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Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
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Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
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Changes on the frontier ch 5
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Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
Changes on the frontier ch 5
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Changes on the frontier ch 5

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The Americans Chapter 5 - Indians and the Western frontier.

The Americans Chapter 5 - Indians and the Western frontier.

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  • By the end of the year, over 15,000 businesses and 500 banks closed.
  • Transcript

    • 1. WESTERN FRONTIER
    • 2.  The Culture of the Plains Indians  Way of life changed when horses and guns were introduced  Tribes began to roam the plains and hunt buffalo
    • 3.  Buffalo provided meat, hides for clothing, shoes, and blankets. ▪ It was central to life on the plains
    • 4.  Family Life of NativeAmericans on the Plains  Usually live in small family groups with ties to other bands that spoke the same language  Young men trained to become hunters and warriors.  Women helped butcher the game and prepared hides. ▪ Sometimes they chose their own husbands
    • 5.  Settlers disagree with Indians on the use of the land.  Settlers wanted to own the land.  Gold was discovered in Colorado in 1858.  Many settlers traveledWest.
    • 6.  Mining camps ruined the look of the land.  Immigrants of every kind came to the camps in hope of striking it rich.  Women owned businesses, - laundries, hardware stores, freight hauling.  Cities that evolved from mining camps: VirginiaCity, NV, Helena, MT.
    • 7.  Influences on policy  Westward movement of settlers  Arrival of railroads  1850’s the govt. created treaties that defined specific boundaries for each tribe.  Most tribes ignored the treaties and continued to hunt on their lands, clashing with miners and settlers.
    • 8. 1864 – Cheyenne returned to Colorado’s Sand Creek reserve for the winter. - they thought they were under the protection of the government. Army commander S.R. Curtis sent a telegram to colonel JohnChivington stating “I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.”
    • 9.  Chivington attacked theArapaho and Cheyenne.  200 warriors, 500 women and children  150 were killed, mostly women and children
    • 10.  The trail ran through the Sioux hunting grounds in the Bighorn Mountains.  Red Cloud, the Sioux chief, had appealed to the government to end white settlement on the trail. They would not agree.
    • 11.  December 1866  Crazy Horse ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman and his company at LodgeTrail Ridge.  80+ soldiers were killed  Natives called this the Battle of the Hundred Slain, but whites called it the Fetterman Massacre.
    • 12.  Skirmishes continued until the government agreed to close the trail.  Treaty of Fort Laramie – the Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along the Missouri River. 1868
    • 13.  Sitting Bull – leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux had never signed the treaty.
    • 14. Red RiverWar – 1874-1875 - result of Kiowa and Comanche raiding for 6 years. - US responded by putting members of friendly tribes on reservations and opened fire on the rest of the tribes.
    • 15. Gave orders “ to destroy their villages and ponies, to kill and hang all warriors, and to bring back all women and children.” This crushed the resistance on the southern plains.
    • 16.  Miners began searching for gold in the Black Hills.  Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho protested to no avail.
    • 17.  When Colonel Custer and his troops reached the Little Bighorn River, the NativeAmericans were ready for them.  The attack was led by Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and Gall.  Custer and all his men were dead within an hour.
    • 18.  By 1876 the Sioux were beaten.  Sitting Bull and few followers took refuge in Canada, where they remained until 1881.  He was forced to surrender to keep his people from starving.
    • 19.  Personal Voice  Gall, Hunkpapa Sioux “We have been taught to hunt and live on the game. You tell us that we must learn to farm, live in one house, and take on your ways. Suppose the people living beyond the great sea should come and tell you that you must stop farming, and kill your cattle, and take your houses and lands, what would you do? Would you not fight them?"
    • 20. assimilation – the plan in which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture.
    • 21.  1887 – broke up the reservations and gave some of the reservation land to individual NativeAmericans.  160 acres to each head of household  80 acres to each unmarried adult  The govt. would sell the remainder of the land to settlers.  The income would be used to help Native Americans buy farm implements.
    • 22.  The most significant blow to tribal life on the plains was the destruction of the buffalo.  Tourists and fur traders shot them for sport
    • 23.  1800 – 65 millions buffalo roamed the plains.  1890 – fewer than 1000 remained.  1900 – only a single wild herd remained.
