Technology and City Life
By 1900 4/10 Americans made their home in
Technology changed to meet their needs.
They needed more space and one remedy
was to build toward the sky.
Architects were able to design taller buildings
because of 2 factors:
The invention of elevators.
The development of internal steel skeletons to
bear the weight of buildings.
who designed the
10 story Wainwright
Building in St. Louis.
Called it a “proud
and soaring thing”
Frank Lloyd Wright –
Described it as “a
new thing under the
Flatiron Building in
285 ft. tower
served as symbols
of a rich and
1888 – Richmond,
Virginia became the
first city to electrify its
Other cities followed.
Rail cars were both
above and below
ground – NY -
Engineering and Urban Planning
Bridges brought cities’ sections closer
Some provided recreational purposes.
City planners tried to restore a measure of
serenity to the environment by designing
Frederick Law Olmsted
He led the way in the
planned urban parks.
He and Calvert, Vaux,
and English born
architect, drew the
plans for Central Park
in NY City.
Olmsted envisioned tennis facilities, a zoo,
and bicycle paths.
He hoped the park would soothe people and
let them enjoy the natural setting.
1870’s – he planned landscaping for
Washington D.C. and St. Louis.
Motto ”Make no little plans. They have no magic
to stir men’s blood.”
He also drew the
initial designs for the
– Boston’s park
Daniel Burnham was intrigued by remaking
Created White City
Most important legacy was an overall plan for
Crowned by parks along Lake Michigan.
Majestic exhibition halls and statues
The first Ferris wheel
Advances in printing, aviation, and
photography helped spread the transfer of
Revolution in Printing
1890 – literacy rate 90%
Books, magazines, and newspapers were printed.
Mills began to produce lg quantities of paper from
Advances in printing and lower costs made
magazines more affordable.
Newspapers cost $.01
Orville and Wilbur
From Dayton, Ohio
1st built a glider
4 cylinder internal
Chose a propeller
Designed a biplane
with a 40’4 wingspan.
December 17th 1903
first successful flight at Kitty Hawk, NC
120 ft lasted 12 seconds
Within 2 yrs they increased their flights to 24
1920 – U.S. Government had established the
Before 1880 photography was only done by
Photographers could not take photos of
They had to develop their photos immediately
Developed a method
send their photos to a
studio for processing.
slow to pick up on the
Eastman decided to
address the masses.
introduced this new
$25.00 and included a
100 picture roll of film.
When all pictures were
taken, the camera was
sent back to the factory
and the pictures were
camera was returned
Photos Catch Society
Millions of Americans began to take their own
Helped to create the field of photojournalism.
Reporters could now photography events as they
An amateur photographer took photos at Kitty
Expanding Public Education
Children either did not attend school or
attended and left within4 years.
Very few went to high school.
Schools For Children
1865-1895 states passed laws requiring 12-16
weeks annually of school attendance by
students between 8-14.
Uneven quality of teachers
Strict rules and punishment made many
In spite of conditions, children began to attend
school at younger age.
Kindergarten became popular. It was
originally created outside of schools to offer
working mothers an option for childcare.
William Torrey Harris
schools to add
for black and white
Not until 1940s would
education be available
to black children living
in the South.
The Growth of High Schools
The economy demanded advanced
technological and managerial skills.
By 1900 more than ½ a million students
attended high school.
Curriculum expanded subjects to include
science, civics, and social studies.
New vocational jobs prepared boys for
industrial jobs in drafting, carpentry, and
African Americans were mostly excluded from
public secondary education.
More than 2/3 of these students went to
private schools which received no government
Education For Immigrants
Immigrants were encouraged to go to school
Most immigrants sent their children to
American’s free public schools where they
Some people resented the suppression of their
Catholics were concerned because children
read from the King James version of the Bible.
Catholics set up their own parochial schools to
give their children a Catholic education.
Thousands of adult immigrants attended night
school to learn English and qualify for
Many employers offered daytime programs to
Americanize their workers.
Model T factory had
To teach the English
American ways, and
the right way to live.
Expanding Higher Education
Changes in Universities
1880-1920 –college enrollments quadrupled
Colleges changed curriculum and admission
Research universities emerged.
Professional law and medical schools emerged.
Private colleges and universities required
entrance exams, but some required a high school
Higher Education For African
After the Civil War, and with help from the
Freedman’s Bureau, African Americans
founded Howard, Atlanta, and Fisk
All opened 1865-1868
Booker T. Washington
Believed that racism
would end once
useful labor skills
and proved their
economic value to
Washington was born a slave.
Graduated from Virginia’s Hampton Institute,
now called Tuskegee University
1881 – head of Tuskegee Normal and
Industrial Institute, now Tuskegee U in
Goal of Tuskegee
To equip African Americans with teaching
diplomas and useful skills in agricultural,
domestic, or mechanical work.
W. E. B. Du Bois
The 1st African
American to receive a
Harvard in 1895.
Founded the Niagara
Insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts
education so that the African American
community would have well educated leaders.
Du Bois proposed that a group of educated
blacks should attempt to achieve immediate
inclusion into mainstream American life.
Ida B. Wells
Born a slave
Moved to Memphis
in 1880s to work as
Later became editor
of a local paper.
Her theme turned into a crusade on March 9,
1892 when 3 of her friends were lynched.
