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    Grading for learning_-_ken_o_connor Grading for learning_-_ken_o_connor Presentation Transcript

    • WELCOME15 Fixes for Broken Grades Presented by Ken O’Connor with assistance fromWanda DeChant, Dan Nash and Leslie Snyder
    • Presented by Ken O’ConnorAssess for Success Consulting kenoc@aol.com www.oconnorgrading.com
    • Outcomes/ObjectivesParticipants will:• recognize the need to critically examineestablished grading practices;• appreciate the complexity of grading;• know the meaning of key terms;• identify the purposes of grading;• know how to fix broken grades; and• analyze the value of fixes for grading. 5
    • “Terms (are) frequentlyused interchangeably,although they(should) havedistinct meanings.”McTighe, J., and Ferrara, S., “Assessing Learning in the Classroom”,Journal of Quality Learning, December 1995, 11 6
    • What Do These Terms Mean? MA RK(S)/SCORE(S) (mar king/scor ing)the number (or letter) "score" given to 7/ 4 10 3 any student test or performance 2 1 GRA DE(S) (gr ading)the number (or letter) reported at the A 91 4 E B 78 3 Gend of a period of time as a summary C 64 2 S statement of student performance D 57 1 N F 42 7
    • The Essential Question:How confident are you that the gradesstudents get in your school are: consistent accurate meaningful, and supportive of learning?If grades do not meet these four conditions of quality they are “broken” i.e. ineffective. 8
    • Policy + Principles + Practicality =Implementation 9
    • “The real voyage ofdiscovery consists notof seeking newlandscapes, but inhaving new eyes.”Marcel Proust 10
    • “ . . . (grading) practices are not the resultof careful thought or sound evidence, . . .rather, they are used because teachersexperienced these practices as studentsand, having little training or experiencewith other options, continue their use.”Guskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning:The 1996 ASCD Yearbook, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 20 11
    • “The grading box is alive and well, andin some schools and classrooms, it isimpenetrable. Fair does not meanequal; yet, when it comes to grading,we insist that it does.”Patterson, William “Breaking Out of Our Boxes,” Kappan,April 2003, 572 12
    • What does FAIR mean ?“All students are given an equal opportunity todemonstrate what they know and can do as part ofthe assessment process.Adaptations to assessment materials and proceduresare available for students including but not restrictedto students with learning disabilities, to allow them todemonstrate their knowledge and skills, provided thatthe adaptations do not jeopardize the integrity orcontent of the assessment.”Adapted from Manitoba Education and Training athttp://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/metks4/curricul/assess/aepolprod/purpos~2.html 13
    • Purposes for GradingA Communicate the achievement status of studentsto parents, (students), and others.B Provide information that students can use for self-evaluation.C Select, identify, or group students for certaineducational paths or programs.D Provide incentives to learn.E Evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programsGuskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning:The 1996 ASCD Yearbook, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 17 14
    • “the primary purpose for grading . . .should be to communicate with studentsand parents about their achievement oflearning goals. . . .Brookhart, S., Grading, Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, Columbus, OH, 2004 15
    • Secondary purposes for grading include providing teachers with information for instructional planning, . . . and providing teachers, administrators, parents, and students with information for placement of students. (5)Brookhart, S., Grading, Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, Columbus, OH, 2004 16
    • “It is very difficult for one measure to servedifferent purposes equally well.” (21)“The main difficulty driving grading issuesboth historically and currently is that gradesare pressed to serve a variety of conflictingpurposes.” (31)Brookhart, S., Grading, Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, Columbus, OH, 2004 17
    • “the primary purpose of . . . grades . . .(is) to communicate studentachievement to students, parents,school administrators, post-secondaryinstitutions and employers.” Bailey, J. and McTighe, J., “Reporting Achievement at the Secondary School Level: What and How?”, in Thomas R. Guskey, (Ed.) Communicating Student Learning: ASCD Yearbook 1996, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 120 18