    • 24.  Sioux continued to suffer poverty and disease.  They were told by a Paiute prophet that if they performed a ritual called the Ghost Dance, their lands and way of life would be restored.
    • 25.  The movement spread quickly among the 25,000 Sioux on the Dakota reservation.  Military officials were scared and ordered the arrest of Sitting Bull.
    • 26.  40 Native American police were sent to arrest Sitting Bull.  One of them was shot by Catch-the-Bear.  Sitting Bull was killed.  Chief Big Foot led the tribe away.
    • 27.  12/28/1890  7th cavalry rounded up about 350 starving Sioux and took them to a camp atWounded Knee in S. Dakota.  They demanded that the Natives give up all their weapons.  A shot was fired and the soldiers opened fire with a deadly cannon.  300 unarmed Natives were killed and their bodies were left to freeze on the ground.
    • 28.  As buffalo decreased on the plains, the number of horses and cattle increased. Ranching fromTexas to Kansas became a profitable investment.
    • 29.  Settlers learned from their Mexican neighbors how to manage large herds on the open range.  The animals themselves were called…
    • 30.  They were sturdy, and were accustomed to the dry grasslands of southern Spain.  They were used for food and horses were used for work and transportation.
    • 31.  The first to wear spurs.  Wore chaparreras, or leather overalls, later known as chaps.  Ate jerky  Their wild horse or the “bronco caballo”, became known as a bronc.  The Mexican rancho became the American ranch.  Completely influenced the cowboy way of life.
    • 32.  Were not in great demand until the railroads reached the Great Plains.  Prior to this time, ranchers stayed on their ranches with their cattle.
    • 33.  After the CivilWar, the demand increased for beef.  Early transportation and cattle drives had their problems.
    • 34.  Joseph McCoy asked several towns to make plans for a shipping yard where the trails and the rail lines came together.  He built cattle pens, a 3 story hotel, and helped survey the ChisholmTrail.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06P- ERCA17M&feature=fvsr
    • 35.  The major cattle route from SanAntonio,TX, through OK to Kansas.  35,000 cattle were shipped out of the yard in Abilene during its first year in operation.  The next year business doubled to 75,000 head.
    • 36.  Hours – 10-14 hrs/day  Age – 15-30’s  Roundup – spring round-up began the season  They herded all the longhorns they could find on the open range into a large corral.  Branded cattle and prepared for the drive.
    • 37.  Lasted about 3 months  1 cowboy:250-300 cattle  A cook also went along and drove the chuck wagon.  Wrangler cared for the horses.  Trail boss earned $100.00/month.
    • 38. JAMES BUTLER “WILD BILL HICKOCK”  Served as a scout and spy during the Civil War.  Was a marshal in Abilene, Kansas.  Violent man  http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=q_Mld6QbfR4
    • 39. MARTHA JANE BURKE CALAMITY JANE Expert sharpshooter Dressed like a man May have been a scout for Custer. http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=ytwkHN94vkE
    • 40.  Causes:  Overgrazing the land  Extended bad weather  Invention of barbed wire (Joseph Glidden)
    • 41.  Railroads Open theWest  1850-1871 – the govt. gave railroads 170 million acres.  The Central Pacific railroad and the Union Pacific Railroad were in a race to lay track  CP – from Sacramento moving eastward  UP – westward from Omaha
    • 42. Grueling labor was done by : CivilWar veterans Chinese immigrants Irish immigrants AfricanAmericans MexicanAmericans
    • 43.  Both companies reached Utah by spring of 1869, linking the east and west coast.  “The two sets of railroad tracks were joined and the continent united with elaborate ceremony at Promontory, Utah on May 10, 1869.The impact was immediate and dramatic.Travel time betweenAmerica's east and west coasts was reduced from months to less than a week. “
    • 44.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDeu1uuruhg&feature =related  “The ceremony at Promontory culminated with Governor Stanford of California (representing the Central Pacific Railroad) andThomas Durant (president of the Union Pacific Railroad) taking turns pounding a Golden Spike into the final tie that united the railroad's east and west sections. As the spike was struck, telegraph signals simultaneously alerted San Francisco and NewYork City, igniting a celebratory cacophony of tolling bells and cannon fire in each city.”  AlexanderToponce witnessed the event:
    • 45.  Homestead Act  Offered 160 acres of land free to any citizen who was head of the household.
    • 46. From 1862-1900 – 600,000 settlers took advantage of the government’s offer. Many were exodusters – African Americans who moved from the post- Reconstruction South to Kansas.
    • 47.  Speculators used the land for their own gain.  Cattlemen would sometimes fence open lands.  Miners and wood- cutters would claim national resources.  1869 a massive land give away in what is now Oklahoma attracted thousands of people.
    • 48.  Henry D. Washburn and Nathaniel P. Langford asked Congress to help protect the wilderness from settlement.  1872Yellowstone National Park was created.
    • 49.  1879 – railroads were forced to give up landholdings.  1890 the Census Bureau declared that there was no longer a Frontier.
    • 50.  Dugouts and Soddies  Homes were dug into the sides of hills if no timber was available.  Some homes were made of prairie turf.
