India is a Sovereign Socialist SecularDemocratic Republic governed in termsof constitution which was adopted bythe Constituent Assembly 0n 26thNovember 1949 and came into forcefrom 26th January 1950.
Sources of Indian Constitution• The sources of Indian constitution are diverse• Sources of constitution are Indigenous andforeign.– 1918 Bombay Session of INC.– 1928 Motilal Nehru Committee– 1931 Karachi Congress– 1935 Govt. of India Act.It is also borrowed from the constitutions ofthe United States Kingdom, the UnitedStates of America, Canada and Ireland.
Salient features1. It declares india as a Sovereign Socialist SecularDemocratic Public.2. It establishes a parliamentary form of Govt.3. The structure of the Govt. is Federal.4. The govt. is federal in nominal times & unitary intimes of emergency.5. Under certain circumstances, the Unionparliament can legislate in subjects included instate list and can take over administration of astate by declaring an emergency.6. The executive and legislative powers have beendivided between the union and the states.
7. Constitution provides a single Judiciary, a singleset of rights and obligations, single citizenship,uniformity in criminal and civil laws, All IndiaServices etc.8. Constitution provides to the citizens justice,equality and fraternity.9. It is the lengthiest constitution having 395Articles and 12 schedules.10. It is rigid constitution but certain amount offlexibility has been allowed like amending itsarticles.11. It is written constitution.12. Procedure has been laid down to amend theprovisions of the constitution.
13. It guarantees fundamental rights to all citizensand lays down directive principles of state policy14. It abolishes untouchably and in certain cases,provides reservations of seats for some minoritygroups.15. The doctrine of judicial review is a specialcharacteristics of the constitution.
Features of Constitution• Federal Nature :» Denotes concentration of authority in a central polity.» It is the supreme authority» It establishes division of sovereignty among states.» The powers of union and states are clearly marked.» The supreme court decides disputes between states orstate inter se.
• Unitary Features:» In india there is single citizenship.» State govt. has limited & enumerated powers.» The union under certain circumstances exercisepower over the state govt.» There is single judiciary.» Supreme court’s interpretation is the final word.
“Constitution of India is neitherpurely Federal nor purely unitary”
ThanksCaarmel Institute of Management StudiesAmbadi.S