Nepal’s journey towards welfare state
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Nepal’s journey towards welfare state Nepal’s journey towards welfare state Document Transcript

  • NEPAL‟S JOURNEY TOWARDS WELFARE STATE SYSTEM WITH REFERENCE TO ANCIENT VALUES KESHAV PRASAD BHATTARAI FORMER PRESIDENT NEPAL TEACHERS‟ ASSOCIATION (NTA) AND TEACHERS‟ UNION OF NEPAL (TUN)THE CONCEPT OF WELFARE STATEEarlier states had a limited responsibility: to protect the life and property of its citizens, guard thenational border and wage war against other country to fight back invasion or expand its territory. In apresent day world order such an expansion is almost impossible. They have every right to protect its borderbut do have no right to wage war to control the territory of other state.In today‟s world true democratic countries are welfare states. In a welfare state government acceptsthe complete responsibility for the individual and social well-being, of its citizens implying particularly thebenefits or in terms of money or services, special grants, subsidies, concessions, grants for the needyperson from the state treasury.The government at each level looks after the physical, material, and social needs of its population andmakes adequate efforts to provide a minimum level quality living for all.BASIC FEATURE OF A WELFARE STATEA country is a welfare state if qualifies for the provision as mentioned below: 1. Constitutional Provision for the role of a state for the protection and promotion of socio-economic well being of its people, 2. Equal opportunity to all and absence of special provision based on any class, clan or ethnicity representing as individual or group identity, 3. State and government has some defined role in national economy – running enterprises under government control including the regulation of economic activities of its citizens. 4. State avows and maintains a minimum level of social justice to the weaker sections of the society. 5. The state formulates national policies and plans activities to achieve the socio-economic goal of the state covering the whole community of people, especially the weaker section of society in a balanced and planned way. 1
  • 6. Effective legislation is pursued for the welfare and protection of workers who work in enterprises producing goods and services and delivering it.HISTORICAL EVIDENCE OF WELFARE STATE IN ANCIENT HINDU SOCIETYAn ancient Society in Nepal or India cannot be expected to have covered all those features of modernwelfare state as mentioned above. However, basically a Hindu society used to have a welfare state. Almostall ancient Sanskrit state craft and literature have given adequate example of such provision. Some of suchexamples are given here as follows-When fire was discovered in ancient Hindu society, it was acknowledged as the existence of „Brahma‟. Tosome scholars the collective association of Aryans was taken as Brahma and „Yagyan „was their collectiveproductive system - collective labor and collective sharing upon the production. Under this mode ofcollective production and distribution among the Aryans everybody was happy and satisfied and it was a (1)prosperous society . The ancient society as described by Panini was welfare based truly democraticsociety. Buddhist way of life thereafter had tremendous impact on creating a just and prosperous Indiansociety where wellbeing of every human beings was ensured.In „The Mahabharata‟, there are numerous contexts of a welfare state. For example the talk betweenDevarshi Narad and King Yudhister can be cited here:slRrGg ;j]{ sdf{GtfM k/f]Iff:t] ljzlÍtf M .;j]{ jf kg?T;[i6f M ;+;[i6+ rfq sf/0fd .. (2)Are you aware of the problems of workers in your kingdom? Are their activities under your regular notice?Do you have bond of trust with them? And whether you dismiss or reemploy them again and again, you mustknow that for the great progress and prosperity of nations their trust and support are of vital importance.Similarly, /fhf lxts/f] g[0ffd in Valmikiya Ramayana and hundreds of similar citations in SrimadBhagabat and other purans have given enriched descriptions of welfare state systems .they havementioned „ Praja Ranjan‟ – happiness of the people,‟Praja Palan‟- wellbeing of the people and „Praja Rakshya‟- protection of the people as the main job and duty of the king and his people- the state .In his great work of all the time „Arthashastra „Kautilya has mentioned thatk|hf;v] ;v+ /f1M k|hfgf+ r lxt] lxtd .gfTdlk|o+ lxt+ /f1M k|hfgf+ t lk|o+ lxtd .. 2
  • The happiness of the king lies in the happiness of his people and in their welfare his welfare. What is goodand pleasant to his subject should be treated as something good and pleasant to him.Kautilya further mentions that weaker section of society is to be given priority of audience with the kingand judges. They should have free travel on ferries.Spinning work should be given to handicapped women. Women must be protected against exploitation andpunishment is to be maintained for sexual harassment.According to Kautilya social security was both a private and state matter. The state has the obligation toprovide safety nets to the children, the aged, childless women and the helpless.Honest officials shall be made permanent. An official accomplishing his task as ordered or in a better wayshall be promoted and rewarded. The