Life in the 20th century


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The Americans Chapter 8

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Life in the 20th century

  2. 2. Technology and City Life  By 1900 4/10 Americans made their home in the city.  Technology changed to meet their needs.  They needed more space and one remedy was to build toward the sky.  Y&feature=related
  3. 3. Skyscrapers  Architects were able to design taller buildings because of 2 factors:  The invention of elevators.  The development of internal steel skeletons to bear the weight of buildings.
  4. 4. Louis Sullivan  1890-1891 architect who designed the 10 story Wainwright Building in St. Louis.  Called it a “proud and soaring thing”
  5. 5.  The skyscraper became America’s greatest contribution to architecture.  Frank Lloyd Wright – studied under Sullivan  Described it as “a new thing under the sun.”
  6. 6. Daniel Burnham  Designed the Flatiron Building in 1902.  285 ft. tower  These buildings served as symbols of a rich and optimistic society.
  7. 7. Electric Transit  1888 – Richmond, Virginia became the first city to electrify its urban transit.  Other cities followed.  Rail cars were both above and below ground – NY - subways
  8. 8. Engineering and Urban Planning  Bridges brought cities’ sections closer together.  Some provided recreational purposes.  City planners tried to restore a measure of serenity to the environment by designing recreational areas.
  9. 9. Frederick Law Olmsted  Landscape architect  He led the way in the movement for planned urban parks.  He and Calvert, Vaux, and English born architect, drew the plans for Central Park in NY City.
  10. 10.  Olmsted envisioned tennis facilities, a zoo, and bicycle paths.  He hoped the park would soothe people and let them enjoy the natural setting.  1870’s – he planned landscaping for Washington D.C. and St. Louis.
  11. 11. Motto ”Make no little plans. They have no magic to stir men’s blood.”
  12. 12.  He also drew the initial designs for the “Emerald Necklace” – Boston’s park system.
  13. 13. City Planning  Daniel Burnham was intrigued by remaking Chicago.  Created White City  Most important legacy was an overall plan for the city  Crowned by parks along Lake Michigan.
  14. 14.  Majestic exhibition halls and statues  The first Ferris wheel  A lagoon
  15. 15. New Technologies  Advances in printing, aviation, and photography helped spread the transfer of information.
  16. 16. Revolution in Printing  1890 – literacy rate 90%  Books, magazines, and newspapers were printed.  Mills began to produce lg quantities of paper from wood pulp.  Advances in printing and lower costs made magazines more affordable.  Newspapers cost $.01
  17. 17. Airplanes  Orville and Wilbur Wright  Bicycle manufacturers  From Dayton, Ohio  1st built a glider  4 cylinder internal combustion engine,  Chose a propeller  Designed a biplane with a 40’4 wingspan.
  18. 18. December 17th 1903 first successful flight at Kitty Hawk, NC 120 ft lasted 12 seconds
  19. 19.  Within 2 yrs they increased their flights to 24 miles.  1920 – U.S. Government had established the first transcontinental
  20. 20. Photography Explosion  Before 1880 photography was only done by professionals.  Photographers could not take photos of moving objects.  They had to develop their photos immediately
  21. 21. George Eastman  Developed a method in which photographers could send their photos to a studio for processing.  Professionals were slow to pick up on the idea.  Eastman decided to address the masses.
  22. 22. Kodak  1888 Eastman introduced this new camera.  $25.00 and included a 100 picture roll of film.  When all pictures were taken, the camera was sent back to the factory and the pictures were developed. The camera was returned reloaded.
  23. 23. Photos Catch Society  Millions of Americans began to take their own photos.  Helped to create the field of photojournalism.  Reporters could now photography events as they occurred.  An amateur photographer took photos at Kitty Hawk.
  24. 24. EXPANDING EDUCATION Section 2
  25. 25. Expanding Public Education  Children either did not attend school or attended and left within4 years.  Very few went to high school.
  26. 26. Schools For Children  1865-1895 states passed laws requiring 12-16 weeks annually of school attendance by students between 8-14.  Criticized  Rote memorization  Uneven quality of teachers
  27. 27.  Strict rules and punishment made many students miserable.
  28. 28.  In spite of conditions, children began to attend school at younger age.  Kindergarten became popular. It was originally created outside of schools to offer working mothers an option for childcare.
  29. 29. William Torrey Harris  Influenced public schools to add kindergarten.  Educational opportunities differed for black and white students.  Not until 1940s would education be available to black children living in the South.
  30. 30. The Growth of High Schools  The economy demanded advanced technological and managerial skills.  By 1900 more than ½ a million students attended high school.  Curriculum expanded subjects to include science, civics, and social studies.
  31. 31.  New vocational jobs prepared boys for industrial jobs in drafting, carpentry, and mechanics.
  32. 32.  Education prepared females for office work.
  33. 33. Racial Discrimination  African Americans were mostly excluded from public secondary education.  More than 2/3 of these students went to private schools which received no government financial support.
