europeans dominated much of China’s large cities.  Some Chinese formed secret societies  Boxers – most famous of these groups
  • 40.  Killed hundreds of missionaries and other foreigners.  Chinese converts to Christianity  August 1900 – troops from Britain, France, Germany, and Japan joined 2,500 American forces and marched on the Chinese capital.  2 months – they put down the rebellion
  • 41.  2nd Series of Open Door notes was issued announcing that the U.S. would safeguard for the world the equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire.  Paved the way for greater American influence in America.
  • 42.  Reflected 3 American beliefs  Growth of economy depended on exports  Felt U.S. had to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open.  Feared the closing of an area to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S. survival.
  • 43.  under McKinley the U.S. had gained an empire.  Anti-Imperial League sprang into being  People against imperialism  Grover Cleveland, Jane Addams, Mark Twain
  • 44.  Teddy Roosevelt and the World   Roosevelt was unwilling to allow the imperial powers of Europe to control the world’s political and economic destiny.  In 1905, Roosevelt mediated a settlement in a war between Russia and Japan.
  • 45.  1904 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia declared war on Japan.  Russia and Japan were competing for control of Korea.  Japanese – attack on the Russian Pacific fleet  Japan destroyed a second fleet.  Won a series of land battles securing Korea and Manchuria.
  • 46.  Japan began to run out of men and money  They approached Roosevelt in secret and asked him to mediate peace negotiations.  1905 – 1st meeting – Portsmouth, NH  They negotiated and the Treaty of Portsmouth won the Nobel Peace Prize for Roosevelt in 1906
  • 47. Many Americans felt there should be a canal cutting through Central America. - would reduce travel time for military and commercial ships. - United States and Britain agreed to share the rights to the canal. 1901 – Hay-Pauncefote Treaty – - Britain gave the U.S. exclusive rights to build and control a canal through Central America.
  • 48.  2 possible routes were identified  1 through Nicaragua – crossed a lake  1 through Panama – shorter, but filled with mountains and swaps.  A French company had attempted to build a canal through Panama and after 10 years they gave up.  It sent an agent, Phillippe Bunau-Varilla to the U.S. to convince them to buy the claim.
  • 49.  The U.S. decided on the Panama route and purchased the area for $40 million.  The U.S. had to get permission from Columbia which ruled Panama at that time.  Negotiations broke down and Bunau-Varilla helped organized a rebellion against Columbia.
  • 50.  11/3/03 – nearly a dozen U.S. warships were present as Panama declared its independence from Columbia.  15 days later, the U.S. and Panama signed a treaty in which the U.S. agreed to pay Panama $10 million plus an annual rent of $250,000 for an area of land across Panama Called the Canal Zone. Payments were to begin in 1913.
  • 51.  construction of the Canal ranks as one of the world’s greatest engineering feats.  Problems – diseases – malaria, yellow fever  Soft volcanic soil – difficult to work with  Work began in 1904  Employed 43,400 workers
  • 52.  Many workers came from Italy and Spain, but ¾ were blacks from the British West Indies.  More than 5,600 workers on the canal died from accidents or disease.  Total cost to the United States was about $380 million.  Completed on 8/15/1914
  • 53.  U.S. –Latin American relations were damaged because the U.S. supported the rebellion of Panama.
  • 54.  Roosevelt was determined to make the U.S. a dominate power in the Caribbean and Central America.  He reminded European powers of the Monroe doctrine which demanded that European countries stay out of the affairs of Latin America.
  • 55.  Roosevelt Corollary – added to the Monroe Doctrine  Warned that disorder in Latin America would force the States to become an International police power.  Also said that the U.S. would use force to protect economic interests in Latin America.
  • 56.  1911 – rebellion broke out in Nicaragua  Left the nation in bankruptcy  Taft arranged for American bankers to loan Nicaragua enough money to pay its debts.  Bankers could collect Nicaragua’s custom duties  Bankers also gained control of the Nicaraguans state owned railroad and its national bank.
  • 57.  Nicaraguans revolted and marines were sent to Nicaragua to put down the rebellion.  Some marines stayed there until 1933.  Dollar diplomacy – policy of U.S. to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American businesspeople.
  • 58.  Said the U.S. had the right to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive.  Prior to this the U.S. recognized any government that controlled a nation, regardless of how it came to power.
  • 59.  Porfirio Diaz –  Military dictator  Ruled Mexico for about 30 years  Friend of the U.S.  1911 – Mexican peasants and workers led by Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz.  Madero promised reforms  Unable to fix the gap and conflicts between classes
  • 60.  2 years later Gen. Victoriano Huerta took over the government.  Madero was murdered  Wilson refused to recognize “a government of butchers”
  • 61.  1914 – small group of American sailors were arrested.  They were quickly released and Mexico apologized, but Wilson used the opportunity to intervene in Mexico.  He ordered U.S. marines to occupy Veracruz, an important Mexican port.
  • 62.  18 Americans and 200 Mexicans died during the invasion.  Argentina, Brazil, and Chile stepped in to mediate the conflict.  Proposed that Huerta step down  U.S. withdraw without paying for damages.  Mexico rejected the plan  U.S. refused to recognize Huerta  Huerta regime eventually fell apart
  • 63.  Venustiano Carranza  Became president in 1915  U.S. recognized his government and withdrew troops.
  • 64.  Mexican rebel  Opposed Carranza  Dedicated to land reform.
  • 65.  Francisco “Pancho” Villa –  Mexican rebel  Resented rule of Huerta  Villa threatened reprisals against the U.S.  Took Americans off a mining train and shot them.
  • 66.  Wilson ordered Gen. John J. Pershing and 15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Villa dead or alive.  Villa still ran.  Wilson called out 150,000 National Guardsmen and stationed them along the Mexican border.
  • 67.  Mexicans grew angry over the U.S. invasion of their land.  1916 U.S. troops clashed with Carranza’s army  Carranza demanded U.S. withdrawal and Wilson refused.  Both sides backed down.
  • 68.  Wilson ordered troops home.  Mexico adopted a constitution that gave the govt. control of the nation’s oil and mineral resources.  Placed strict regulations on foreign invasions  Carranza ruled oppressively until 1920.
  • 69.  Came to power after Carranza  Marked the end of civil war and beginning of Mexican reform.
  • 70.  Americans believed in the superiority of free- enterprise democracy.  The American govt. attempted to extend its reach of this economic and political system, even through armed intervention.  U.S. expanded its access to foreign markets in order to ensure growth of domestic economy.
  • 71.  U.S. built a modern navy to protect its interest abroad  U.S. exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America.