Chapter 17 The United States in WWII


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Chapter 17 The United States in WWII

  1. 1.  SECTION 1: Mobilizing for Defense  After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, they thought America would avoid further conflict with them.  The Japan Times newspaper said America was “trembling in their shoes”  But if America was trembling, it was with rage, not fear.
  2. 2.  After Pearl Harbor 5 million Americans enlisted to fight in the war.  The Selective Service expanded the draft and eventually provided an additional 10 million soldiers.
  3. 3.  Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps. (WAAC)  Under this program women worked in non- combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, electricians, and pilots.
  4. 4.  Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort.  1,000,000 African Americans  300,000 Mexican Americans  33,000 Japanese Americans  25,000 Native Americans  13,000 Chinese Americans served in the military. Read 564.
  5. 5.  Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry.  The nation’s automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars.  Many other industries also converted to war-related supplies.
  6. 6.  By 1944, nearly 8 million workers were laboring in war industries . (3X the # in 1941)  More than 6 million of these were women and nearly two million were minority workers.
  7. 7.  In 1941, FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort.  Focus was on radar and sonar to locate submarines.  Also scientists worked on penicillin and pesticides like DDT.
  8. 8.  The most important achievement of the OSRD was the development of the atomic bomb.  Einstein wrote to FDR warning him that the Germans were attempting to develop such a weapon.  The code used to describe American efforts to build the bomb was the “Manhattan Project.”
  9. 9.  _k  GIoB8
  10. 10.  Increased war production - decreased consumer products.  With prices of goods threatening to rise out of control, FDR responded by creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA).  The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation.
  11. 11.  Congress raised tax rates and extended the tax to millions of people who had never paid it before.
  12. 12.  To ensure the troops had ample resources, FDR created the War Production Board.(WPB)  The WPB decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production and allocated raw materials to key industries.
  13. 13.  The WPB also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags, and cooking fat for recycling into war goods.  Additionally, the OPA set up a system of rationing.  Households had set allocations of scarce goods – gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline.
  14. 14.  Most Americans accepted rationing as their contribution to the war effort.  Workers carpooled or rode bicycles.  Families coped with shortages of everything from tires to toys.  Some chose to buy items from the black market.
  15. 15.  Days after Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived at the White House and spent three weeks working out war plans with FDR.  They decided on defeating Hitler first and then turn their attention to Japan.
  16. 16.  After America’s entry into the war, Hitler was determined to prevent food and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America’s east coast.  Hitler ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships along America’s east coast.  During the first four months of 1942 Germany sank 87 U.S. ships.
  17. 17.  In the first seven months of 1942, German wolf packs sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic.  Something had to be done or the war at sea would be lost.  First, Allies used convoys of ships & destroyers to transport supplies
  18. 18.  Destroyers used sonar to track U-boats.  Airplanes were used to track the U-boats on the ocean’s surface.  With this improved tracking, Allies inflicted huge losses on German U-boats.
  19. 19.  Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad – a major industrial center.  The Germans had been fighting in the Soviet Union 6/41 – 11/41.  Cold stopped them outside of Moscow and Leningrad. They waited for spring.  In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the offensive in the southern Soviet Union.
  20. 20.  By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea.  The first great turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad.  Stalingrad was bombed nightly by the Luftwaffe. Nearly every wooden building was burned down.  Stalin ordered that the city be defended no matter what the cost.
  21. 21.  For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad.  Germans conquered Stalingrad house by house using hand-to-hand combat.  By September, Germans controlled 9/10 of the city.  Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing summer uniforms.
  22. 22.  The Soviets surrounded Stalingrad with tanks and cut off German supplies.  Hitler said “Stay and fight! I won’t go back from the Volga.”  January 31, 1943, the German commander surrendered.  2 days later, his starving troops also surrendered.
  23. 23.  The Soviets lost 1,100,000 soldiers defending Stalingrad. This was more than twice the number of deaths the U.S. suffered in all the war.
  24. 24.  “Operation Torch” – an invasion of Axis – controlled North Africa – was launched by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1942.  Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran, and the Algiers in Algeria.  They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Corps led by General Erwin Rommel.
  25. 25.  May 1943, the last of the Africa Korps surrendered.
  26. 26.  Roosevelt, Churchill, and their commanders met in Casablanca to determine their next move.  1) Plan massive invasions of France and Italy.  2) Only unconditional surrender of the Axis powers.