  34. 34. Education For Immigrants  Immigrants were encouraged to go to school  Most immigrants sent their children to American’s free public schools where they became “Americanized.” Some people resented the suppression of their native language.
  35. 35.  Catholics were concerned because children read from the King James version of the Bible.  Catholics set up their own parochial schools to give their children a Catholic education.
  36. 36.  Thousands of adult immigrants attended night school to learn English and qualify for American citizenship.  Many employers offered daytime programs to Americanize their workers.
  37. 37. Henry Ford  Model T factory had a “Sociology Department”  To teach the English language, the American ways, and the right way to live.  Controversial/labor activists protested.
  38. 38. Expanding Higher Education  Changes in Universities  1880-1920 –college enrollments quadrupled  Colleges changed curriculum and admission policies.  Research universities emerged.  Professional law and medical schools emerged.  Private colleges and universities required entrance exams, but some required a high school diploma.
  39. 39. Higher Education For African Americans  After the Civil War, and with help from the Freedman’s Bureau, African Americans founded Howard, Atlanta, and Fisk Universities.  All opened 1865-1868
  40. 40. Booker T. Washington  African American educator  Believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
  41. 41.  Washington was born a slave.  Graduated from Virginia’s Hampton Institute, now called Tuskegee University  1881 – head of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, now Tuskegee U in Alabama.
  42. 42. Goal of Tuskegee  To equip African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in agricultural, domestic, or mechanical work.
  43. 43. W. E. B. Du Bois  The 1st African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard in 1895.  Disagreed with Washington’s approach.  Founded the Niagara Movement
  44. 44. Niagara Movement  Insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that the African American community would have well educated leaders.  Du Bois proposed that a group of educated blacks should attempt to achieve immediate inclusion into mainstream American life.
  46. 46. Ida B. Wells  Born a slave  Moved to Memphis in 1880s to work as a teacher.  Later became editor of a local paper.  Wanted racial justice  LMCVJQs&feature=related
  47. 47.  Her theme turned into a crusade on March 9, 1892 when 3 of her friends were lynched.
  48. 48.  African Americans were not the only groups to experience violence and racial discrimination.  Native Americans  Mexican residents  Chinese immigrants  All encountered forms of oppression and it was worse in the West.
  49. 49. African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination  Voting restrictions  Southern states imposed new voting restrictions  Denied legal equality to African Americans.  Some states limited the vote to people that could read and required a literacy test.  Blacks were sometimes asked harder questions than whites or given a test in a foreign language.
  50. 50.  Poll tax – the annual tax that had to be paid before qualifying to vote.  Black and white sharecroppers were often too poor to pay.  Grandfather clause – stated that if a man failed the literacy test or could not pay the poll tax would still be eligible to vote if he, his father, or his grandfather had been eligible before January 1, 1867.
  51. 51.  The date of the grandfather clause is important because before Jan. 1, 1867, freed slaves did not have the right to vote.
  52. 52. Jim Crow Laws  Segregation laws that separated white and black people in public and private facilities.  Named after a popular old minstrel song that ended in the words “Jump, Jim Crow.”
  53. 53. Racial segregation was put into effect in schools
  54. 54. Hospitals, parks
  55. 55. And transportation systems in the South.
  56. 56. Plessy v. Ferguson  Tested the constitutionality of segregation.  The Supreme Court ruled that the separation of races in public accommodations was legal and did not violate the 14th amendment.  Facilities could be separate as long as equal services were provided.
  57. 57. Turn of the Century Race Relations  African Americans faced racial etiquette  Regulated relationships between whites and blacks.  Usually belittled blacks  Ex: blacks and whites never shook hands  Blacks would have to yield the sidewalk to whites and remove their hats when they encountered them.
  58. 58.  Some moderate reformers like Booker T. won support from whites.  He suggested that whites and blacks work together for social progress
  59. 59. Violence  African Americans and others who did not follow the social etiquette would fact severe punishment or death.  Many blacks accused of violating etiquette were lynched.  1882-1892 – more than 1400 men and women were shot, burned, or hanged without trial.
  60. 60. Discrimination in the North  African Americans were segregated in the North.  Faced discrimination in the workplace  Unwelcome in labor unions  Hired last and fired first  Sometimes competition between white and black employees became violent.
  61. 61. New York City Riot of 1900  A young black man killed a white policeman because he thought the policeman had mistreated his wife.  Word spread and whites began attacking blacks.
  62. 62. Discrimination in the West  Mexican Workers – hired more to construct rail lines than any other ethnic group.  Worked for less money than everyone else.  Major labor force in the agricultural industry in S. West.  Many forced into debt patronage.  Debt patronage – a system that bound laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer.
  63. 63. Excluding the Chinese  Job competition with Chinese immigrants caused the white people not to like them.  They were segregated  Strong opposition to immigration  Chinese Exclusion Act – renewed indefinitely in 1902.