family of a government service who died on duty is to be looked afterby the state.Kautilya has also made good mention of welfare of prisoners with all facilities with safe water, cleanbathrooms, latrines, protections against harmful insects. They were also to be provided good food, place tosleep and exercise and well protection against the harassment, torture od prisoners and rape of womenprisoners. (3)Giving reference to academicians like Ritu Kohli and MM Shankdhar – Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Sharma hasmentioned that a close study of ancient Indian texts as Kautilya‟s Arthashastra, Srimad Bhagvad Gita andMahabharat especially its Shanti Parva is required to understand a very concept of the welfare state. It isamazing to note that although we try to find the ideology of welfare state rooted in west, but it is founddeep rooted in ancient Hindu society. Shankhdhar goes to the extent of claiming that in fact Kautilya over –reached the modern concept of welfare state in his „Yoga- Kshema‟ policy aiming at an all rounddevelopment – materials as well spiritual of the society as well as of the individual. It involves the wellbeing of the poorest of the poor. The Kautilyan state ensured freedom, happiness, prosperity and fullyfledged development of human personality. Yoga Kshema demanded a higher moral consciousness both at (4)the elites and common people level. PUBLIC WELFARE ACTIVITIES IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL NEPALAlthough the ancient Nepal cannot be expected to have a provision of welfare state as we understandthese days but the King like Amsuvarma had provided funds for constructing and repairing water (5)conduit, canals. Lichhavi kings of Nepal had also issued charter for the use of water in farmland. 3
  • Similarly protection of private life against government officials was insured. Bribery and torture wasprohibited. People working serving the weak and helpless people were granted with land and were exemptedfrom taxes. The state would also donated funds for such activities.Slavery was unknown in ancient Nepal but at times peoples were to be engaged compulsorily in some stateduties. It was like a tax and by paying certain amount of money they could be freed from providing physical (6)labor. (7)During this period Nepalese economy was highly developed and prosperous. People were rich and happy. (8)Governments were always busy to serve people at their best. In Lichhavi period, Nepal had a very soundand strong social system. There was a provision of Government support for providing people with their (9)education, health and other social sectors.During the medieval period Nepal was no longer a powerful and dominating state. It had undergone massivechanges, under state divisions and disintegration- weakening state authority at the maximum. Many smallerstates emerged. The society was self governed by caste system under feudal order. The welfareactivities for the needy people were run at the personal capacity by either the king of theprincipalities or feudal lords.However, during this period Guthi had emerged as a very powerful social institution. The word derivedfrom „ Gosthika and Gosthi‟ in Sanskrit was considered as a backbone for social institutions and (10)practices supported by them. Besides running collective religious functions, they provided theirsocial groups and their individual members‟ social and economic safety when they needed them. Theproperty under Guthi carried a character of sanctity and was secured from the rapacity of government orthe prodigality of heirs. Therefore, it worked as a permanent institution to serve people and run welfare (11)activities for its members.As agriculture was the main source of state income so the state had given top priority to the constructionand maintenances of canals during Malla era. A special officer was appointed to look after the canalsin every region. The distribution of water to all farmers was non discriminatory for someone‟s (12)economic or social status.According to Dr. Regmi the state authorities patronized art and learning. They also encouraged andsupported industry and trade as well as agriculture and husbandry. The Malla period was undoubtedly a (13)period of material and cultural progress. “Some kind of forced labor does seem to have been vogue in (14)case of services rendered to the king or in the interest of village or public welfare” 4
  • Agriculture Workers in Nepal during 1790s received about one ana or four paisa. (15) The wage of amine laborer was 1/3 of refined metal produced e.g. copper. The wage of smelter (Kami) was 1/5 and (16)the share of the state in this was as much of the smelter. It means those days mine workersand smelters earned a handsome amount of wage. Dr. Regmi referring to Hamilton has mentioned theordinary laborer earned one ana a day; porter carrying a luggage from Hetaunda to Kathmanduearned 3 mohars (1.50 Rs.). The wage of ironsmith and carpenter was 3 annas, of bricklayers 2 andhalf anna for example.REFORM OF RAM SHAHA IN RUNNING PUBLIC WELFARE ACTIVITIESDuring Malla regimes in Valley, King Ram Shaha ruled Gorkha and neighboring territories from 1606 to 1631A.D. He was a great reformer and his reforms were applied in almost all kingdoms of Nepal then fromKhasan and Jadan Empire to the west to Kirant and Limbu kingdoms in east including the