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Enzymes
Apples <ul><li>Take a bite of your apple.  Now turn your apple 180 0.  Take another bite. </li></ul><ul><li>On one bite of...
Once Upon a Time… <ul><li>Louis Pasteur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1860 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul></ul>...
Why Do We Need Enzymes? <ul><li>Chemical reactions are how cells function. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions take time....
What is an Enzyme? <ul><li>Enzymes  are proteins that provide function to the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember:  </li>...
<ul><li>Enzymes are  catalysts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By loweri...
What is a Substrate? <ul><li>Substrates  are compounds in the cell that are going to react chemically. </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Enzymes and Reactions <ul><li>Activation energy : small amount of energy needed to get the reaction going (camp fire). </l...
Lock and Key Analogy
Induced Fit Theory Active site :  Is the place on the  enzyme where the  substrates fit. Induced Fit Theory : updated Lock...
Degradation and Synthesis Degradation  = large molecule broken down into a smaller ones Synthesis  = combination of severa...
How Enzymes Work: Animation <ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how...
What Effects Enzyme Activity? pH: Every enzyme has a small optimal pH range. Higher or lower pH disrupts chemical bonds ch...
Metabolic Enzymes <ul><li>Responsible for catalyzing biochemical reactions required to maintain life.  </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Digestive Enzymes <ul><li>Digestive enzymes are catabolic enzymes responsible for breaking down food into nutrients and en...
 
Now…Back to Those Apples! <ul><li>Do you notice any differences between the two halves? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, what are ...
Fruit Browning <ul><li>When an apple is cut or bitten into, cells beneath the fruit’s skin are damaged and exposed to oxyg...
Enzyme Vocabulary Review <ul><li>Enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Activatio...
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Enzymes

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Biology Enzyme lesson

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Transcript of "Enzymes "

  1. 1. Enzymes
  2. 2. Apples <ul><li>Take a bite of your apple. Now turn your apple 180 0. Take another bite. </li></ul><ul><li>On one bite of the apple, apply lemon juice to the entire flesh surface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid getting lemon juice on the skin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe off any juice that has come into contact with skin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do nothing to the other bite of the apple. </li></ul><ul><li>Place your apple out of the way… </li></ul><ul><li>we will come back to them later on. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Once Upon a Time… <ul><li>Louis Pasteur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1860 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edward Buchner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1897 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes can function independently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>J.B. Sumner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1926 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated urease from jack bean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First to identify as protein </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why Do We Need Enzymes? <ul><li>Chemical reactions are how cells function. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions take time. Tend to be very slow. </li></ul><ul><li>For cells to work properly, many chemical reactions must happen in a short time. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in all chemical reactions in living things. </li></ul><ul><li>With out enzymes, </li></ul><ul><li>we would not be living! </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is an Enzyme? <ul><li>Enzymes are proteins that provide function to the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are complex chains of organic compounds called amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide structure, function, and regulation of animal and plant cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Enzymes are catalysts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By lowering energy of activation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No permanent chemical modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as a result of participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used over and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End is “- ase” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is a Substrate? <ul><li>Substrates are compounds in the cell that are going to react chemically. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are highly specific for their substrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, there is one specific enzyme for each specific chemical reaction. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Enzymes and Reactions <ul><li>Activation energy : small amount of energy needed to get the reaction going (camp fire). </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes bring together the chemicals that are going to react and lowers the activation energy necessary to get the reaction underway </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lock and Key Analogy
  10. 10. Induced Fit Theory Active site : Is the place on the enzyme where the substrates fit. Induced Fit Theory : updated Lock and key concept. States that when reactants are brought together, they reach a transition state which allows the reaction to proceed. Not as rigid.
  11. 11. Degradation and Synthesis Degradation = large molecule broken down into a smaller ones Synthesis = combination of several smaller molecules into a a large one
  12. 12. How Enzymes Work: Animation <ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_enzymes_work.htm </li></ul><ul><li>McGraw-Hill site will be pre-loaded onto the computer to be ready to play when this slide comes up. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Effects Enzyme Activity? pH: Every enzyme has a small optimal pH range. Higher or lower pH disrupts chemical bonds changing the shape of the enzyme. Temperature: Environments hotter than the enzyme’s optimal temperature cause the enzyme to denature (break down). Cold Temperature slows down enzyme activity By decreasing molecular motion.
  14. 14. Metabolic Enzymes <ul><li>Responsible for catalyzing biochemical reactions required to maintain life. </li></ul><ul><li>Exist throughout the entire body. </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of metabolic enzymes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolic - enzymes that break down large molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolic - enzymes that construct complex molecules from smaller pieces, such as proteins from amino acids. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Digestive Enzymes <ul><li>Digestive enzymes are catabolic enzymes responsible for breaking down food into nutrients and energy. </li></ul><ul><li>They occur primarily in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>They are secreted by salivary glands, glands in the stomach, glands in the small intestine and the pancreas (largest producer of enzymes in the body). </li></ul>
  16. 17. Now…Back to Those Apples! <ul><li>Do you notice any differences between the two halves? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, what are the differences? </li></ul><ul><li>What caused the change/ if any? </li></ul>
  17. 18. Fruit Browning <ul><li>When an apple is cut or bitten into, cells beneath the fruit’s skin are damaged and exposed to oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>An enzyme called polyphenol oxidase (also called tyrosinase) contained in the cells is exposed to and reacts with the oxygen in the air, causing the bruised appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>The citric acid in lemon juice denatures the enzyme rendering it ineffective. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Enzyme Vocabulary Review <ul><li>Enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Lock and Key Analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Induced Fit Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Denatured </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolic </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic </li></ul>
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