Published on


  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Ophthalmoscopy Name:-yukti patel En.no:-100420117053 Subject:-
  2. 2. Ophthalmoscopy • Ophthalmoscope is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the back of the eye (called the funds) and other structures using a magnifying instrument (ophthalmoscope) and a light source. It is done as part of an eye examination and may be done as part of a routine physical examination • An instrument used for assessment of ocular health • Posterior eye • Can also be used for the anterior eye
  3. 3. The modern ophthalmoscope:• Here light source from the batteries is reflected at 90o using a mirror placed in the head portion at 45o angle. The examiner looks through a hole in the mirror that is through the light.
  4. 4. Choosing the appropriate lens: The structures closer to the ophthalmoscope are best seen using positive lenses, which are labeled with black letters. The retina comes into focus at the 0 diopter, the cup at 2 red. 14 diopter 10 diopter 7 diopter 0 diopter -2 diopter
  5. 5. Type of ophthalmoscopy  Direct ophthalmoscopy • During direct ophthalmoscopy, you may hear a clicking sound as the instrument is adjusted to focus on different structures in the eye. The light is sometimes very intense, and you may see spots for a short time following the examination. Some people report seeing light spots or branching images. These are actually the outlines of the blood vessels of the retina  Indirect ophthalmoscopy • With indirect ophthalmoscopy, the light is much more intense and may be somewhat uncomfortable. Pressure applied to your eyeball with the blunt instrument also may be uncomfortable. After-images are common with this test. If the test is painful, let the health professional know
  6. 6. Risks • In some people, the dilating or anesthetic eyedrops can cause • Brief episodes of nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, flushing, and dizziness • An allergic reaction • A sudden increase in pressure inside the eyeball (closed-angle glaucoma) • Call your health professional immediately if you have severe and sudden eye pain, vision problems (halos may appear around light), or loss of vision after the examination
  7. 7. The head of the ophthalmoscope:• The head consists of a window for viewing the retina, and one for viewing the lens numbers and a wheel for changing them. Lens numbers are marked in black (positive) & red (negative) Type of portable Ophthalmoscope:- Specialist Ophthalmosco pe Professional Ophthalmoscope Pocket Ophthalmosc ope
  8. 8. STRUCTURE AND OPERATION diagram of a prior art binocular ophthalmoscope
  9. 9. Procedure • Ideally should be examined in a dark room. • Ask the patient to fix stare at an object. • Turn on scope and set dial at 0. • Right with right • Begin at arms length,should see red reflex. • Move close until optic disc is visible. • Turn dial until disc is in focus - +/-
  10. 10. Limitations of direct ophthalmoscopy • Direct ophthalmoscopy of the anterior eye is a screening technique – Instrument of choice is the slit lamp – We will cover this later in the year • Low magnification (2.5x for the anterior eye) • No stereopsis (3D vision) • Minimal lighting variability
  11. 11. By:Yukti Patel(100420117053)