African Americans were not the only groups to
experience violence and racial discrimination.
All encountered forms of oppression and it was
worse in the West.
African Americans Fight Legal
Southern states imposed new voting restrictions
Denied legal equality to African Americans.
Some states limited the vote to people that could
read and required a literacy test.
Blacks were sometimes asked harder questions than
whites or given a test in a foreign language.
Poll tax – the annual tax that had to be paid
before qualifying to vote.
Black and white sharecroppers were often too
poor to pay.
Grandfather clause – stated that if a man
failed the literacy test or could not pay the poll
tax would still be eligible to vote if he, his
father, or his grandfather had been eligible
before January 1, 1867.
The date of the grandfather clause is important
because before Jan. 1, 1867, freed slaves did
not have the right to vote.
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws that separated white and
black people in public and private facilities.
Named after a popular old minstrel song that
ended in the words “Jump, Jim Crow.”
Racial segregation was put into
effect in schools
Plessy v. Ferguson
Tested the constitutionality of segregation.
The Supreme Court ruled that the separation
of races in public accommodations was legal
and did not violate the 14th amendment.
Facilities could be separate as long as equal
services were provided.
Turn of the Century Race Relations
African Americans faced racial etiquette
Regulated relationships between whites and
Usually belittled blacks
Ex: blacks and whites never shook hands
Blacks would have to yield the sidewalk to whites
and remove their hats when they encountered
Some moderate reformers like Booker T. won
support from whites.
He suggested that whites and blacks work
together for social progress
African Americans and others who did not
follow the social etiquette would fact severe
punishment or death.
Many blacks accused of violating etiquette
1882-1892 – more than 1400 men and women
were shot, burned, or hanged without trial.
Discrimination in the North
African Americans were segregated in the
Faced discrimination in the workplace
Unwelcome in labor unions
Hired last and fired first
Sometimes competition between white and black
employees became violent.
New York City Riot of 1900
A young black man killed a white policeman
because he thought the policeman had
mistreated his wife.
Word spread and whites began attacking
Discrimination in the West
Mexican Workers – hired more to construct rail lines
than any other ethnic group.
Worked for less money than everyone else.
Major labor force in the agricultural industry in S.
Many forced into debt patronage.
Debt patronage – a system that bound laborers into
slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer.
Excluding the Chinese
Job competition with Chinese immigrants
caused the white people not to like them.
They were segregated
Strong opposition to immigration
Chinese Exclusion Act – renewed indefinitely
most were constructed on the outskirts of
Trolley car companies often built them
Had picnic grounds and a variety of rides.
1884 the roller coaster drew daredevil
customers to Coney Island.
1845 Alexander J. Cartwright organized the
first professional club in NY City.
National League - 1876
The American League – 1900
1st World Series in 1903 between the Boston
Pilgrims and the Pittsburg Pirates.
African Americans formed their own leagues
because they were not allowed in the other
Negro National League
Negro American League
Quote by Mark Twain about
“the very symbol …. And visible
expression of the drive and push and rush
and struggle of the raging, tearing,
booming nineteenth century.”
The Spread of Mass Culture
Joseph Pulitzer – a
Bought the New York
World in 1883
Created: the large
Sunday edition of the
sex, and sensation”
William Randolph Hearst
Owner of the NY Morning
Journal, the San Francisco
Sought to outdo Pulitzer by
filling the Journal with:
exaggerated tales of
an imaginary conquest of
War between the 2 papers drove both of them
to produce sensational news coverage.
1898 – each paper printed more than one
million copies a day.
Promoting Fine Arts
At least one art gallery graced every large city
An artistic school
that attempted to
portray life as it is
1880s he also used
make studies of
people and animals.
Ashcan school of American art
Led by Eakins’s
Painted urban life
and working people.
Soon challenged by
Scholars debated on the role of literacy in
Some felt it should uplift America’s literary
taste by adding crime tales and Western
Most people preferred to read light fiction.
Hence the name dime novels.
They usually told glorified adventure tales of
Most sold for $.10
Popular dime novel
published his first
novel in 1877 and
produced over 30
more in a decade.
Some readers wanted a more realistic view of
Writers of this style and period include
The Adventures of
Many Americans did not have interest in high
culture or no access to it
African Americans were excluded from visiting
museums and other white-controlled
New Ways to Sell Goods
1st shopping center opened in Cleveland
Ohio in 1890.
Jewelry, leather goods, stationery shops.
The arcade provided band music on Sundays.
Shopping districts formed where public transportation
could easily bring shoppers.
The Department Store
Marshall Field of Chicago first brought the
department store concept to America.
Learned he could influence women to
purchase things and the more attention he
gave them the more they bought.
Motto “Give the lady what she wants.”
Also pioneered bargain basement.
The Chain Store
Retail stores offering the same merchandise
under the same ownership.
Sold goods for less by buying in quantity and
limiting personal service.
1870 F. W. Woolworth – found that if things
were cheap the consumer would purchase it
on the spur of the moment.
1865 costs were under $10 million a year
1900 costs increased to $95 million a year
Patent medicines – largest advertisers
Soaps and baking powders came next
Catalogs and RFD
Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck
brought retail merchandise to small towns.
Ward’s catalog launched in 1872
Sears started his company in 1886
1910 – 10 million Americans shopped by mail
1896 US Postal service introduced the RFD –
rural free delivery service.