    • Grading Issues•Achievement (only)•Evidence (quality)•Calculation•Learning (support) 19
    • Grades are broken when they -• include ingredients that distort achievement• arise from low quality or poorly organizedevidence• are derived from inappropriate numbercrunching,• do not support the learning process. 20
    • Fixes for ingredients that distortachievement1.Don’t include student behaviors (effort, participation,adherence to class rules, etc) in grades; include onlyachievement.2. Don’t reduce marks on ‘work’ submitted late; providesupport for the learner.3. Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seekonly evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level ofachievement. 21
    • Fixes for ingredients that distortachievement4. Don’t punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades;apply other consequences and reassess to determineactual level of achievement.5. Don’t consider attendance in grade determination; reportabsences separately.6. Don’t include group scores in grades; use only individualachievement evidence. 22
    • Fixes for low quality or poorlyorganized evidence7. Don’t organize information in grading records byassessment methods or simply summarize into asingle grade; organize and report evidence bystandards/learning goals.8. Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclearperformance standards; provide clear descriptions ofachievement expectations. 23
    • Fixes for low quality or poorlyorganized evidence9. Don’t assign grades based on student’sachievement compared to other students;compare each student’s performance to presetstandards.10. Don’t rely on evidence gathered fromassessments that fail to meet standards ofquality; rely only on quality assessments. 24
    • Fixes for inappropriatenumber crunching11. Don’t rely on the mean; consider othermeasures of central tendency and useprofessional judgment.12. Don’t include zeros in grade determinationwhen evidence is missing or as punishment; usealternatives, such as reassessing to determinereal achievement or use “I” for Incomplete orInsufficient evidence. 25
    • Fixes to support the learning process13. Don’t use information from formative assessments andpractice to determine grades; use only summative evidence.14. Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time whenlearning is developmental and will grow with time andrepeated opportunities; in those instances emphasize morerecent achievement.15. Don’t leave students out of the grading process.Involve students - they can - and should - playkey roles in assessment and grading that promoteachievement. 26
    • For each fix… What do you think – PMI Where are you/school/district now? Where do you want to go – you/school/district? 27
    • Fixes for ingredients that distortachievement1.Don’t include student behaviors (effort,participation, adherence to class rules, etc) in grades; include only achievement.2.Don’t reduce marks on ‘work’ submitted late;provide support for the learner.3. Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonuspoints; seek only evidence that more work hasresulted in a higher level of achievement. 28
    • Fixes for ingredients that distortachievement4. Don’t punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades;apply other consequences and reassess to determine actuallevel of achievement.5. Don’t consider attendance in grade determination; reportabsences separately.6. Don’t include group scores in grades; use only individualachievement evidence. 29
    • Fix #1 Don’t include student behaviors (effort, participation, adherence to class rules, etc) in grades; include only achievement. 30
    • Fix #1“. . . grades often reflect a combination ofachievement, progress, and other factors. . . . this tendency to collapse severalindependent elements into a single grademay blur their meaning.”Bailey, J. and McTighe, J., “Reporting Achievement at the Secondary School Level: Whatand How?”, in T. R. Guskey, (Ed.) Communicating Student Learning: ASCD Yearbook1996, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 121 31
    • Fix #1“Reports on student progress andachievement should contain . . .information that indicates academicprogress and achievement for eachcourse or subject area separate from . . .punctuality, attitude, behaviour, effort,attendance, and work habits;”Manitoba Education and Training, Reporting on Student Progress and Achievement: APolicy Handbook for Teachers, Administrators and Parents. Winnipeg, 1997, 13 32
