An Analytical Study on Assessing Human Competencies Based on Tests   Presentation by  Prof.K.Prabhakar, KSR College of Tec...
Objectives of study <ul><li>To understand the history of psychological testing </li></ul><ul><li>Outline important contrib...
Questions that occur to us   <ul><li>What is intelligence? How do we define? </li></ul><ul><li>When did we start the metho...
Early Antecedents   <ul><li>It is common to think tests are recent developments and mostly European and American origin. <...
Why intelligence Testing?   <ul><li>What are the foundations for testing intelligence of Human beings? </li></ul><ul><li>F...
Foundations for Intelligence Testing Individual differences-Darwin’s Theory   <ul><li>The most basic concept underlying ps...
Galton’s role   (who is influenced by Darwin’s Theory) <ul><li>Given the concept of  survival of the fittest  and  individ...
Experimental Psychology- The German foundation  <ul><li>The second foundation is laid by attempts to study the human consc...
Response to important societal needs- The French Role  <ul><li>One such need of society to classify and identify the menta...
Selection for Employees for Civil Services and For Army specially during World Wars I and II <ul><li>The need for testing ...
These  are five foundations  for intelligence testing   <ul><li>Individual differences- Based on theory of Darwin, Galton ...
 
Intelligence – Earliest views  <ul><li>Joseph Gall has observed relationship between certain mental characteristics of his...
Contribution of Binet   <ul><li>He thought that intelligence expressed itself through the judgmental, attentional and reas...
Contribution of Binet  <ul><li>He was guided in the selection of tasks by his decision to to measure only the total produc...
Spearman’s Two Factor Theory   <ul><li>General Mental Ability  (G) </li></ul><ul><li>S1(Numerical reasoning )  S2( Vocabul...
Louis Thrustone Multiple Factor Theory   <ul><li>people and their attempts to reach their goals is needed to understand in...
Seven Factors   <ul><li>Verbal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Word fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Number facility </li></ul><u...
Raymond Cattle and John Horn  <ul><li>Human intellectual competence is divided along three dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Fl...
definitions of Intelligence <ul><li>The tendency to take and maintain a definite direction; the capacity to make adaptatio...
Investigators of human intelligence work with two styles of Explanation Reductionist View It assumes that brain like machi...
Cognitive Psychology View   <ul><li>Thinking is a process of creating mental representation of the current problem, retrie...
The Views   <ul><li>Reductionist </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric View  </li></ul><ul><li>A  collection of abilities   </li>...
Consciousness  <ul><li>Consciousness is the ability to take a selective view of the world.  </li></ul><ul><li>In other wor...
Brain facts   <ul><li>The average weight of brain is 1.4 Kilograms  </li></ul><ul><li>Pinkish fudge color </li></ul><ul><l...
 
Neuroplasticity <ul><li>It is the lifelong ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences. It...
Processes involved in Brain Development <ul><li>Neurogenesis is the formation of Neurons in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Ne...
Implications   <ul><li>The activities that are performed frequently with better attention get strengthened. In the process...
Human Competencies and Prized End States   <ul><li>Let us consider the prized end states (in different cultures across tim...
Some questions  <ul><li>On what competencies the psychometric approach rely on?  </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric approach r...
Definition of Intelligence  Howard Gardner   <ul><li>“ an Intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create prod...
Criteria to be called as intelligence   <ul><li>Potential isolation by brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of idi...
Multiple Intelligences   <ul><li>Linguistic intelligence  involves  the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to us...
Multiple Intelligences   <ul><li>Spatial intelligence  involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide sp...
Summary <ul><li>After twenty two years of understanding and practicing theory of Multiple Intelligences the need for nurtu...
References  <ul><li>1) Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences. New York: BasicBooks. </li></ul><ul><li>2)Goleman, D. (...
Thank you very much <ul><li>My email </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address]   </li></ul>
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An Analytical Study on Assessing Human Competencies Based on Tests

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Testing Instruments are used to test Intelligence Quotient or personality tests to evaluate past-acquired competencies or future success in education or employment. A close examination and study of human cognition based on biological and anthropological evidence such as plasticity of brain we may have to include more universal set of competencies than ordinarily been considered such as verbal, mathematical and logical competencies. This paper attempts to address issues relating to definition of intelligence, its components and application of study for educational testing and selection process.

