How to write a research paper


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This presentation is on how to write research papers.

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  • Hello! I can recommend a site that has helped me. It's called They helped me for writing my quality research paper on diabetes, and of course by keeping my all other needs fulfilled.
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  • Thank you. It is very valuable information.
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  • Thank you very much for your kind comments. I am really thankful to you for your thoughts.
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  • Great source for Annamalai University students/ ALL college students.

    'The goal of a research paper is not to inform the reader what others have to say about a topic, but to draw on what others have to say about a topic and ENGAGE the sources [to produce NEW, unique and updated content]' (seen on slide 4)

    Absolutely great summary! This is what makes student research papers stand out & it also enchances their understanding of the subject.

    While in college this technique always worked for me!
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How to write a research paper

  1. 1. How to Write a Research Paper Presentation by Dr.K.Prabhakar profkprabhakar@gmail.com03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 1
  2. 2. Statement of Ethics• The materials are from 1.• 2. IIM (Banglore) teachers and students projects from tejas@iimb.• 3. I have only compiled the information and contributed my experience.• 4. However, if there is any error it is totally mine. Please write to the author.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 2
  3. 3. What is a Research Paper• A research paper is the culmination and final product of an involved process consisting of• research,• critical thinking,• source evaluation,• organization, and composition.• Research paper is a living thing, which grows and changes as the student explores, interprets, and evaluates sources related to a specific topic.• Primary and secondary sources are the heart of a research paper, and provide its nourishment.• The research paper serves not only to further the field in which it is written, but also to provide the student with an exceptional opportunity to increase his or her knowledge in that field.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 3
  4. 4. What is not a Research Paper• A research paper is not simply an informed summary of a topic by means of primary and secondary sources.• It is neither a book report nor an opinion piece nor an expository essay consisting solely of ones interpretation of a text nor an overview of a particular topic.• Instead, it is a genre that requires one to spend time investigating and evaluating sources with the intent to offer interpretations of the texts, and not just compilation of sources.• The goal of a research paper is not to inform the reader what others have to say about a topic, but to draw on what others have to say about a topic and engage the sources in order to thoughtfully offer a unique perspective on the issue at hand. This is accomplished through two major types of research papers.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 4
  5. 5. Argumentative research paper• The argumentative research paper consists of an introduction in which the writer clearly introduces the topic and informs his audience exactly which stance he intends to take; this stance is often identified as the thesis statement. An important goal of the argumentative research paper is persuasion, which means the topic chosen should be debatable or controversial. For example, it would be difficult for a student to successfully argue in favor of the following stance.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 5
  6. 6. Thesis Statement• Consuming alcohol is bad for health and likely to ruin the family.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 6
  7. 7. Thesis Statement• Perhaps 25 years ago this topic would have been debatable; however, today, it is known that drinking alcohol indeed, harmful to ones health.• What should be a better thesis statement?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 7
  8. 8. Thesis Statement• Although it has been proven that alcohol may lead to sundry health problems in the consumer , the social acceptance of drinking alcohol in social occasions demonstrates that many still do not consider consuming alcohol is dangerous to health.• In this sentence, the writer is not challenging the current accepted stance that alcohol drinking is dangerous; rather, she is positing that the social acceptance of the latter over the former is indicative of a cultural double- standard.• The student would support this thesis throughout his or her paper by means of both primary and secondary sources, with the intent to persuade her audience that her particular interpretation of the situation is viable.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 8
  9. 9. Analytical research paper• The analytical research paper often begins with the student asking a question on which he has taken no stance. Such a paper is often an exercise in exploration and evaluation.• How should one interpret the failure of ONGC public issue?• The probable answer to his question may be people are perceiving having high uncertainty about oil prices.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 9
  10. 10. The Way• Though his topic may be debatable and controversial, it is not the students intent to persuade the audience that his ideas are right while those of others are wrong.• Instead, his goal is to offer a critical interpretation of primary and secondary sources throughout the paper--sources that should, ultimately, support his particular analysis of the topic.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 10
  11. 11. Please Provide the Thesis Statement• Write your statement and handover to the volunteer.• Every paper will have a thesis statement.• It is typically not until the student has begun the writing process that his thesis statement begins to take solid form.• In fact, the thesis statement in an analytical paper is often more fluid than the thesis in an argumentative paper.• That is the one of the benefits of approaching the topic without a predetermined stance.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 11
  12. 12. Choosing the Topic (tejas@iimb) • TRAILERS AS EFFECTIVE MEANS OF MOVIE ADVERTISEMENTS (The ideas are borrowed from tejas@iimb and the author acknowledge their contribution. If there are any mistakes or errors, it is the responsibility of the author)03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 12