    • Fix #1“By . . . offering separategrades for differentaspects of performance,educators can providebetter and far moreuseful information (thansingle grades thatinclude achievement andbehaviors).Guskey and Bailey, Developing Grading and ReportingSystems for Student Learning, Corwin, 2001, 82 33
    • Fix #1Sum total of everything students do in school/classroom Select a representative sampling of what students do Process Product Assessment of students using observation over time Assessment tasks e.g. • learning logs e.g. • performances • journals •Product Assessment tasks,presentations • portfolios Assessment Tasks tests/quizzes/examinations e.g. • performances • • teacher observations/anecdotal notes e.g. • • presentations • culminating demonstrations performances • tests/quiz • presentations Attitude/Learning Skills/Effort • culminating demonstration • tests/quizzes/examination • enjoys learning • questions/investigates • culminating demonstration • class participation • works independently • completes assignments • completes research/projects • cooperates with others • respects others • • resolves conflicts attendance, punctuality ACHIEVEMENT • reflects and sets goals Reporting Variables Report Grading Variables (Desirable Behaviors) Card (Learning Outcomes,O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning, Third Edition, Corwin, 2009, 42 Standards, etc) 34
    • 222-Fix #1 Shorewood, WI. Standards-Based Expanded Format Report Card 223 O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning, Third Edition, Corwin, 2009, 222-223 35
    • Fix #1O’Connor, Ken, How to Grade for Learning, Third Edition, Corwin, 2009, 229 36
    • Learning SkillsWorks Independently, Teamwork, Organization,Work Habits/Homework, InitiativeAchievementReport Period, Percentage Grade, Course Median,Credit EarnedCommentsStrengths, Areas for Improvement, Next StepsAttendanceClasses Missed/Total Classes, Times Late 37
    • Fix #2 Don’treduce marks on “work” submitted late; provide support for the learner. 38
    • Fix #2“Those who experience... success gain theconfidence needed to risk trying….Students who experience failure loseconfidence in themselves, stop trying,and... fail even more frequently. As it turnsout, confidence is the key to studentsuccess in all learning situations.”Stiggins, R., Student-Involved Classroom Assessment, Merrill Prentice Hall, 2001, 43 39
    • Fix #2“the most effective ways to changebehaviors are: 1. using non-coercion 2. prompting the person to self-assess, and 3. if authority is necessary have the student own the consequence. When a consequence is imposed the student feels the victim. When the consequence is elicited, the student owns it and grows from the decision.”Marvin Marshall, Promoting Responsibility Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 4, November 2001, 9 40
    • Fix #2 41
    • Fix #2 “Warm demanders first establish a caringrelationship that convinces students that theteacher believes in them and has their bestinterests at heart. . . .On the basis of this relationship, warmdemanders relentlessly insist that allstudents perform required academic workand treat the teacher and their peers withrespect.”Abstract of Bondy, E, and D. D. Ross. "The Teacher as Warm Demander,"Educational Leadership, September 2008. Available on line at www.ascd.org/ 42
    • Fix #2Getting Work In On Time1.Set clear and reasonable timelines with somestudent input.2.Ensure that the expectations for the task/assignment are clearly established and understood.3.Support the students who will predictably strugglewith the task without intervention4.Find out why other students’ work is late andassist them.How to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to Standards, ThirdEdition, Corwin. 2009.102 43
    • Fix #2Getting Work In On Time5. Establish the consequences for late work, e.g., • After school follow-up • Make-up responsibility within a supervised setting • Parent contact • Notation in the mark book for each assignment which is late •“Grades” on a learning skills/ work habits section of the report card • Comments on the report card that reflects chronic lateness 44How to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to Standards, Third Edition, Corwin. 2009.102
    • Fix #2Getting Work In On Time6. Provide the opportunity for students toextend timelines: •Student must communicate with the teacher in advance of the due date •Student must choose situations carefully as this extension may only be used once/twice per term/semesterHow to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to Standards,Third Edition, Corwin. 2009.102 45
