Americans sought to increase the size of their
wanted to establish colonies overseas.
– the policy in which stronger nations extend their
economic, political, or military control over weaker
Imperialism was already a trend around the world.
Japan formed a
govt. and joined in
for China in the
1. Desire for military strength
2. Thirst for new markets
3. Belief in cultural superiority
Many Americans thought they were superior
to other peoples because they were Anglo-
felt they should inferior peoples of Christianity
oformer Secretary of State
for Lincoln and Johnson.
1867 – arranged for the US
to buy Alaska from the
Russians for $7.2 million.
Some people thought it was
Alaska was often
1959 – Alaska became a state
•Cost was about 2 cents per acre
•Land was rich in timber,
minerals, and oil. Oil was not
discovered until after the
1867- The US took over the Midway Islands
Lie in the pacific Ocean abt. 1300 miles north
¾ of the island’s wealth came from
American owned sugar plantations.
- laborers for plantations were imported
from Japan, Portugal, and China.
1900 – foreigners and immigrant
laborers outnumbered Hawaiians about
3 to 1.
Hawaiian grown sugar was not charged
a tariff by the US until the McKinley
Tariff of 1890.
American planters wanted the US to
annex the islands to avoid the tax.
1887 – the United
Hawaii to allow
them to build a
naval base there.
Pearl Harbor – the
kingdom’s best port
Became a refueling
station for American
1887 – King Kalakua was forced by white business
owners to amend the Hawaiian constitution.
Amendment limited voting rights to wealthy
King Kalakua died and his sister Queen
Liliuoklani came to power.
She had only
Hawaiians in mind for
her agenda and
wanted to revise the
Ambassador John L. Stevens
organized a revolution.
was aided by marines
The queen was
overthrown and a
government was set
up headed by Sanford
President Cleveland directed that the queen
be restored to her throne.
Dole refused to refused to surrender
Cleveland recognized the Republic of Hawaii
Would not consider annexation unless a majority of
Hawaiians favored it.
1897 – McKinley became president
August 12, 1898, Congress proclaimed Hawaii an American
Hawaiians were never given the chance to vote
1959 – Hawaii became the 50th state of the United
When Puerto Rico became part of the U.S.
Puerto Ricans feared that the U.S. would not
give them the same freedom of self-rule they
had under Spanish rule.
-Puerto Rican statesman
1900-1916 – lived primarily
in the U.S. and worked for
Spoke to Congress May 5,
He died Nov. 1916
Independence to Puerto
Ricans was granted 3
Not all Puerto Ricans wanted independence.
Some wanted statehood.
During the S/A War, U.S. forces, under
direction of General Nelson A. Miles,
occupied the island.
Miles told Puerto Ricans that troops were
there for protection.
The U.S. would control Puerto Rico until
Congress decided otherwise.
Puerto Rico was strategically important to
For maintaining a U.S. presence in the Caribbean
For protecting a U.S. canal that leaders wanted
to build in the future.
Foraker Act – ended military rule in PR and
set up a civil govt.
The act gave the president of the U.S. power to
appoint members of Puerto Rico’s governor and
members of its upper house of legislature.
Puerto Ricans could only appoint the lower house of
Insular Cases – Congress ruled that the
Constitution did not apply to people in
Congress retained the right to extend citizenship
Granted that right to Puerto Ricans in 1917.
When the U.S. declared war on Spain in
1898, it recognized Cuba’s independence.
Teller Amendment –
Stated that the U.S. had no intention of taking
over any part of Cuba.
Treaty of Paris – ended the war
Guaranteed Cuba’s independence
Cuba was occupied by American soldiers
when the war ended.
The same officials who served Spain
remained in office.
Cuban’s who protested this policy were
imprisoned or exiled.
Provided food and clothing for families
Helped farmers put land back into cultivation
Organized elementary schools.
Helped eliminate yellow fever through
improvement of sanitation and medical research.
1900 – Cuba wrote its own constitution for
independence, leaving out the relationship
between the U.S. and Cuba.
1901 – U.S. demanded that several provisions
be added to the constitution.