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An Analytical Study on Assessing Human Competencies Based on Tests

  1. 1. An Analytical Study on Assessing Human Competencies Based on Tests Presentation by Prof.K.Prabhakar, KSR College of Technology [email_address]
  2. 2. Objectives of study <ul><li>To understand the history of psychological testing </li></ul><ul><li>Outline important contributions towards psychological testing </li></ul><ul><li>Understand basics of brain functioning and study latest finding on plasticity of brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand different definitions of intelligence and examine definition of intelligence by Howard Gardner. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize out thoughts on intelligence and testing . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Questions that occur to us <ul><li>What is intelligence? How do we define? </li></ul><ul><li>When did we start the methodology of testing intelligence and what is the time line ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any relevance to latest finding on brain and its functions especially relating to plasticity of brain to measurement of intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of culture in developing intelligence? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Antecedents <ul><li>It is common to think tests are recent developments and mostly European and American origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Historians have obtained evidence that Chinese had a relatively sophisticated civil service testing programme more than 4,000 years ago. (Dubois,1966,1970). </li></ul><ul><li>By the time of the Han dynasty(206BC to AD 220),the use of test batteries (two or more tests used in Conjunction )were common. They used to test topics such as civil law, military affairs, agriculture, revenue and geography. </li></ul><ul><li>The western world most likely learnt the testing through British Missionaries and diplomats and encouraged East India Company to copy the Chinese system in 1982 to select employees for overseas duty. </li></ul><ul><li>British Government adopted a system for testing for civil service. The French and German governments followed. America established the American Civil Service Commission and conducted competitive examinations for certain government jobs. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why intelligence Testing? <ul><li>What are the foundations for testing intelligence of Human beings? </li></ul><ul><li>Five major foundations can be discerned. </li></ul><ul><li>Let us examine them </li></ul>
  6. 6. Foundations for Intelligence Testing Individual differences-Darwin’s Theory <ul><li>The most basic concept underlying psychological and educational testing pertains to individual differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests are designed to measure these individual differences in ability and personality among people. </li></ul><ul><li>Given that individual members of species differ, some possess characteristics that are more adoptive or successful in a given environment. Darwin believed that most adoptive survived at he expense of those less fit, and survivors then pass their characteristics on to the next generation. His argument was the present life has evolved to its present complex and intelligent levels based in the concept of survival of the fittest . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Galton’s role (who is influenced by Darwin’s Theory) <ul><li>Given the concept of survival of the fittest and individual differences , Galton(1883) set out to show that some humans possessed, characteristics that made them more fit than other humans. </li></ul><ul><li>His idea of individual differences exists in human sensory and motor functioning, such as reaction time, visual acuity, and physical strength. Galton initiated knowledge for search into human differences which is one of the most important domain of scientific psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Galton work was extended by James Mc Keen Cattell, coined the term “mental test” for the first time. He, stimulated the forces that ultimately led to the development of modern tests. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Experimental Psychology- The German foundation <ul><li>The second foundation is laid by attempts to study the human consciousness through scientific methods mostly mathematical models, in particular that of J.F. Herbart, who used these models as the basis for educational theories in the 19 th Century educational practices. E.H.Weber attempted to demonstrate the existence of psychological threshold, the minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to activate the sensory system. We know that as the famous Weber's Law </li></ul><ul><li>▲I= C*I </li></ul>
  9. 9. Response to important societal needs- The French Role <ul><li>One such need of society to classify and identify the mentally and emotionally handicapped. The important break through came in the 20 th Century, when French Minister of Public Instruction appointed a commission to study ways of identifying intellectually subnormal individuals in order to provide them with appropriate Educational experience. It was Alfred Binet developed major general intelligence test. The first test was known as Binet-Simon Test came into existence in the year 1905. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Selection for Employees for Civil Services and For Army specially during World Wars I and II <ul><li>The need for testing for civil services and for government jobs and for overseas employment. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for selection for Army. </li></ul>
  11. 11. These are five foundations for intelligence testing <ul><li>Individual differences- Based on theory of Darwin, Galton and Cattell. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of individual differences and unlocking human consciousness based on scientific methods by German Psychologists Herbart, Weber, Fechner and Wundt. </li></ul><ul><li>Societal need to identify the mentally and emotionally handicapped and train them. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for selection for civil services </li></ul><ul><li>Need for selection for Army. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Intelligence – Earliest views <ul><li>Joseph Gall has observed relationship between certain mental characteristics of his schoolmates and shapes of their heads. He developed a method phrenology, to divine the personality and development of mental and moral faculties based on external shape of the skull. The bumps and depressions related to the thirty seven faculties could be measured and diagnosed. However, he lacked any scientific proof for his theories. . </li></ul>