    • Fix #2Firm Due Dates1. 46
    • Fix #2Dealing with Late Work1. Behaviour/Learning Skill2. Clarity3. Communication4. Support/Consequences 47
    • Fix #3 Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seek only evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level of achievement. 48
    • Fix #3 – Extra Credit Letter to the Editor – Harrisburg, PA Patriot News, November 21, 2003Recently it was “Dress like an Egyptian Day” at my school. If we dressed like an Egyptian we got extra credit. When we didn’t (which the majority of kids didn’t) our teacher got disappointed at us because we just “didn’t make more effort.” …One of the frustrating things in my mind is that we get graded on something that has no educational value. I would very much like to discontinue these childish dress-up days.Jennifer Starsinic, Hummelstown 49
    • Fix #3 – Extra Credit Extra credit – points for things that have nothing to do with achievement of learning outcomes should not be allowed by school or district policy. Students should, however, at any time be encouraged to provide “extra” evidence of their achievement of learning outcomes. 50
    • Fix #3 – Bonus PointsIt is inappropriate to have bonus points on tests that simply make it appear that students’ achievement is higher than it really is.It makes no sense for a student to be able to score 70 points on a test that has a maximum recorded value of 50 points.Furthermore, the questions for bonus points are usually the questions that distinguish between competence and excellent, so all students should be expected to attempt these questions. 51O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning, Third Edition, Corwin, 2009, 104
    • Fix #4 Don’t punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades; apply other consequences and reassess to determine actual level of achievement. 52
    • Fix #4 Schools and districts need procedures to deal fairly and appropriately with academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism. This can be achieved by having a clear district or school policy on academic dishonesty. 53
    • Fix #4“Effective policies first and foremost recognize that academic dishonesty is a very serious inappropriate behaviour (maybe) equivalent to theft, and as such requires primarily behavioral consequences. These policies also recognize that academic dishonesty deprives everyone of quality evidence of student achievement. This appropriate assessment consequence is to have students redo the work with honesty and integrity.”O’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, OR, 2007, 39 54
    • Fix #5 Don’t consider attendance in grade determination; report absences separately. 55
    • Fix #5 Regular attendance is necessary and desirable for most students but learning outcomes based education is not about seat time, it is about what students know, understand and can do. Keep it simple – just record the number of days present for each student and the number of days in the grading period. 56
    • Fix #5“Excused and unexcused absences are not relevant to an achievement grade.There is no legitimate purpose for distinguishing between excused and unexcused absences.For educational purposes, therefore, there need only to be recorded absences.”Gathercoal, F., Judicious Discipline, Caddo Gap Press, San Francisco, 1997, 151 in O’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, OR, 2007, 43 57
    • Fix #6 Don’t include group scores in grades; use only individual achievement evidence. 58
    • Fix #6 59
    • Fix #6“Group (grades) are so blatantly unfair that on this basis alone they should never be used.”Kagan, S. “Group Grades Miss the Mark,” Educational Leadership,May 1995, 69 60
    • Fix #6Kagan’s 7 reasons for opposing group grades1. No(t) fair2. Debase report cards3. Undermine motivation4. Convey the wrong message5. Violate individual accountability6. Are responsible for resistance to cooperative learning7. May be challenged in courtKagan, S. “Group Grades Miss the Mark,” Educational Leadership,May 1995, 69 61
    • Fix #6“No student’s grade should depend on the achievement (or behavior) of other students.”Source: William Glasser 62