These provisions were known as the Platt
Provisions were as follows:
Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its
independence or permit a foreign power to
control any part of its territory.
The U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba
Cuba was not to go into debt that its government
could not repay
The U.S. could buy or lease land on the island for
naval stations and refueling stations.
The U.S. made it clear that troops would not
withdraw from Cuba until the Platt
Amendment was approved.
Cubans marched in protest against the U.S.
1903 – the Platt Amendment became part of the
treaty between the two nations.
Remained in effect for 31 years.
Cuba became a U.S. protectorate - a country whose
affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
The most important reason for the U.S. to
maintain a strong political presence in Cuba
was to protect American businesses that
invested in the island’s:
Railroads and public utilities
Many business people were convinced that
annexing and imposing colonial rule on new
territories was necessary to protect American
Some were concerned about colonial
Andrew Carnegie argued against the taking of
nations as colonies.
Treaty of Paris – Filipinos were outraged by
the annexation of the Philippines by America.
believed that the U.S. had promised
vowed to fight for freedom once they realized
the terms of the treaty.
2/1899 - the Filipinos rose in revolt with
Aguinaldo as their leader.
U.S. imposed authority on them.
Forced Filipinos to live in designated zones.
Poor sanitation, disease, and starvation killed
Just like Spain did with Cuba
Americans looked on Filipinos as inferior
Many of the troops sent to the Philippines were
African Americans – 70,000.
Many deserted to the Filipino side – did not want
Took 3 years to put down the rebellion
About 20,000 of them died fighting for
4000 Americans died
Cost of war $400 million
After the war the U.S. set up a govt. similar
to the one Puerto Rico had.
Philippines became an independent republic
on July 4, 1946.
U.S. saw the Philippines as a gateway to the
rest of Asia.
China was seen as a vast potential market for
Opportunity for railroad construction
China had been weakened by war and foreign
Known as the “sick man of Asia”
France, Germany, Britain, Japan, and Russia
had established settlements along the coast.
1899 - U.S.
Secretary of State
John Hay issued a
series of policy
the Open Door
The notes were letters addressed to the
leaders of imperialist nations proposing that
the nations share their trading rights with
the United States, creating an open door.
No nation would have a monopoly on trade
with any part of China.
Europeans dominated much of China’s large
Some Chinese formed secret societies
Boxers – most famous of these groups
Killed hundreds of missionaries and other
Chinese converts to Christianity
August 1900 – troops from Britain, France,
Germany, and Japan joined 2,500 American
forces and marched on the Chinese capital.
2 months – they put down the rebellion
2nd Series of Open Door notes was issued
announcing that the U.S. would safeguard for
the world the equal and impartial trade with
all parts of the Chinese empire.
Paved the way for greater American
influence in America.
Reflected 3 American beliefs
Growth of economy depended on exports
Felt U.S. had to intervene abroad to keep foreign
Feared the closing of an area to American
products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S.
under McKinley the U.S. had gained an
Anti-Imperial League sprang into being
People against imperialism
Grover Cleveland, Jane Addams, Mark Twain
Teddy Roosevelt and the World
Roosevelt was unwilling to allow the imperial
powers of Europe to control the world’s political
and economic destiny.
In 1905, Roosevelt mediated a settlement in a
war between Russia and Japan.
1904 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia declared war
Russia and Japan were competing for control
Japanese – attack on the Russian Pacific fleet
Japan destroyed a second fleet.
Won a series of land battles securing Korea and
Japan began to run out of men and money
They approached Roosevelt in secret and
asked him to mediate peace negotiations.
1905 – 1st meeting – Portsmouth, NH
They negotiated and the Treaty of
Portsmouth won the Nobel Peace Prize for
Roosevelt in 1906
Many Americans felt there should be a canal
cutting through Central America.
- would reduce travel time for military
and commercial ships.
- United States and Britain agreed to share
the rights to the canal.
1901 – Hay-Pauncefote Treaty –
- Britain gave the U.S. exclusive rights to
build and control a canal through Central
2 possible routes were identified
1 through Nicaragua – crossed a lake
1 through Panama – shorter, but filled with
mountains and swaps.