  64. 64. THE DAWN OF MASS CULTURE Section 4
  65. 65. American Leisure  Americans enjoyed
  66. 66. Amusement Parks  most were constructed on the outskirts of town.  Trolley car companies often built them  Had picnic grounds and a variety of rides.  1884 the roller coaster drew daredevil customers to Coney Island.
  67. 67. 1st Roller Coaster – Coney Island 1893.
  68. 68. 1st Ferris Wheel – Chicago 1893
  69. 69. Cycling  At first they weren’t very safe  Male only sport  1885 manufacturers made them safer and women began to ride.
  70. 70. Victor bicycle  Dropped the frame and removed the crossbar.
  71. 71. bicycling
  72. 72. Results: Change in wardrobe for women.
  73. 73. Quote by Susan B. Anthony  “I think (bicycling) has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self reliance.
  74. 74. Tennis  Began in N. Wales in 1873  Began in U.S. 1874
  75. 75. New Snacks
  76. 76. Coca Cola  Created by a pharmacist as a cure for headaches in 1886.  Ingredients included extracts from Peruvian leaves as well as African cola nuts.
  77. 77. Spectator Sports
  78. 78. Baseball  1845 Alexander J. Cartwright organized the first professional club in NY City.  National League - 1876  The American League – 1900  1st World Series in 1903 between the Boston Pilgrims and the Pittsburg Pirates.
  79. 79.  African Americans formed their own leagues because they were not allowed in the other ones.  Negro National League  Negro American League
  80. 80. Quote by Mark Twain about baseball:  “the very symbol …. And visible expression of the drive and push and rush and struggle of the raging, tearing, booming nineteenth century.”
  81. 81. The Spread of Mass Culture  Mass Circulation Newspapers  Joseph Pulitzer – a Hungarian immigrant  Bought the New York World in 1883  Created: the large Sunday edition of the paper  Comics  Sports coverage  Women’s news  His paper emphasized “sin, sex, and sensation”
  82. 82. William Randolph Hearst  Owner of the NY Morning Journal, the San Francisco Examiner  Sought to outdo Pulitzer by filling the Journal with:  exaggerated tales of personal scandals,  cruelty  hypnotism  an imaginary conquest of Mars.
  83. 83. Circulation War  War between the 2 papers drove both of them to produce sensational news coverage.  1898 – each paper printed more than one million copies a day.
  84. 84. Promoting Fine Arts  At least one art gallery graced every large city by 1900.
  85. 85. Thomas Eakins  From Philadelphia  Embraced realism  An artistic school that attempted to portray life as it is really lived.  1880s he also used photography to make studies of people and animals.
  86. 86. Ashcan school of American art  Led by Eakins’s student, Robert Henri  Painted urban life and working people.  Soon challenged by abstract art.
  87. 87. Henri’s Work
  88. 88. Popular Fiction  Scholars debated on the role of literacy in society.  Some felt it should uplift America’s literary taste by adding crime tales and Western adventures.  Most people preferred to read light fiction.
  89. 89. Hence the name dime novels. They usually told glorified adventure tales of the West. Most sold for $.10
  90. 90. Deadwood Dick  Popular dime novel hero  Edward Wheeler published his first novel in 1877 and produced over 30 more in a decade.
  91. 91.  Some readers wanted a more realistic view of American life.  Writers of this style and period include  Sarah Jewett  Theodore Dreiser  Stephen Crane  Jack London  Willa Cather
  92. 92. Mark Twain  Samuel Langhorne Clemens  Novelist and humorist  Declared independence of literature  Wrote  The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  93. 93.  Many Americans did not have interest in high culture or no access to it  African Americans were excluded from visiting museums and other white-controlled institutions.
  94. 94. New Ways to Sell Goods  Urban Shopping  1st shopping center opened in Cleveland Ohio in 1890.  Jewelry, leather goods, stationery shops.  The arcade provided band music on Sundays.  Shopping districts formed where public transportation could easily bring shoppers.
  95. 95. The Department Store  Marshall Field of Chicago first brought the department store concept to America.  Learned he could influence women to purchase things and the more attention he gave them the more they bought.  Motto “Give the lady what she wants.”  Also pioneered bargain basement.
  96. 96. Marshall Field
  97. 97. The Chain Store  Retail stores offering the same merchandise under the same ownership.  Sold goods for less by buying in quantity and limiting personal service.  1870 F. W. Woolworth – found that if things were cheap the consumer would purchase it on the spur of the moment.
  98. 98. 1911 – Woolworth had 596 stores
  99. 99. Advertising  1865 costs were under $10 million a year  1900 costs increased to $95 million a year  Patent medicines – largest advertisers  Soaps and baking powders came next
  100. 100. Catalogs and RFD  Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck brought retail merchandise to small towns.  Ward’s catalog launched in 1872  Sears started his company in 1886  1910 – 10 million Americans shopped by mail  1896 US Postal service introduced the RFD – rural free delivery service.