    • Fixes for low quality or poorly organized evidence 7. Don’t organize information in grading records by assessment methods or simply summarize into a single grade; organize and report evidence by standards/learning goals. 8. Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations. 9. Don’t assign grades based on student’s achievement compared to other students; compare each student’s performance to preset standards. 10. Don’t rely on evidence gathered from assessments that fail to meet standards of quality; rely only on quality assessments. 63
    • Fix #7 Don’torganize information in grading records by assessment methods or simply summarize into a single grade; organize and report evidence by standards/learning goals. 64
    • Fix #7 - Traditional Guideline For GradingEvaluation Category Expected % Range1. Quizzes/Tests/Exams 20-30%2. Written Assignments 15-25% Creative or explanatory paragraphs, essays, notes, organizers, writing folios or portfolios3. Oral Presentations or Demonstrations 15-25% Brief or more formal presentations or demonstrations, role-playing, debates, skits etc.4. Projects/Assignments 10-20% Research tasks, hands-on projects, video or audio tape productions, analysis of issues etc.5. Co-operative Group Learning 5 -15% Evaluation of the process and skills learned as an individual and as a group member6. Independent Learning 5 - 15% Individual organizational skills, contributions to class activities and discussions, homework, notebooks 70-130% 65
    • Fix #7 66
    • Fix#7 67 A
    • 67B
    • 1.1 Teachers grade and report student progress and achievement based on Florida standards/benchmarks therefore the Sunshine State Standards are the grading variables.1.3 Teachers measure student attainment of standards and assign grades based on predetermined, consistent grading procedures in the same courses and across grade levels.Source: Bay District Schools, FL Classroom Assessment Guidelines (CAG) 68
    • Fix #8 Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations. 69
    • Fix #8  “Performance standards specify ‘how good is good enough.’ They relate to issues of assessment that gauge the degree to which content standards have been attained. . . . They are indices of quality that specify how adept or competent a student demonstration should be.”Kendall, J., and R. Marzano, Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards 70and Benchmarks for K-12 Education, First Edition, McREL, 1997, 16-17
    • Performance StandardsHow good is good enough?Traditional School Approaches  A 90 – 100% Outstanding Excellent  B 80 – 89% Above Average Good  C 70 – 79% Average Satisfactory  D 60 – 69% Below Average Poor  F < 60% Failing Unacceptable O’Connor, K., How to Grade forStandard-based approaches Learning,Third Edition, Corwin,Should be described by levels and linked to a symbol 2009, 72  Advanced Above standard  Proficient Meets standard  Developing Below but approaching standard  Beginning Well below standard 71
    • 72O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning, Third Edition, Corwin, 2009, 75
    • For classroom assessment Performance Standards =OVERALL performance descriptors (school, district, state or provincial e.g., A B C D; 4 3 2 1; E M N U)TASK/SUBJECT scoring tools (rubrics, etc)GRADE LEVEL +SPECIFIC work samples (exemplars) + commentaries on the work samplesAdapted from New Standards Sampler, National Center on Education and 73the Economy, www.ncee.org
    • Wow! Got it!Nearly there!Oh no! Oops! 74
    • Achievement “the act of achieving or performing; an obtaining by exertion; successful performance” measured as an absolute, e.g., “he/she . . . is 4 feet 6 inches tall” . . . “is reading proficiently at grade 2 level” “achievement at . . .”Sources: Dictionaries and the wisdom of Grant Wiggins 75
    • Growth “the process of growing: increase in size, number, frequency, strength, etc.” measured against where a child was, e.g., “he/she . . . grew three inches since last measurement” . . . “has moved from grade 1 level in the last month” “growth from . . .” 76Sources: Dictionaries and the wisdom of Grant Wiggins
    • Progress“movement, as toward a goal; advance.”Relative achievement measured against a goal, standard, e.g., “he/she. . . to one inch above average height for age”. . . to two grade levels below expected level for age”“progress to . . .”Invariably involves a professional judgmentNote - It is possible to make significant personal growth while making limited progress at a (relatively) low level of achievement. 77Sources: Dictionaries and the wisdom of Grant Wiggins
    • Fix #9 Don’t assign grades based on student’s achievement compared to other students; compare each student’s performance to preset standards. 78