Malla kingdoms in (17)the Valley kingdoms. Before he declared his reforms he had organized a summit of the Kings from hisneighboring countries where he appealed them -bM:y]f:tL nf]sf] lgod}/jB}, l/Toflblee"{ld ehf]ljlw:tt .dof]Rot] ljZjhgLg cfof{ MÛ ;f]˜B–k|e[Tof >o0fLo pJof{d .. (18)Because of disorder in society people everywhere in world are unhappy , therefore O wise and goodkings I am going to announce laws for the well beings of whole people please help it to implementeverywhere in the earth. Thereafter, the Reform Package he decreed rules and regulations includingequal rights in using water resources, 10 percent as maximum interest rate and no interest over theinterest, no interest for poor people for over a period of ten years, no more than one percent profitfor people engaged in trades .The level of state power, economy and social development during powerful Khas Empire in western Nepal (19)and reform they initiated has given some evidences of a welfare state programs under them. Thetaxation system under Khas Empire in western Nepal throws light on some kind of welfare state systemduring their regime (20)PUBLIC WELFARE ACTIVITIES IN MODERN NEPALFROM PRITHIVI NARAYAN SHAH TO RAJENDRA VICKRAM SHAH 5
  • Prithivi Narayan Shah and his youngest son Bahadur Shah were the great statesmen of all the time inNepali history. Although P.N. Shah had said that if he had time, he would have initiated similar reformspromulgated by Ram Shah and Jayasthiti Malla and updated the reforms they launched, but his great (21)vision and policy guidelines he offered his assistants says quite lot more on a system of welfare statesystem he carried and this helped a lot to stabilize the kingdom he unified and Bahadur Shah expanded.Prithivinarayan favoured a truly democratic pattern in the appointment of ministers. How he collectedthe opinions among his subjects while appointing Kalu Pandey and later in running the state administrationafter unification, is itself a great history. He clearly said, "Ministers should be appointed according tothe will of the people". The good of the people is the good of the king. Emphasizing his devotion for thewelfare of his people he said, "If the people are healthy, the Palace (Durbar) will be stronger. People arethe real treasure of the kingdom”.His financial policy was very sound and clearly spelt out. He was in favour of patronizing indigenousindustries and putting a ban on the imports of foreign goods. His policy was to foster arts and crafts in thecountry, encourage exports and discourage imports. It was his conviction that if foreign merchants wereallowed to trade in the country they would drain the wealth of the country and impoverish the people.He, time and again used to say that his kingdom is a garden of all the people with all identities whereeveryone has a right to prosper. He was a just king. In his opinion, corrupt officials were the numberone enemy to the development of the country and they should be dealt with severely. The man whogive bribes and accepts bribes are both the enemy of the king and the country therefore his (22)property should be confiscated. He said, "Let there be no injustice in the kingdom". On thepractice of a kind of slavery called “ Kariya” prevailing among some section of society He had said that itwas a slur against humanity.(23)Prithivinarayan Shah was committed to take people in confidence, promoted their cultural identity and (24)ensured zero tolerance to injustice and corruption successfully. After Prithivi Narayan Shah, duringthe regency period of Bahadur Shah, he not only made Nepal militarily strong, expanded its territory fromriver Tista in Sikkim to river Alakhnanda in Garhwal, he had made best efforts to facilitate the mutualtrade between Nepal and Tibet – a major contributing factor in enhancing its economy as well.Likewise he had introduced land reforms followed by land measurement, data collection regulation andhad granted more right to tenants. As a part of this he had issued a royal charter in favour of tenancy 6
  • rights of tenants of Kirtipur with a provision that they shall not be dismissed until they pay the landrent as scheduled. In course government had started to appointed experts in state jobs and number of (25)holidays was declared for public officials.During the rule of Rana Bahadur Shah and Girvan Yuddha Vickram Shah some administrative measureswere implemented to maintain justice and order including some welfare provision for common people.(26) Bhimsen Thapa, in his tenure as the prme Minister had initiated many reform policy including hisopposition to „Kariya Pratha‟ a practice prevailing in some sections of society in some form of slavery andhad initiated some prohibitory order against it in gradual order, and issued state order against slavetrade, forced labour, regulation against grafts, higher interest rate imposed by money lenders andprotection of tenancy rights. Besides Thapa also initiated development works as management of drinkingwater sprouts, building roads and bridges, public inns and housing places for visitors and pilgrims atdifferent places and public canal for irrigation and its sustainable management system. He alsoreformed postal services and for the first time issued order against trade monopoly and syndicate.Furthermore he opened custom offices and regularized it, probably for the