  13. 13. Thesis statement• Trailers are understood to be one of the most effective means of movie advertising. This article analyses the effectiveness of the different movie trailers by looking at various parameters required to make a good trailer. It also analyses the effect of movie trailers on movie revenues, especially on first week collections.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 13
  14. 14. Topic• REVITALISING WOMENS HORLICKS IN INDIA03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 14
  15. 15. Thesis Statement• Womens Horlicks is Indias first health drink designed specifically for womens nutritional needs. It targets a hitherto untapped segment as identified by GSKCH (GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare), namely, health conscious urban working women, in metros and mini-metros, leading hectic lives balancing career and family. Womens Horlicks seemed to have all the elements necessary for success. And yet, at present, sales appear to be flagging, a seeming contradiction that presents an intriguing case for analysis.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 15
  16. 16. The Four Ps03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 16
  17. 17. Is the price justified?•03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 17
  18. 18. Conclusion• Conclusion: Is Womens Horlicks Ahead of Its Time?• There seems to be a disconnect between the intended core message of Womens Horlicks and the interpretations made by the target consumers.• While the key emphasis appears to be the health aspect, from a consumer perspective, substantial differentiation from other Horlicks products appears to be absent.• In addition, women in India generally consume health drinks when they are ill or during pregnancy.• Since Horlicks already has a product for pregnant women, it is possible that it could cannibalize into Womens Horlicks market. It is therefore open to debate whether Womens Horlicks is ahead of its time in the Indian market. There is possibly a latent need for the product but at present Womens Horlicks hasnt been able to expose that perceived need and satisfy it.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 18
  19. 19. Topic • RETAIL PROMOTIONS AND EFFECTIVENESS03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 19
  20. 20. Thesis Statement• The retail market in India today is flooded with promotional offers in order to attract customers because of increasing competition. Managers incentives make them concerned about their own motives and often forget what the customer actually values and prefers. Satisfying these unstated needs of consumer can give any brand/store an intangible and inimitable competitive advantage.• This article focuses on the needs of different types of consumers belonging to different age groups (15-24 and 25-40), their perception on discounts and what they value most.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 20
  21. 21. Topic • PREDICTING STOCK MARKET CRASHES03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 21
  22. 22. Thesis Statement• Bull or bear, time and again sentiments have proved to be an uncontrollable force in taming them down. No matter how strong the fundamentals are, strong negative sentiments can pull down a strong bull market. Stock market crashes and sharp corrections are no longer a rare phenomenon. Indian markets dipped 50% in the months from January to September 2008. When sentiments are so critical, can technical indicators predict stock market crashes? This article presents two models based on technical analysis fundamentals which could serve as predictors of stock market crashes in India. Tested on market data of the last 8 years, the models yielded an accuracy of 80%.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 22
  23. 23. How to Choose the Topic?• Thinking early leads to starting early. If the student begins thinking about possible topics half of the work is completed. Therefore start the writing process.• It is important for the student to keep in mind that an initial topic may not be the exact topic about which he ends up writing. Research topics are often fluid, and dictated more by the students ongoing research than by the original chosen topic. Such fluidity is common in research, and should be embraced as one of its many characteristics.• Therefore do not worry about your title too early. It may undergo change.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 23
  24. 24. What Happens to You?• When you sit down to write...• Does your mind turn blank?• Are you sure you have nothing to say?• If so, youre not alone. Many writers experience this at some time or another, but some people have strategies or techniques to get them started. When you are planning to write something, try some of the following suggestions.• State your thesis.• Write an outline.• Write the first draft.• Revise and polish.• There is no particular formula. Everyone has to devise their own way of writing.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 24
  25. 25. Purpose• Create a Purpose or create a canvas• Next step is to answer the purpose.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 25
  26. 26. How to do it?• Explore the problem — not the topic• Who is your reader?• What is your purpose?• Who are you, the writer? (What image or persona do you want to project?)• Make your goals operational• How can you achieve your purpose?• Can you make a plan?• Generate some ideas03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 26
  27. 27. Some Ideas• Brainstorm• Keep writing• Dont censor or evaluate• Keep returning to the problem• Talk to your readers• What questions would they ask?• What different kinds of readers might you have?• Ask yourself questions• Journalistic questions• Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? So What?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 27
  28. 28. Stasis• DAngelo defines stasis as "the main point in a legal argument," which can take one of four forms:• ConjecturalIs: it a dispute over a fact? (Did something happen?)• 2:DefinitionalIs it a dispute over a definition? (Allowing that something did happen, what was it?)03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 28
  29. 29. Stasis• 3QualitativeIs it a dispute over the value, quality, or nature of an act? (Acknowledging that both something happened and that it was a particular thing, what kind of a thing was it?)• 4TranslativeIs it a dispute over moving the issue from one court or jurisdiction to another? (To whom is the defendant accountable?)• In modern terms stasis is commonly referred to as a balance between two or more forces within an argument. Corbett and Eberly refer to stasis, at least initially, simply as question, or more to the point, five forms of a question regarding any particular issue:• Questions of conjecture :What happened?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 29
