Climate Change Issues in India By Dr.C.Thomson Jacob, Senior Programme Officer, ENVIS Centre, Department of Environment. Adopted by Dr.K.Prabhakar for Presentation to students with greatful thanks to Prof. Thomson Jacob.
Global Warming• Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century, and its projected continuation.• The average global air temperature near the Earths surface increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 100 years ending in 2005. Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Greenhouse effect103 Watt per m3 343 Watt per m3 240 Watt per m3Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Co2 Concentration in 2007The 2007 rise in global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is tied with 2005 asthe third highest since atmospheric measurements began in 1958. The red lineshows the trend together with seasonal variations. The black line indicates thetrend that emerges when the seasonal cycle has been removed. (Credit: NOAA)
Rising levels of greenhouse gases Source: Dr L Gohar and Prof K Shine, Dept. of Meteorology, University of ReadingSource: Stern Review
Energy utilisation 18% 11% 9% 5% 3% 11% 4% 39%Fridge TV Fan Computer AC Heater/Geyser Appliances Light
Energy 3.1 7.6 IndiaProduction 24.8 COAL 53.4 RE 0.9TN vs India 10.2 Coal Gas Oil Hydro Nuclear Renewable 3% TN 29% 42% 3% 16% 7% Coal & Lignite Gas Hydro Nuclear Renewable other
Biodiversity, the living fabric of this planet, is not a gas. It exists in manylayers,ecosystems, species and genes across many scales -- international, national, local, community
that, in fact, we were losing natural capital -- the benefits that flow from nature to us.
We were losing it at anextraordinary rate -- in fact, of theorder of two to four trillion dollars- worth of natural capital.
The Amazon rainforests. Its a massive store of carbon, its an amazing store ofbiodiversity, but what people dont really know is this also is a rain factory. Because thenortheastern trade winds, as they go over the Amazonas, effectively gather the watervapor. Something like 20 billion tons per day of water vapor is sucked up by the northeasterntrade winds, and eventually precipitates in the form of rain across the La Plata Basin. Thisrainfall cycle, this rainfall factory, effectively feeds an agricultural economy of the order of 240billion dollars-worth in Latin America. But the question arises: Okay, so how much do Uruguay,Paraguay, Argentina and indeed the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil pay for that vital input tothat economy to the state of Amazonas, which produces that rainfall?And the answer iszilch, exactly zero.
Impacts of Climate Change Forests BiodiversityImpact of rise in temperatureof 1.8oC to 4oC Agriculture Coastlines
Climate Change Impact in India• Rajasthan- Drought• Rann of Kutch – sea level rise• Mumbai-Salt water intrusion• Kerala –Productivity of Forest• Tamil Nadu-Coral bleaching• Ganges – Sedimentation problem• Sunderbans-Sea level raise• Northwest India-reduction In rice yield
Case study:1 Impact on Agriculture Effect on apple cultivation• Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh Experienced a number of crop failures in the last 15 years• Apple belt has moved 30 kilometers [northwards] over the last 50 years• Apple growers, says attributed poor production to reduced snowfall and its changed timing.
Source: Journal of Ecological Anthropology Vol. 10 2006
• Shift in Agriculture• Apple cultivation is affected in Kullu Valley• Apple belt has moved 30 KM nothwards• Forest resources were removed
2. Ganga under threat from warming• Himalayan source of the Ganga is drying up at a rate of 40 yards a year, nearly twice as fast as two decades ago, and that some of these glaciers might disappear by 2030.• In the dry summer months, the Gangotri glacier provides up to 70 percent of the water of the Ganga.• According to a UN climate report, the shrinking glaciers also threaten Asia’s supply of fresh water.Source: New Indian Express
3. Impact on Coastal Orissa• The Satavaya region, once a cluster of seven villages.• Only two out of the seven villages exists the other five villages have been submerged.• The Coastal villages have been affected by cyclone and floods killing more than 30,000 people.• The sea has ingressed to about 1.5 km into Satavaya and 2.5 km into Kanakpur. Satavaya has also lost 56% of its mangrove vegetation.
Global Impacts• The largest glacier on Mount Kenya has lost 92% of its mass• Sea levels have risen by 10 - 25 cm• The thickness of sea ice in the arctic has decreased by 40%.
• The Common Murre has advanced breeding by 24 days per decade over the past 50 years in response to higher temperatures.
• The Baltimore oriole is shifting northward and may soon disappear entirely from the Baltimore area.
• Polar bear populations are coming under threat as food becomes harder to hunt.
India’s Initiatives• Signed UNFCC on 10th June 1992• India ratified the Kyoto protocol• India has a National Action Plan on Climate Change – National Solar Mission – National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency – National Mission on Sustainable Habitat – National Water Mission – National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem – National Mission for a “ Green India” – National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture – National Mission on Strategic Mission on Climate Change
India’s Initiatives• India has a well developed policy, legislative regulatory & programmatic regime• For promotion of Energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear power, fuel switching, energy pricing reform addressing GHG emission
Per-capita Carbon –dioxide emission (Metric Tons) Country in metric tons USA 20.01 Europe 9.40 Japan 9.87 China 3.60 Russia 11.71 India 1.02 World average 4.25