Dc

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Dc

  1. 1. Design Constraints Written Report Format
  2. 2. Product Design Constraints and Requirements  Design Engineers must consider a multitude of technical, economic, social, environmental, and political constraints when they design products and processes.  There must be clear evidence in your design project that you have addressed the constraints that are relevant to your project.
  3. 3. Effect of Constraints Better Designs Design Changes Design Changes Constraint Limits
  4. 4. Functional Constraints • Overall Geometry – size, width, space, arrangement • Motion of parts – type, direction, velocities, acceleration, kinematics • Forces involved – load direction, magnitude, load, impact • Energy needed – heating, cooling, conversion, pressure • Materials to be used – flow, transport, properties • Control system – electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, pneumatic • Information flow – inputs, outputs, form, display
  5. 5. Safety Constraints • Operational – direct, indirect, hazard elimination • Human – warnings, training • Environmental – land, sea, air, noise, light, radiation, reaction, transport
  6. 6. Quality Constraints • Quality assurance – regulations, standards, codes • Quality control – inspection, testing, labeling • Reliability – design life, failures, statistics
  7. 7. Manufacturing Constraints • Production of components – factory limitations, means of production, wastes • Purchase of components – supplier quality, reliability, quality control, inspection • Assembly – installation, foundations, bolting, welding • Transport – material handling, clearance, packaging
  8. 8. Timing Constraints • Design schedule – project planning, project control • Development schedule – design detailing, compliance tests • Production schedule – manufacture, assembly, packing, transport • Delivery schedule – delivery date, distribution network, supply chains
  9. 9. Economic Constraints • Marketing analysis – size of market, distribution, market segments • Design costs – design team computing, information retrieval • Development costs – design detailing, supplier costs, testing costs • Manufacturing cost - tooling, labor, overhead, assembly, inspection • Distribution costs - packing, transport, service centers, spare parts, warranty • Resources – time, budget, labor, capital, machines, material $
  10. 10. Ergonomic Constraints • User needs – type of operation, instructions, warnings • Ergonomic design – man-machine relationships, operation, height, layout, comfort, lighting • Cybernetic design – controls, layout, clarity, interactions
  11. 11. Ecological Constraints • General environmental impact – impact on natural resources, social resources • Sustainability – political and commercial consequences, implications for following generations • Material selection –solid, liquid, gas, stability, protection, toxicity • Working fluid selection – fluid, gas, flammability, toxicity
  12. 12. Aesthetic Constraints • Customer appeal – shape, color, texture, form, feel, smell, surprise and delight features • Fashion – culture, history, trends • Future expectations – rate of change in technology, trends, product families
  13. 13. Life-Cycle Constraints • Distribution – means of transport, nature and conditions of dispatch, rules, regulations • Operation – quietness, wear, special uses, working environments • Maintenance – servicing intervals, inspection, exchange and repair, cleaning, diagnostics • Disposal – recycle, scrap
  14. 14. Legal/Ethical Constraints • Regulations – OSHA, FAA, FDA • Ethics – public safety, health, welfare and integrity • Intellectual Property – patents, trademarks, copyrights
  15. 15. Project Reports • MidTerm report • Oral report • Final Report
  16. 16. MidTerm Report • Should describe MidSemester progress • Think of it as a start on your final report • Introductory and background material and project description material will remain the same
  17. 17. Technical Communication Format (MAE 451) • “Double Five” • Include technical discussion • Include business topics as appropriate
  18. 18. Report Format • Summary • The Problem • Scope and Goals • Solution • Results • Conclusions • References
  19. 19. Summary • Summarize the project and your work • Don’t summarize the report • Briefly introduce the problem • Summarize the solution and conclusions • Typically half a page in length
  20. 20. The Problem (Introduction) • Introduce the design problem here • Background information on the company or research/laboratory area • What is the project?
  21. 21. The Problem (Introduction) • Introduce the design problem here • Background information on the company or research/laboratory area • What is the project? • Why is it of interest? • What are constraints or requirements that the solution must satisfy • Briefly highlight the contents of the report
  22. 22. Scope and Goals • Very specific description of your design project and expectations • What specifically was to be accomplished? • Are you part of a team? • Are you continuing a project? • What is needed to finish the project?
  23. 23. Solution • Select Titles and Subtitles for your project • This is the place to describe the details of your work process and issues encountered • Discuss constraints and your management of them - a special subsection would be best • Include figures, graphs and photos • Large amounts of information should be in an appendix at the end of the report
  24. 24. Results • Describe the results of your work including your resulting design • Include figures, drawings etc. as appropriate • Comment on the quality of your technical results and design
  25. 25. Conclusions • Have you achieved the goals of your design? • Is the problem completely solved? • Is there continuation after the semester ends? • Will the project have to be continued by another group? • If more work is needed, describe it carefully and suggest a completion schedule.
  26. 26. References • References make your work credible • Back up all of your facts with references • Indicate references for any previous work on your design project • Indicate references for similar projects by others • Use references for any technical approaches used in your solution • State your references completely
  27. 27. Report Format • Summary • The Problem • Scope and Goals • Solution • Results • Conclusions • References
  28. 28. Comments on Figures • Figures are best inserted directly in the text • Insert figures right after they are discussed • Clearly number each figure and be sure to discuss the figure by number • As an alternate - place all the figures together at the end of the report
  29. 29. Just to Summarize • Think about CONSTRAINTS and report on their effect on your design • Make your report professional • Think of the MidTerm report as a start on your final report • Make use of the suggested report format

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