Key Principles of Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher


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  • Key Principles of Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher

    1. 1. Marinita Schumacher Key Principles of Effective Communication
    2. 2. Effective Communication <ul><li>is crucial for working successfully with others </li></ul><ul><li>enables to maintain relationships </li></ul><ul><li>accomplishes tasks with both individuals and groups </li></ul><ul><li>motivates </li></ul><ul><li>helps to overcome obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>creates a relaxed, comfortable, trustful and psychologically safe feeling </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Communication? <ul><li>„ Communication is a dynamic process that individuals use to exchange ideas, relate experiences and share desires through speaking, writing, gestures or sign language.“ </li></ul>Glenn & Smith, 1998
    4. 4. Components of Communication <ul><li>anthropological component </li></ul><ul><li>social component </li></ul><ul><li>signal component </li></ul><ul><li>process component </li></ul>Krallmann/ Ziemann, 2001 <ul><ul><li>communication happens between at least two human beings </li></ul></ul>participants have certain intensions when communicating and understanding each other during communication participants refer to a socially adapted set of signs in order to transmit a message there are continuous changes during communication
    5. 5. One can't not communicate! <ul><li>Any kind of behaviour is communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is an interactive process of sending and receiving messages </li></ul><ul><li>Communication can be seen as the link between the sender’s and receiver’s internal experiences </li></ul>Watzlawick, 1996 ! The effectiveness of any communication depends on how closely the receiver’s understanding matches the sender’s intent
    6. 6. Sender and Receiver SIGNAL SENDER RECEIVER Schulz von Thun, 2001 encodes the meaning in his mind to a signal deciphers this signal so that a similar meaning is stimulated in his mind = a recognisable term, the sum of the messages in interpersonal communication The only message that matters is the one the other person receives !
    7. 7. Verbal and non-verbal signals <ul><li>Verbal signals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transmit the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the words of the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deal with speech, intonation, pitch, rhythm, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal signals         </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transmit the relational dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>postures, body movements, touches, tone of voice, eye contact, pauses, rate of speech and volume </li></ul></ul>Birkenbihl, 2005 ! Each message consists of verbal and non-verbal signals
    8. 8. A simple example from daily life <ul><li>Verbal example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ I am amused“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sentence is spoken, the sense can be recognised by the different words and letters used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somebody is laughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this case laughing is body language which can indicate the fact, that the person is amused </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Congruent and incongruent messages <ul><li>congruent message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal and non-verbal signals endorse each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Somebody who says that he is unhappy and weeps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>incongruent message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal and non-verbal expressed are contradictory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Somebody who says that he is happy but weeps </li></ul></ul>Steiger, 2002 ! Non-verbal signals have stronger impact than verbal signals
    10. 10. Implicit and explicit message <ul><li>Explicit message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expresses the information directly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implicit message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expresses the information indirectly </li></ul></ul>Adams, 2003 ! There is a great danger of misunderstanding in the field of implicit messages
    11. 11. Filters <ul><li>The two sets of filters of the sender and the receiver double the chance for misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sender’s filters influence how he expresses the message-which words, gestures and voice tones he uses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The receiver’s filters define how he understands the message. </li></ul></ul>Standke, 1993
    12. 12. Meta-Level <ul><li>One of the basic abilities in successful communication is to determine which is the true major message of a signal </li></ul><ul><li>Is it factual information which has been expressed or is the real request hidden in the implicit message? </li></ul>Watzlawick, 1996 ! <ul><li>Meta-Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the &quot;this-is-what-is-meant&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>part of the message </li></ul>
    13. 13. Four sides of a message SENDER RECEIVER Schulz von Thun, 2001 SIGNAL Factual information Relationship Self-revelation Appeal SIGNAL
    14. 14. <ul><li>Factual information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explains the fact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-revelation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expresses the sender himself and his feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expresses what the sender expects from the receiver and what kind of relationship (contact) exists between the parties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seeks to have an influence on the other </li></ul></ul>Explanations of the four sides Schulz von Thun, 2001
    15. 15. A simple example from daily life MOTHER SON “ It‘s nice that you are here again“ Schulz von Thun, 2001 Relationship “ You don‘t visit me enough“ Self-revelation “I am lonely” Appeal “Visit me more often” Factual information “ Your presence is nice“
    16. 16. Translations of the message <ul><li>Factual information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fact that the son is there is good. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-revelation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mother missed her son, she wanted to see him and she is pleased to see him again now. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The unmistakably critical undertone implies the closeness and the trust of the relationship between the mother and her son. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mother uses the message to express her clear wish. </li></ul></ul>&quot;Your presence is nice.&quot; &quot;I am so lonely.&quot; &quot;You don’t visit me enough.&quot; &quot; You should visit me more often!&quot; Schulz von Thun, 2001
    17. 17. “ Four ears&quot; of the receiver <ul><li>the correct decoding of the message by the receiver means that he has to have a particular ear for each of the messages </li></ul>SIGNAL Schulz von Thun, 2001 SIGNAL Factual information Appeal Relationship Self-revelation
    18. 18. Four questions to grasp all messages <ul><li>Factual information ear </li></ul><ul><li>Self-revelation ear </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship ear </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal ear </li></ul>Schulz von Thun, 2001 <ul><ul><li>What is the factual content of the report? </li></ul></ul>What is this telling me about the other person? What does the other person want me to know about myself and about our relationship? What does he want to achieve?
    19. 19. Check-list for the receiver <ul><li>What are the messages in the signal? </li></ul><ul><li>Which was the main message ? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the signal also contain implicit messages? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the signal congruent or incongruent ? </li></ul><ul><li>What was expressed on the level of metacommunication ? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you picked up the signal with four ears or with only one ear ? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Barriers of Effective Communication <ul><li>inaccurate interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>selective perception </li></ul><ul><li>linguistic impact language </li></ul><ul><li>semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ignoring or misunderstanding non-verbal signals or implicit messages </li></ul></ul>by selecting only certain elements from a message, hearing an expected message style, tone, speed different perceptions, meanings that different people attach to the same word
    21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Communication consists of several models and elements </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation gives an overview and guideline to help the reader understanding the meaning and impact of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these elements are already used unconsciously </li></ul><ul><li>Communication can be learned and improved by taking care of these aspects! </li></ul>
    22. 22. Bibliographie <ul><li>Adams, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Birkenbihl, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Goodwin/ Duranti, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Krallmann/ Ziemann, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Martin/ Nakayama, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Schulz von Thun, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Standke, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Watzlawick, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Menu developed by Leonardo Project MENS available at </li></ul>