first time issued order to (27)protect property rights of common people against state officials. Similarly king Rajendra VickramShah also had made justics prevail in his territory and had issued some guide lines for the judges in those (28)days. But later on gradually even after Sugauli Treaty 1815-16, to maintain the increased cost of thecentral administration, the burden was to be borne by the villages and farmers there. When “the farmersdid not have the margin of resources necessary to build a stronger economy“, the villagers got (29)impoverished. And so were the leading families of the country had been suffering from it.MODERN NEPAL AND PUBLIC WELFARE ACTIVITIESFROM JANG BAHADUR TO MOHAN SHUMSHERNapoleon Bonaparte was one of the greatest military commanders in world history, but he is respected andremembered worldwide for the unified civil code for all French people with firm recognition toprinciples of civil liberty, equality before the law, and the secular character of the state andstandardization of the appointment of judges. He himself had claimed that „ he closed the gulf ofanarchy and brought order out of chaos, rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, abolishedfeudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before law.When Jang Bahadur visited France in August 1850 and knew about the “Code Napoleon”, he was muchimpressed by it. He had become familiar with the concept of „Rule of Law „during his Europe visit. So 7
  • immediately after he returned he got some of his counselors to prepare such common code and in January (30)1854, the country had its first legal code named „ Mulki Ain‟ In its preamble the „Mulki Ain‟ has clearlymentioned its purpose as maintaining equality before law, protection and welfare of the people. TheKing Surendra Vickram in his categorical statement had mentioned that “all from us to subjects shall (31)abide by this law”. This, at least in theory acknowledged that all are equal before law and the newcode was binding to all from the King and Prime Minister to the rest of the people. Governmentofficials were to exercise their duties on the sole basis of law independently of the King, Prime (32)Ministers or any other higher officials. Following to this civil code mutilation was abolished; so wascapital punishment except for few crimes and „Sati Pratha‟ was also ended. Jang Bahadur alsoprotected the rights of the farmers, initiated land reforms and land recording system. The reformhe initiated laid a foundation for personal property rights, cracked down the „jagirs‟ of the feudallords. He inspired his officials enter the modern world of education, science and technology for thedevelopment of the country. These including other reforms ultimately helped to strengthen the nation and (33)bring unity among people.Bir Shumsher, in spite of so many limitations and flaws, initiated many development projects during hisrule and deputed all his senior officials to manage them and held them accountable for the success orfailures of those projects. Within a year a new hospital and a new school had been built and work hadbegun to provide piped drinking water to the resident of Kathmandu. In 1889 land taxing was maintained asper its productivity. In 1892 anti corruption commissioners were appointed to inspect public accounts,reorganized judicial system. Land survey was conducted and a modern official recording and filing system (34)was introduced.During the one hundred and fourteen days rule of Dev Shumsher; Nepal started the first Nepali NewsPaper – Gorkha Patra, manumitted female slaves in his kingdom of Kaski and Lamjung and also in KathmanduValley – 38 years later when slavery was abolished in USA in 1863. He also developed a scheme for completeabolition of slavery and proclaimed scheme for universal primary education and started about 200 primary (35)schools at one go. To collect public grievances and their suggestions on public matters several boxeswere put at different places. He also had initiated public meetings with all sections of society includingDalits where they were free to discuss on any matters except the issues related to Sri Panch- the crown.(36) 8
  • Chandra Shumsher‟s 29 years long rule was helpful in disseminating various aspects of Nepali culture,architecture and wild life in Nepal. During his time the first scientific map of Nepal was published (37)being based on the survey of India map recorded between 1925 and 1927. Chandra brought (38)numbers of judicial and social reforms. He completely abolished slavery from the country, revised andupdated civil law as „Muluki Ain‟, started publication of Muluki Ain and other rules and regulation in printedform for the first time in history. A distinction between civil and criminal jurisdiction was made anddifferent tiers of judiciary was created and formed in many parts of the country with definedjurisdiction.He started many development works in the valley and outside it. Every year he had plans and programs to (39)construct bridges in outlying parts of the country. Construction of railways, rope way, roads andcanals in hills and terai as well as water works, hospitals, schools and colleges, tube wells, hospitalsand the installation of the first electric power station at Pharping, brought a new wave ofdevelopment in country. Similarly many ayurvedic and allopathic dispensaries