  27. 27.  The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as the Allies easily took Sicily in the summer of 1943.  The Italian government forced dictator Benito Mussolini to resign.  At that point King Emmanuel stripped Mussolini of his power and had him arrested.  Read page 573.
  28. 28.  However, Hitler’s forces continued to resist the Allies in Italy.  “Bloody Anzio” – one of the hardest battles the Allies encountered.  Fought less than 40 miles from Rome.  Lasted 4 months.  25,000 Allied casualites  30,000 Axis caualties.  Heated battles ensued and it wasn’t until 1945 that Italy was secured by the Allies.
  29. 29.  Among the brave men who fought in Italy were pilots of the all-black 99th Pursuit Squadron – the Tuskagee Airmen.  The pilots made numerous effective strikes against Germany and won two distinguished Unit Citations.
  30. 30.  Buffaloes – Another African-American unit to distinguish itself.  92nd Infantry Division.  In 6 months of fighting they won 7 Legion of Merit Awards, 65 Silver Stars, and 162 Bronze Stars for courage under fire.
  31. 31.  17 Mexican American soldiers were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.  Company E of the 141st Regiment, 36th Division – became one of the most decorated of the war.
  32. 32.  Read page 573 at bottom.
  33. 33.  Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France.  It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was American General Eisenhower.
  34. 34.  Also called “D-Day”, the operation involved 3 million U.S., Canadian, & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944.  8fO0  D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in history.
  35. 35.  Shortly after midnight –  3 divisions parachuted down behind German lines.  Followed the next morning by thousands of seaborne soldiers.  Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal – especially at Omaha Beach.  Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 supplies and 170,000 vehicles.
  36. 36.  General Omar Bradley – unleashed massive air and land bombardment against the enemy at St. Lo.  Provided a gap in the German line in which General George Patton and his Third Army could advance.
  37. 37.  By September 1944, the Allies had freed France, Belgium, and Luxembourg.  That good news – and the American people’s desire not to “change horses in midstream” – helped elect FDR to an unprecedented fourth term.
  38. 38.  In October 1944, Americans captured their first German town (Aachen) – the Allies were closing in.  Hitler responded with one last ditch massive offensive.  Hitler hoped breaking through the Allied line would break up Allied supply lines.
  39. 39.  The battle raged for a month.  The Germans had been pushed back.  Little seemed to have changed, but in fact the Germans had sustained heavy losses.  Germany lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks, and 1,600 planes.  From that point on the Nazis could do little but retreat.
  40. 40.  While the British and Americans moved westward into Germany, the Soviets moved eastward into German-controlled Berlin.  The Soviets discovered many concentration camps that the Germans had set up within Poland.  The Americans also liberated Nazi death camps within Germany.
  41. 41.  By April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had stormed Berlin.  In his underground headquarters in Berlin, Hitler prepared for the end.  On April 29, he married his longtime girlfriend Eva Braun.  He wrote a last note in which he blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it.
  42. 42.  They next day he gave poison to his wife, his dog, and then shot himself.
  43. 43.  General Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich.  On May 8, 1945, the Allies celebrated V-E Day- victory in Europe Day.  The war in Europe was finally over.
  44. 44.  President Roosevelt did not live to see V-E Day.  On April 12, 1945, he suffered a stroke and died – his VP Harry S. Truman became the nation’s 33rd president.
  45. 45.  The Americans did not celebrate long, as Japan was busy conquering an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third Reich.  Japan had conquered much of southeast Pacific including the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and most of China.
  46. 46.  4/18/42 – Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle led 16 bombers on a daring raid on Tokyo and other Japanese cities.  Headlines read “Tokyo Bombed! Doolittle Do’od It!”  This dampened spirits in Japan and lifted them in the U.S.
  47. 47.  The main Allied forces in the Pacific were Americans and Australians.  In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five- day Battle of the Coral Sea.  For the first time since Pearl Harbor, the Japanese invasion had been stopped and turned back.
  48. 48.  Japan’s next thrust was toward Midway –  A strategic island northwest of Hawaii.  Admiral Chester Nimitz, the commander of American naval forces in the Pacific, moved to defend the island.
  49. 49.  The Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and 250 planes.  The Battle of Midway was turning point in the war.  Soon the Allies were island hopping toward Japan.