    •  What do you think would happen if you did an outstanding job, all the students in your class did an outstanding job, and all the students received a grade of 90% or higher? 79
    • “grading on the curve makes learning a highly competitive activity in which students compete against one another for the few scarce rewards(high grades) distributed by the teacher. Under these conditions, students readily see that helping others become successful threatens their own chances for success. As a result, learning becomes a game of winners and losers; and because the number of rewards is kept arbitrarily small, most students are forced to be losers.”Guskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning: 80The 1996 ASCD Yearbook), ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 18-19
    • Fix #10Don’t rely on evidence fromassessments that fail to meetstandards of quality; rely only onquality assessments. 81
    • Fix #10 – Accurate Assessment Appropriate and clear targets (Fixes 7 & 8) Clear Purpose (Fix 13) Sound design:  right method  well written  well sampled  bias avoidedAdapted from Stiggins et al – Classroom Assessment FOR Student Learning, Pearson Assessment Training Institute, Portland, OR, 2004, 124 82
    • Fix #10 – Well Sampled“Ask: Have we gathered enough information of the right kind so we can draw confident conclusions about student achievement. If the answer is yes, proceed. . . .Our challenge is to know how to adjust our sampling strategies . . . to produce results of maximum quality for minimum effort.”Stiggins, R, Student-involved Classroom Assessment, Third Edition,Merrill Prentice Hall, 510-511 83
    • Fix #10 – Bias AvoidedProblems that can occur with the student Lack of reading skill Emotional upset Poor health Lack of testwiseness Evaluation anxietyProblems that can occur with the setting Physical conditions – light, heat, noise, etc.Problems that can occur with the assessment itself Directions lacking or unclear Poorly worded questions/prompts Insufficient timeBased on the ideas of Rick Stiggins 84
    • Fix #11Don’t rely on the mean; consider othermeasures of central tendency and useprofessional judgment. 85
    • Fix #11 –“Averaging falls far short of providing an accurate description of what students have learned. . . . If the purpose of grading and reporting is to provide an accurate description of what students have learned, then averaging must be considered inadequate and inappropriate”.Guskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning:The 1996 ASCD Yearbook, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 21 86
    • Fix #11“Educators must abandon the average, or arithmetic mean, as the predominant measurement of student achievement.”Reeves, D., “Standards are Not Enough: Essential Transformationsfor School Success,” NASSP Bulletin, Dec. 2000, 10 87
    • Fix #11 – Letter to the EditorGlobe and Mail (Toronto), October 15, 2003Whenever I hear statistics being quoted I am reminded of the statistician who drowned while wading across a river with an average depth of three feet.GORDON McMANNCampbell River, B.C. 88
    • Fix #11“Most fifth-grade students learn the differencebetween mean, median, and mode, and thus gainthe insight that the arithmetic mean or average,may not be the best representation of a set of data.Yet the teachers of those students remainstubbornly allegiant to the average.”Reeves, D., Ahead of the Curve, Solution Tree, 2007, 230 89
    • Fix #11 89 89 89 Mean or Average = 75.2 20 89 89 Median = 89 89 20 89 89Total 752 90
    • Fix #11"Grading by the median provides more opportunities for success by diminishing the impact of a few stumbles and by rewarding hard work."Wright, Russell. G., "Success for All: The Median is the Key",Kappan, May 1994, 723-725 91
    • Fix #11“Data should be used to INFORM not determine decisions”Management Consultant, The Hay Group, personal conversation,January 2002 92
    • Fix #12Don’t include zeros in grade determination when evidence is missing or as punishment; use alternatives, such as reassessing to determine real level of achievement or use “I” for Incomplete or Insufficient evidence. 93
    • Fix #12Problems with zeros “Zeros give a numerical value to something that has never been assessed and that therefore has no basis in reality. They can have a counterproductive effects on student motivation. They involve inappropriate mathematics.. . . zeros in the record (thus) render grades ineffective as communication.”O’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, 2007, 86 94