  30. 30. Stasis• Does a shared reality exist?• Questions of definition What should we call it?• Questions of cause or consequence• How did this come to happen? What will follow from it?• Questions of valueIs: this good or bad?• Is this functional?• Is this just?• Questions of procedure or proposal.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 30
  31. 31. Employee Engagement• Let us consider an example of definition of employee engagement.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 31
  32. 32. Definition How does the dictionary define ____?• What do I mean by ____?• What group of things does ____ belong to?• How is ____ different from other things?• What parts can ____ be divided into?• Does ____ mean something now that it didnt years ago? If so, what?• What other words mean about the same as ____?• What are some concrete examples of ____?• When is the meaning of ____ misunderstood?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 32
  33. 33. Comparison/Contrast• What is ____ similar to? In what ways?• What is ____ different from? In what ways?• ____ is superior (inferior) to what? How?• ____ is most unlike (like) what? How?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 33
  34. 34. Relationship• What causes ____?• What are the effects of ____?• What is the purpose of ____? - What is the consequence of ____?• What comes before (after) ____?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 34
  35. 35. Testimony• What have I heard people say about ____?• What are some facts of statistics about ____?• Can I quote any proverbs, poems, or sayings about ____?• Are there any laws about ____?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 35
  36. 36. Circumstance• Is ____ possible or impossible?• What qualities, conditions, or circumstances make ____ possible or impossible?• When did ____ happen previously?• Who can do ____?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 36
  37. 37. Circumstance• If ____ starts, what makes it end?• What would it take for ____ to happen now?• What would prevent ___ from happening?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 37
  38. 38. TagmemicsContrastive features• How is ____ different from things similar to it?• How has ____ been different for me?Variation• How much can ____ change and still be itself?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 38
  39. 39. Tagmemics• How is ____ changing?• How much does ____ change from day to day?• What are the different varieties of ____?Distribution• Where and when does ____ take place?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 39
  40. 40. Tagmemics…• What is the larger thing of which ___ is a part?• What is the function of ____ in this larger thing?• Cubing (considering a subject from six points of view)• *Describe* it (colors, shapes, sizes, etc.)• *Compare* it (What is it similar to?)03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 40
  41. 41. Tagmemics…• *Associate* it (What does it make you think of?)• *Analyze* it (Tell how its made)• *Apply* it (What can you do with it? How can it be used?)• *Argue* for or against it• Make an analogy03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 41
  42. 42. Who are my audience?• The following are questions that may help the student discern further her audience:• Who is the general audience I want to reach?• Who is most likely to be interested in the research I am doing?• What is it about my topic that interests the general audience I have discerned?03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 42
  43. 43. Who are my audience?• If the audience I am writing for is not particularly interested in my topic, what should I do to pique its interest?• Will each member of the broadly conceived audience agree with what I have to say?• If not (which will likely be the case!) what counter- arguments should I be prepared to answer?• Remember, one of the purposes of a research paper is to add something new to the academic community, and the first-time researcher should understand her role as an initiate into a particular community of scholars. As the student increases her involvement in the field, her understanding of her audience will grow as well. Once again, practice lies at the heart of the thing.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 43
  44. 44. Outline• Parallelism - How do I accomplish this?• Each heading and subheading should preserve parallel structure. If the first heading is a verb, the second heading should be a verb. Example:• Choose Desired Colleges• Prepare Application• ("Choose" and "Prepare" are both verbs. The present tense of the verb is usually the preferred form for an outline)03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 44
  45. 45. • Coordination - How do I accomplish this?• All the information contained in Heading 1 should have the same significance as the information contained in Heading 2. The same goes for the subheadings (which should be less significant than the headings). Example:• Visit and evaluate college campuses• Visit and evaluate college websites – Note important statistics – Look for interesting classes• (Campus and websites visits are equally significant. They are part of the main tasks you would need to do. Finding statistics and classes found on college websites are parts of the process involved in carrying out the main heading topics.)03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 45
  46. 46. • Subordination - How do I accomplish this?• The information in the headings should be more general, while the information in the subheadings should be more specific. Example:• Describe an Influential Person in Your Life – Favorite high school teacher – Grandparent• (A favorite teacher and grandparent are specific examples from the generalized category of influential people in your life.)03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 46
  47. 47. • Division - How do I accomplish this?• Each heading should be divided into 2 or more parts. Example:• Compile Resume – List relevant coursework – List work experience – List volunteer experience• (The heading "Compile resume" is divided into 3 parts.)• Technically, there is no limit to the number of subdivisions for your headings; however, if you seem to have a lot, it may be useful to see if some of the parts can be combined.03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 47
  48. 48. Thank you03/22/12 FDP-Annamalai University 48