  13. 14. Contribution of Binet <ul><li>He thought that intelligence expressed itself through the judgmental, attentional and reasoning faculties of an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Trail and Error and Hypothesis testing was used by him. </li></ul><ul><li>He was guided by two major concepts, age differentiation and general mental ability age differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Age differentiation refers to the fact that older children can be differentiated or from younger children by their greater capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>He searched for tasks that can be completed by 67%-75% of the older children and by small percentage of young children. </li></ul><ul><li>Using these assembled tasks, he was able to estimate the mental ability of the child in terms of completion of tasks regardless of the chronological age of the child. It gave birth to the mental age and standardization of intelligence . </li></ul><ul><li>If a child of 5 is able to complete the tasks for 9 year old then, it has more mental ability. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Contribution of Binet <ul><li>He was guided in the selection of tasks by his decision to to measure only the total product of the various separate and distinct elements of intelligence that is </li></ul><ul><li>General Mental Ability </li></ul><ul><li>He freed himself from the burden of identifying each element of intelligence. The value of any particular task is judged based on correlation with other general mental ability and task with lesser correlation are removed. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Spearman’s Two Factor Theory <ul><li>General Mental Ability (G) </li></ul><ul><li>S1(Numerical reasoning ) S2( Vocabulary ) S3( Mechanical skill ) </li></ul><ul><li>Spearman’s Model is intelligence has a general factor “g” and large number of specific factors (S1,S2,S3…Sn). </li></ul><ul><li>The performance of any intellectual task requires some combination of “g” and specific factor as “s”, which is specific to a task. If we know that one task is highly saturated with ‘g’ then we can predict his performance in the task. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Louis Thrustone Multiple Factor Theory <ul><li>people and their attempts to reach their goals is needed to understand intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>He rejected behaviorist stimulus-response approach. </li></ul><ul><li>He defined intelligence as “ the ability to inhibit instinctive responses while those responses are still in loosely organized form and to use abstraction to redefine the instinctive behaviour in light of imagined consequences” . His theory was intelligence is made up of seven primary mental abilities. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Seven Factors <ul><li>Verbal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Word fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Number facility </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Associative memory </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual speed </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul>
  18. 19. Raymond Cattle and John Horn <ul><li>Human intellectual competence is divided along three dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence is the ability to develop techniques for solving problems that are new and unusual from the point of view of problem solver. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence is the ability to bring previously acquired often culturally defined, problem solving methods to bear on the current problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Spatial reasoning is the ability to use visual images and visual relationships for problem solving. </li></ul>
  19. 20. definitions of Intelligence <ul><li>The tendency to take and maintain a definite direction; the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end; and the power of auto criticism- Alfred Binet </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to inhibit instinctive responses while those responses are still in loosely organized form and to use abstraction to redefine the instinctive behaviour in light of imagined consequences- Louis Thrustone </li></ul><ul><li>It is adjustment or adaptation of the individual to his total environment. The ability to learn and the ability to carry on abstract thinking .- Freeman </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence is the ability to develop techniques for solving problems that are new and unusual from the point of view of problem solver. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to bring previously acquired often culturally defined, problem solving methods to bear on the current problem. Visual Spatial reasoning is the ability to use visual images and visual relationships for problem solving.- Raymond Cattell </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to plan and structure one’s behaviour with an end in view- J.P.Das </li></ul>
  20. 21. Investigators of human intelligence work with two styles of Explanation Reductionist View It assumes that brain like machine Is being merely an assemblage of parts, thus can be explained in terms of many parts. Holistic View Holists view brain as a coherent Whole, a general framework of Connections that shapes the Mental patterns. Behaviorists treated the brain as a giant collection of reflexes. They considered thought as a knee-jerk sequence of associative links. If we are shown red color reflexively we think of fire Engines or traffic signals. Gestalt Psychologists treated brain thinks in wholes before extracting parts. Thus brain seizes on a general thought, forming a broad sense of which direction to head, before doing more work to bring this thought to specific focus .