    • Fix #12 The Effect of Zeros 5 point scale 101 point scale 4 (A) 90-100 11 95 95 3 (B) 80-89 10 85 85 2 (C) 70-79 10 75 75 1 (D) 60-69 10 65 65 0 (F) <60 60 0 50 2 (C) 64 (D) 74 (C)O’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, 2007, 88 95
    • Fix #12“The use of an “I” or “Incomplete” grade is an alternative to assigning zeros that is both educationally sound and potentially quite effective.”Guskey and Bailey, Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning, Corwin Press, 2001, 144 96
    • Fix #12 The Last Words on Zeros“A zero has an undeserved and devastating influence, so much so that no matter what the student does, the grade distorts the final grade as a true indicator of mastery. Mathematically and ethically this is unacceptable.”Rick Wormeli quoted inO’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, 2007, 92 97
    • Fixes #11 & 12Think about this…“We have to see grading not as simply a numerical, mechanical exercise, but as primarily an exercise in professional judgment. It calls for teachers to demonstrate two key aspects of professional behaviour - the application of craft knowledge of sound assessment practice, and the willingness and ability to make and defend one’s professional judgement.”O’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, 2007, 83 98
    • Fixes to support the learning process13. Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence.14. Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances emphasize more recent achievement.15. Don’t leave students out of the grading process. Involve students - they can - and should - play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement. 99
    • Fix #13Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence. 100
    • Fix #13Diagnostic - assessment which takes place prior toinstruction; designed to determine a students attitude,skills or knowledge in order to identify student needs.Formative - Assessment designed to providedirection for improvement and/or adjustment to aprogram for individual students or for a whole class,e.g. observation, quizzes, homework, instructionalquestions, initial drafts/attempts.Summative - Assessment/evaluation designed toprovide information to be used in making judgmentabout a student’s achievement at the end of asequence of instruction, e.g. final drafts/attempts,tests, exams, assignments, projects, performances. 101
    • Fix #13 102
    • Fix #13“The ongoing interplay between assessment and instruction, so common in the arts and athletics, is also evident in classrooms using practices such as non-graded quizzes and practice tests, the writing process, formative performance tasks, review of drafts and peer response groups. The teachers in such classrooms recognize that ongoing assessments provide feedback that enhances instruction and guides student revision.”McTighe, J., “What Happens Between Assessments,” EducationalLeadership, Dec. ‘96-Jan. ‘97, 11 103
    • Fix #13“The research indicates that improving learning through assessment depends on five, deceptively simple, key factors: The provision of effective feedback to students The active involvement of students in their own learning Adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment A recognition of the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self- esteem of students, both of which are crucial influences on learning The need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve”Source: Black and William, 1998, summarized by Ruth Sutton 104
    • Fix #13From a presentation by Dylan Wiliam – “Inside the Black Box” KINDS OF FEEDBACK 264 low and high ability year 7 pupils in 12 classes in 4 schools; analysis of 132 students at top and bottom of each class Same teaching, same aims, same teachers, same class work Three kinds of feedback: marks, comments, marks +comments Feedback Gain marks none comments 30% both none Butler,R. 1988, Br. J. Educ. Psychol., 58 1-14 105
    • Fix #13 PURPOSES OF HOMEWORK PREPARATION – introduces material presented in future lessons. These assignments aim to help students learn new material when it is covered in class. PRACTICE – to reinforce learning and help students master specific skills. EXTENSION – asks students to apply skills they already have in new situations. INTEGRATION – requires students to apply many different skills to a large task, such as book reports, projects, creative writing.Source: NCLB website – Homework Tips for Parents 106
    • Fix #13 107