    • 51.  Worked beside men in the fields. Plowing, planting, and harvesting wheat.  Hauled water  Made soap and candies  Canned fruits and vegetables.  Skilled in doctoring  Sponsored schools and churches in an effort to build strong communities.
    • 52.  1837 John Deere invented a steel plow  1847 Cyrus McCormick began to produce a reaping machine.  By 1890 there were more than 900 manufacturers of farm equipment.  These inventions made more grain available for a wider market.
    • 53.  The govt. financedAg education.  The Morrill Act of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges.  HatchAct – 1887- established ag experimental stations to inform farmers of new developments.
    • 54.  Ag researchers helped prairie farmers develop grains for arid soil and dry farming.  The eastern plains became the “breadbasket of the nation.”
    • 55.  Farmers had to borrow money for machinery  When wheat prices were high they could pay it back quickly.  When prices fell it was hard for them to make ends meet.
    • 56.  New type of farming in 1870’s  Created by railroad companies and investors.  Single crop spreads of 15,000-50,000 acres.  http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=SLg8tZkW71k&feature=relat ed
    • 57.  Farmers borrowed more money  Farms grew larger  A drought caused most of the bonanza farms to go bankrupt.  Western farmers were charged steep prices for shipping grain.
    • 58.  1800s crop prices were falling  Good farming land was scarce  Banks were foreclosing on farmers  Railroads were taking advantage of them by charging excessive prices for shipping and storage.
    • 59.  Paper money was called greenbacks  Greenbacks could not be traded for silver or gold and were not worth as much.  After the war greenbacks were taken out of circulation.  Results – increased the value of $ in circulation
    • 60.  Problem?  Farmers had to pay back loans with money that was worth more than what they were loaned.  1867-1887 – the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to .68.  The farmers wanted the government to issue more money into circulation.
    • 61.  Required the govt. to buy and coin at least $2 - 4 million worth of silver each month. It wasn’t enough for the farmers.
    • 62.  Railroads could set high prices for crop transportation and grain storage.  Why?  Farmers were forced to purchase items on credit and were often charged more for doing so.
    • 63.  1867- Oliver Hudson Kelley – started the Patrons of Husbandry  Organization for farmers  Later known as the Grange  Purpose – to provide a social outlet and educational forum for farmers.
    • 64.  The members of the Grange spent more time fighting railroads.  It was supposed to teach members how to organize, set up farmers co-ops, and how to sponsor state legislation to regulate railroads.
    • 65.  Sent lecturers from town to town to educate people.
    • 66.  Populism – the movement of the people ▪ -Populist or People’s Party ▪ Founded in 1892 ▪ July 2, 1892 a Populist convention was held in Omaha , Nebraska ▪ People wanted:  reforms to lift the burden of debt from the farmers  to give people a greater voice in their government
    • 67.  Wanted increase in money supply  A graduated income tax  A federal loan program  The election of US senators by popular vote  Single terms for president andVP  A secret ballot to end voting fraud  8 hour work day  Restrictions on immigration
    • 68.  The Populists’ programs eventually became the platform of the Democratic Party.  They believe the government is responsible for reforming social injustices.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHWAXu VZrys
    • 69.  Farmers were over extended with debts  Railroads expanded faster than markets  Some of them went bankrupt  Govt. gold supply had worn thin
    • 70.  People panicked and traded paper money for gold  It also spread toWall Street where the prices of stocks fell rapidly.  The price of silver plunged and silver mines closed.
    • 71.  Investments declined  Consumer purchases, wages, and prices also fell.  3 million people lost their jobs.  Many farmers suffered hunger and unemployment.
    • 72.  Republicans – located in Northeast  Democrats – farmers, laborers of the South andWest.  Central issue of the political campaign was which metal was to become the basis of the monetary system.
    • 73.  Silverites favored  Bimetallism – gold or silver could be exchanged for paper money.  PresidentCleveland and the “gold bugs” were on the other side calling for the gold standard.  Gold standard – backing of US Dollars solely with gold.
    • 74. Republicans nominatedWilliam McKinley Democrats wanted combined gold and silver w/unlimited amount of silver William Jennings Bryan spoke a the Democratic Convention
    • 75. William Jennings Bryan http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=HeTkT5- w5RA&feature=related He won the Democratic nomination People did not like the Democratic VP candidate – Arthur Sewall.
    • 76.  Bryan faced problems:  Gold bug democrats nominated their own candidate.  Weakened support in cities where people did not want higher prices.  Not enough campaign funds.  McKinley was elected and Populism collapsed.
    • 77.  1. a message that the downtrodden could organize and have a political impact.  2. an agenda of reforms

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