A French company had attempted to build a
canal through Panama and after 10 years they
It sent an agent, Phillippe Bunau-Varilla to the
U.S. to convince them to buy the claim.
The U.S. decided on the Panama route and
purchased the area for $40 million.
The U.S. had to get permission from
Columbia which ruled Panama at that time.
Negotiations broke down and Bunau-Varilla
helped organized a rebellion against
11/3/03 – nearly a dozen U.S. warships were
present as Panama declared its
independence from Columbia.
15 days later, the U.S. and Panama signed a
treaty in which the U.S. agreed to pay
Panama $10 million plus an annual rent of
$250,000 for an area of land across Panama
Called the Canal Zone.
Payments were to begin in 1913.
construction of the Canal ranks as one of the
world’s greatest engineering feats.
Problems – diseases – malaria, yellow fever
Soft volcanic soil – difficult to work with
Work began in 1904
Employed 43,400 workers
Many workers came from Italy and Spain, but
¾ were blacks from the British West Indies.
More than 5,600 workers on the canal died
from accidents or disease.
Total cost to the United States was about
Completed on 8/15/1914
U.S. –Latin American relations were damaged
because the U.S. supported the rebellion of
Roosevelt was determined to make the U.S. a
dominate power in the Caribbean and
He reminded European powers of the Monroe
doctrine which demanded that European
countries stay out of the affairs of Latin
Roosevelt Corollary – added to the Monroe
Warned that disorder in Latin America would
force the States to become an International
Also said that the U.S. would use force to protect
economic interests in Latin America.
1911 – rebellion broke out in Nicaragua
Left the nation in bankruptcy
Taft arranged for American bankers to loan
Nicaragua enough money to pay its debts.
Bankers could collect Nicaragua’s custom duties
Bankers also gained control of the Nicaraguans
state owned railroad and its national bank.
Nicaraguans revolted and marines were sent
to Nicaragua to put down the rebellion.
Some marines stayed there until 1933.
Dollar diplomacy – policy of U.S. to
guarantee loans made to foreign countries by
Said the U.S. had the right to deny
recognition to any Latin American
government it viewed as oppressive.
Prior to this the U.S. recognized any
government that controlled a nation,
regardless of how it came to power.
Porfirio Diaz –
Ruled Mexico for about 30 years
Friend of the U.S.
1911 – Mexican peasants and workers led by
Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz.
Madero promised reforms
Unable to fix the gap and conflicts between classes
2 years later Gen. Victoriano Huerta took
over the government.
Madero was murdered
Wilson refused to recognize “a government of
1914 – small group of American sailors were
They were quickly released and Mexico
apologized, but Wilson used the opportunity
to intervene in Mexico.
He ordered U.S. marines to occupy Veracruz,
an important Mexican port.
18 Americans and 200 Mexicans died during
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile stepped in to
mediate the conflict.
Proposed that Huerta step down
U.S. withdraw without paying for damages.
Mexico rejected the plan
U.S. refused to recognize Huerta
Huerta regime eventually fell apart
Became president in
U.S. recognized his
Dedicated to land
Resented rule of
reprisals against the
Took Americans off
a mining train and
Wilson ordered Gen. John J. Pershing and
15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Villa
dead or alive.
Villa still ran.
Wilson called out 150,000 National
Guardsmen and stationed them along the
Mexicans grew angry over the U.S. invasion
of their land.
1916 U.S. troops clashed with Carranza’s
Carranza demanded U.S. withdrawal and
Both sides backed down.
Wilson ordered troops home.
Mexico adopted a constitution that gave the
govt. control of the nation’s oil and mineral
Placed strict regulations on foreign invasions
Carranza ruled oppressively until 1920.
Came to power after Carranza
Marked the end of civil war and beginning of
Americans believed in the superiority of free-
The American govt. attempted to extend its
reach of this economic and political system,
even through armed intervention.
U.S. expanded its access to foreign markets
in order to ensure growth of domestic
U.S. built a modern navy to protect its
U.S. exercised its international police power
to ensure dominance in Latin America.