    • Fix #13 – Sample Assessment Plan Formative Assessment for Unit 1TASK METHOD STRATEGY SCORING ASSESSORROLE PLAY Performance Performance Rubric Self/Peer AssessmentQUIZ(ZES) Paper & Pencil Selected Response Marking Scheme TeacherBROCHURE Performance Product Rubric Peer AssessmentBROCHURE Performance Product Rubric Self/Peer AssessmentSummative Assessment for Unit 1TASK METHOD STRATEGY SCORING ASSESSORROLE PLAY Performance Performance Rubric Teacher Assessment AssessmentTEST(S) Paper & Pencil Selected & Marking Scheme Teacher Constructed ResponseBROCHURE Performance Product Rubric Teacher AssessmentO’Connor, K. A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, 2007, 102 108
    • Fix #14Don’t summarize evidenceaccumulated over time when learningis developmental and will grow withtime and repeated opportunities; inthose instances emphasize morerecent achievement. 109
    • O’Connor, K., How to Grade for Learning,Third Edition,Corwin, 2009, 31 from Anne Davies and Michael Burger 110
    • Who do you want to pack yourparachute?A - Student 1,B - Student 2,C - Student 3.Remember the parachutes were packedafter the course was over.Discuss with others or make your ownchoice. You have 30 seconds to indicateyour choice. 111
    • O’Connor, K. A Repair Kit for Grading, Pearson ATI, Portland, 2007,109 112
    • Fix #15Don’t leave students out ofthe grading process.Involve students; they can,and should, play key roles inassessment and grading thatpromote achievement. 113
    • Motivating Students Towards ExcellenceRick Stiggins believes student-involvedassessment is the route to follow.It includes: 1. student involvement in the construction of assessments and in the development of criteria for success; 2. students keeping records of their own achievement and growth through such strategies as portfolios; and 3. students communicating their achievement through such vehicles as student-involved parent conferences 114
    • Ken Recommends….The best resource for student involvement ideas is:Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning: JanChappuis, Published by Pearson ATI. 115
    • Summary of FixesGrades that are: Fix(s) Consistent 8 Accurate 1,2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,14 Meaningful 7 Supportive of Learning 13, 14, 15Givens: quality assessment 10 standards base 7 performance standards 8, 9Musts: achievement separated from behaviors 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 summative only 13 more recent emphasized 14 number crunching 11,12 student involvement 15 116
    • See HandoutGrading “Top Ten” Reference ListBrookhart, S. Grading, Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2004Canady, R. and P. R. Hotchkiss, “It’s a Good Score: Just a BadGrade,” Kappan, September 1989, 68-71Cooper, D. Talk About Assessment, Thomson Nelson, 2007Guskey, T. R. and J. Bailey, Developing Grading and ReportingSystems for Student Learning, Corwin, 2001Kagan, S., “Group Grades Miss the Mark,” EducationalLeadership, May 1995, 68-71 117
    • Grading “Top Ten” (cont.)Kohn, A., “Grading: The Issue is not How but Why,”Educational Leadership, October 1994, 38-41O’Connor, K., A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades,ETS, Portland, 2007Stiggins, R. et al, Classroom Assessment for Student Learning,,ETS, Portland, 2004Wiggins, G., “Honesty and Fairness: Toward BetterGrading and Reporting” in Guskey, T. R. (Editor), Communicating StudentLearning: The ASCD Yearbook, 1996, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 141-177Wormeli, R. Fair Isn’t Equal, Stenhouse/NMSA, 2006 118
    • Grades should come from Professional Judgment NOT just number crunching 119
    • To evaluate or judge is to… “reach a sensible conclusion that is consistent with both evidence and common sense” Robert Linn, CRESST 120
    • What is Insanity? Doing the same thing over and over and expecting things to improve.Attributed to Albert Einstein (1879-1955) 121
    • REFLECTION 122
    • Continuums for GradingStandards Assessment MethodsAchievement Achievement/separate from non-achievementwork habits/ skills factors mixedSummative only Everything ‘counts’More recent All data cumulative/emphasized similar significanceMore than oneopportunity One opportunity onlyProfessional Calculation onlyjudgment based on Median/Mode Meanevidence related toPublished performance Teachers’standards idiosyncratic standardsHigh quality assessment Mixed quality Poor quality Assessment assessmentStudentunderstanding Teacher centeredand involvement with unclear targets 123