  21. 22. Cognitive Psychology View <ul><li>Thinking is a process of creating mental representation of the current problem, retrieving information that appears relevant and manipulating the representation in order to obtain an answer. The problem, solution and the methods are used are stored for later reference. </li></ul><ul><li>The Most important point is creation of representation . </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Views <ul><li>Reductionist </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric View </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Amenable to reduction in numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic </li></ul><ul><li>A process not easily amenable to figures. </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralization and Hierarchization </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualization : If IQ levels are same can we compare a man from 16 th Century, 18 th Century and 21 st Century? The intelligence has be understood in the context of opportunities offered by the culture and their practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution is extended view of context. It relates to the person and the tools he has such as computer, notebooks, network of associates etc. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Consciousness <ul><li>Consciousness is the ability to take a selective view of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words it is to be oriented and to be pregnant with goals and expectations. How the brain works is, How it orientates itself to each passing moment. </li></ul><ul><li>The working is complex, but straightforward, such that we can see exactly the same principles at work in rudimentary life forms such as bacterium. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Brain facts <ul><li>The average weight of brain is 1.4 Kilograms </li></ul><ul><li>Pinkish fudge color </li></ul><ul><li>100 billion neurons of individual cells </li></ul><ul><li>Each of them can make from thousands of synaptic connections </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse is a junction between two neurons-they are not random, each one of the connection has its own history and purpose such as thoughts, impressions, urges, conflicts, worries, curiosities and intentions. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Neuroplasticity <ul><li>It is the lifelong ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences. It is the ability of brain to change with learning is what is known as neuroplasticity. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four types of Plasticity as we know to day. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Plasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Dependent Plasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Plasticity of Learning and Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Injury Induced Plasticity </li></ul>
  26. 28. Processes involved in Brain Development <ul><li>Neurogenesis is the formation of Neurons in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Neural migration is the movement of neurons to different areas of brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Myelination, the covering of neuron axon with a fatty sheath, to conduct signals more efficiently and protect the axon. </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses, or more connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic Pruning is selective elimination of synapses. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Implications <ul><li>The activities that are performed frequently with better attention get strengthened. In the process neurons are annexed by brain for further development. </li></ul><ul><li>If we keep brain inactive we loose it ! </li></ul><ul><li>We need to constantly use it in order to have a healthy brain </li></ul>
  28. 30. Human Competencies and Prized End States <ul><li>Let us consider the prized end states (in different cultures across time and geography) such as hunters, priests, kings, warriors, artists, writers, athletes , poets, painters, military strategists or scientists. </li></ul><ul><li>1)How did they acquire these states? What kind of intelligence is common factor among all these prized end states. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Some questions <ul><li>On what competencies the psychometric approach rely on? </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric approach relies on language, mathematical and logical competencies, mostly measured through paper and pencil tests. The output of the tests is data that ranks the subjects (persons who undergo the tests) as best to least. </li></ul><ul><li>2) If we think of the prized end states that are rewarded by different cultures and include human cognition in our discussion, is it right to limit our competencies as mentioned or do we have to include more competencies that may not be amenable to paper and pencil tests? </li></ul>
  30. 32. Definition of Intelligence Howard Gardner <ul><li>“ an Intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings”. </li></ul><ul><li>If you compare Howard Gardner’s definition with that of other definitions it does not talk about the sources or means of measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives emphasis to ability to solve problems or create products that are valued that is Competencies relevant in cultural settings. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not talk about one single intelligence but multiple intelligences . </li></ul>
  31. 33. Criteria to be called as intelligence <ul><li>Potential isolation by brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of idiot savants, prodigies and other exceptional individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifiable core operations or set of operations </li></ul><ul><li>A distinctive developmental history </li></ul><ul><li>An evolutionary history </li></ul><ul><li>Support from experimental psychological tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Support from psychometric findings </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to encoding in symbol system </li></ul>
  32. 34. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Linguistic intelligence involves the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. It entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements </li></ul>
  33. 35. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.  </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. It involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment. It 'combines a description of the core ability with a characterization of the role that many cultures value. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Summary <ul><li>After twenty two years of understanding and practicing theory of Multiple Intelligences the need for nurturing intelligences found place in most of the school in USA and Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The list of intelligences is not complete some more candidates for intelligence are digital intelligence and sexual intelligence according to Howard Gardner. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence measurement is only one of the task and not the end. It is upto us to identify appropriate tools to enhance the utilization of brain and its functions to have a fulfilling existence both at school and workplace. </li></ul>
  35. 37. References <ul><li>1) Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences. New York: BasicBooks. </li></ul><ul><li>2)Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books </li></ul><ul><li>3) Phrenology, the History of Brain Localization &quot; By: Renate M.E. Sabatini , PhD In: Brain & Mind , March 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>4) American Scientist online, The Role of Intelligence in Modern Society, by Earl Hunt. This article originally appeared in the July-August 1995 issue of American Scientist. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Gardner, H. (1983) Frames of Mind, London; Fontana Press </li></ul><ul><li>6) http://www.newhorizons.org </li></ul><ul><li>7) www.EnchantedLearning.com </li></ul><ul><li>8) Multiple Intelligences after Twenty Years, Paper presented at the American Educational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 21, 2003 </li></ul>
  36. 38. Thank you very much <ul><li>My email </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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