Chapter 1 NOTES
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Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Chemistry and Matter Chapter 1 Pages 1-12, 238-243 Note: Periodic Table section contains more info than you need!
  • 2.
    • Science
    • A. Science is a body of knowledge collected by scientists over many years and the methods used to obtain knowledge.
    • B. Chemistry: the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes.
  • 3.
    • By analyzing the different aspects of matter we can solve problems and answer questions
      • What?, How much?, How can it be changed?, How fast?, etc.
    • Instruments are often used to help answer these questions
  • 4. There are several branches of chemistry
    • Organic Chemistry
    • Substances contain carbon
    • Originally it was thought that all organic compounds were always related to life, but that is not true
    • EXAMPLE - Gasoline, Sugar, Alcohol
  • 5. Inorganic Chemistry
    • Substances that don’t contain Carbon
    • Examples - Salt (NaCl), Calcium nitrate (CaNO 3 )
  • 6.
    • Physical Chemistry - deals with matter and energy (is the bridge between chemistry and physics)
    • Analytical Chemistry - identification of substances (think CSI)
    • Biochemistry - combines biology and chemistry, chemistry of living things
    • Theoretical Chemistry - uses computers, advanced mathematical models
  • 7. II. Matter
    • A. States of Matter
    • SOLID
      • Definite shape
      • Closely packed particles, little free space between them
      • Definite volume
      • Rotational particle movement
      • Particles cannot slide past each other
  • 8. Transition between solid and liquid
    • Solid to liquid = melting
    • Liquid to solid = freezing
  • 9. Liquid
    • Takes shape of container (no definite shape)
    • Definite volume (cannot change size)
    • Rotational and vibrational particle movement
  • 10. Transition between liquid and gas
    • Liquid to gas = Vaporization
    • Two Common Types
      • Evaporation - the molecules escape from the liquid state to the gas state without any external heat source. Molecules with high energy escape thereby lowering the temperature
      • Boiling - escape of molecules from a liquid state being continually heated
  • 11. Transition between gas and liquid
    • Condensation
  • 12. Gas
    • Indefinite volume and shape
    • Expands to fill any container
    • Widely spread particles
    • Rotational, vibrational, and translational particle movements
  • 13. Transitions between gas to solid
    • Solid to Gas = Sublimation
      • EXAMPLE - dry ice (solid CO 2 going straight to CO 2 gas)
    • Gas to Solid = Deposition
      • EXAMPLE - how snow forms in clouds
  • 14. B. Properties
    • Physical Property: Doesn’t alter identify of substance
    • Intensive - independent of amount (color, melting point, density, temperature, hardness)
    • Extensive - depends on amount (mass, length, volume)
    • Chemical Property: Ability of a substance to undergo a change that alters its identity
    • EXAMPLE - rusting iron, milk turning sour, metals reacting with acids to form hydrogen gas
  • 15. C. Changes
    • Physical: change that does NOT alter identity of substance
    • EXAMPLE - cutting/tearing paper into smaller pieces, molding clay
  • 16.
    • Chemical: changes in which at least 1 substance changes identity (becomes something new)
    • EXAMPLE
      • Burning paper
    • Sodium (reactive metal) + chlorine gas (poisonous) = sodium chloride (table salt)
  • 17.
    • Nuclear: different substances with different properties
    • Changes occur in the nucleus
    • EXAMPLE - fission, fusion, radioactive decay, TMI
  • 18. Conservation of Matter and Energy
    • In a reaction, the total amount of matter and energy stays the same
    • In other words, if you start with 20 grams of a compound at the end you should still have 20 grams of the compound although it probably changed form.
    • Very important for a lot of chemical ideas
  • 19. A little chemistry cartoon