  50. 50.  W50
  51. 51.  First Allied offensive 8/1942  19,000 troops stormed Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.  Guadalcanal was Japan’s 1st defeat on land.  The Americans continued their offensive across the Pacific toward Japan.  Led by General MacArthur.
  52. 52.  Japanese countered by employing a new tactic – Kamikaze attacks.  Kamikaze attacks – Japanese pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into Allied ships.  424 kamikaze pilots went on suicide missions, sinking 16 ships and damaging another 80.
  53. 53.  The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a disaster for Japan.  Lost 3 battleships, 4 aircraft carriers, 13 cruisers, and almost 500 planes.
  54. 54.  General MacArthur and the Allies next turned to the Island of Iwo Jima.  The island was critical to the Allies as a base from which heavily loaded bombers might reach Japan.  It was called the most heavily defended spot on earth.  Allied and Japanese forces suffered heavy losses.
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  56. 56.  In April 1945, U.S. marines invaded Okinawa.  The Japanese unleashed 1,900 kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships and killing 5,000 seaman.  Okinawa cost the Americans 7,600 marines and the Japanese 110,000 soldiers.  MYA  Play at 5:32
  57. 57.  After Okinawa, Mac Arthur predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in thousands of Allied deaths.  President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan.
  58. 58.  General Leslie Groves  Leader of the Manhattan Project  J. Robert Oppenheimer –  American scientist involved in the Manhattan Project.  Best kept secret of the war.  Truman did not even know about it until he became president.
  59. 59.  July 16, 1945 – 1st test of the bomb in Alamogordo, New Mexico.  July 25, 1945, Truman ordered the military to make final plans for dropping two atomic bombs on Japanese targets.  Truman warned Japan 7/26/45 that without an immediate Japanese surrender, it faced “prompt and utter destruction.”
  60. 60.  On August 6, a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay released an atomic bomb, Little Boy, over Hiroshima.  43 seconds later almost every building in the city collapsed into dust.  Japan refused to surrender.
  61. 61.  3 days later, a second bomb, Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki.  The city was leveled.  200,000 people died. Emperor Hirohito was horrified by the destruction and did not want his people to suffer any more.
  62. 62.  9/2/45 - Japan surrendered aboard the U.S. battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
  63. 63.  In February 1945, as the Allies pushed toward victory in Europe, an ailing FDR met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the Soviet Union.  They were called “The Big Three”  A series of compromises were worked out concerning postwar Europe.
  64. 64.  1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war.  2) Stalin agreed to “free and unfettered” elections in Eastern Europe.  3) Stalin agreed to join the the war against Japan and to join the United Nations.
  65. 65.  The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against peace, and war crimes.  The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany.  “I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death, and the others to life in prison.
  66. 66.  Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of General Douglas MacArthur.  During the seven year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market economy practices that led to a remarkable economic recovery. Additionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day is called the MacArthur Constitution.
  67. 67.  The war provided a boost to the U.S. economy.  Jobs were abundant and despite rationing and shortages, people had money to spend.  By the end of the war, America was the world’s dominant economic and military power.
  68. 68.  Unemployment fell to only 1.2 % by 1944 and wages rose 35%.  Farmers benefited as production increased and income tripled.
  69. 69.  Women enjoyed economic gains during the war, although many lost their jobs after the war.  Over 6 million entered the work force for the first time.  Over 1/3 of those were in defense plants.  The war created opportunities for women boosting the % in the workforce to 35%.
  70. 70.  The war triggered the greatest mass migrations in U.S. history.  More than a million newcomers poured into California between 1941-1944.  African Americans again shifted from south to north.
  71. 71.  To help returning servicemen ease back into civilian life, Congress pass the Serviceman’s Adjustment Act. (GI Bill of Rights).  The act provided for education for about 7.8 million veterans.
  72. 72.  When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. – mostly on the West Coast.  After Pearl Harbor, many people were suspicious of possible spy activity by Japanese Americans.  In 1942, FDR ordered Japanese Americans into 10 relocation centers.
  73. 73.  In the late 1980’s President Reagan signed into law a bill that provided $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to a relocation camp.  The checks were sent out in 1990 along with a note from President Bush saying “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past….we now recognize that serious wrongs were done to Japanese Americans during WWII.”
  74. 74.  Nearly 59 years after the end of World War II, the National World War II Memorial was dedicated in Washington D.C., on Saturday, May 29, 2004, to honor the many Americans who died in the conflict.