and a publication housewere opened in many parts of the country. Students were sent to study abroad. He brought manyreforms in the management of forests and postal system and also conducted land survey and (40)recording. For the management and administration of public works he created various departmentswith a defined chain of transparency and accountability. He had also sent some students to study abroadto gain technical knowledge on different field including engineering and medicine.Jooddha Shumsher started a new era of industrial development in Nepal. Many industries in Biratnagarand Birjung were established, first bank was opened in Nepal, a trading company and the secondelectricity facility was established at Sundarijal. Similarly he organized a council for the promotionagriculture and an industrial board for the development of industries. Agricultural schools wereopened to modernize agro sector in Nepal. Trade arrangement was agreed between India and Nepal.Zoo and Museam was opened, roads, canals and bridges were constructed and he had even conducted (41)census in Nepal for the first time and many public service offices were established. Healthservices for the common people were improved and several civil and judicial reforms were initiated. (42)The most important job Jooddha performed during his rule was a perfect management of relief workfor the victims of the great earthquake that hit Nepal on January 15, 1934. Later he waived offof the earthquake loan provided to the people whose houses were collapsed.According to Rishikesh Shah, Padma Shumsher; on December 10, 1945, addressing a large assembly ofofficials and general public at the Central Parade Ground at Kathmandu had outlined the policy and 9
  • (43)programs of his administration. Insisting on the greater significance of education for the advancementof the country he announced for the easily availability of primary education in all parts of the countryand emphasized development of hydro electricity as the primary requisite of industrialization of thekingdom. Further he spelt out his plans for the development of smooth transport and communication andmade an announcement of pay rise for public servants as well as provision of rice to be made available tothem at subsidized rates. Padma also sent Mrigendra Shumsher and Vijay Shumsher to India to make a (44)field study of educational system and industrial facility there. (45)On May 16, 1947 Padma Shumsher made a historic declaration with focuses on meaningful popularparticipation in state affairs, formation of a reform committee, election of municipalities and districtboards and establishment of an independent judiciary and publication of national budget at the annualbasis. On January 26, 1947 Padma Shumsher promulgated the first constitution of Nepal.As mentioned in many history books, the change and reforms initiated by Padma Shumsher was notappreciated by stronger conservative lobby led by Mohan and Babbar Shumsher. But in fact PadmaShumsher seems lacking guts and courage to with stand the reforms he initiated. So virtually he left thecountry and resigned while in India on April 26, 1948. Thereafter, Mohan Shumsher took charge of thecountry.On May 27- 1948, and September 27- 1948, Mohan Shumsher as a Prime Minister made two historic (46)declarations. The declarations had envisioned and mentioned highly ambitious and far more progressiveplans and programs, those if implemented would have brought tremendous development achievement for thecountry. The policy and programs included ambitious but much needed projects- e.g. ensuring foodavailability to all, industrial development, mapping and establishment of new urban centers,installations of several medium sized hydro power stations, extension of telephone to all major citiesand towns of the kingdom, plan for air ways and opening of a university and many others. Similarlyhe had also established a Planning Commission for preparing periodic plans for the country.On October 4, 1948, inaugurating the National Economic Planning Committee meeting; Mohan Shumsher hadinstructed the committee to construct a East – West High way with North South linking roads, makeplans for farming extensive food crops in terai, fruits, vegetables, animal husbandry and herbsfarming in hills and high mountain areas. He also did not miss to advise the committee that toundertake all those development activities the country needs well educated and healthy citizens.Therefore, the planning committee must undertake sincere attempts for this too. But the popular 10
  • movement undergoing in Nepal against the Rana Rule had overshadowed what economic and political reformshe was carrying on. And the rest is a HISTORY well known to all.CONCLUSIONEven today in the second decade of 21st century we cannot claim that in practical terms ours is a welfarestate. Therefore what evidences we have presented above gives us a short glimpses of our unendingjourney towards an egalitarian society with people centric governance since this land was named as Nepaland secured a political national status for itself. But when compared with our present status and thecommitment we invested to turn Nepal a welfare state anybody can easily claim that our ancestors with somany limitations had done their best than we have done.What we have to agree without any reservation is that Nepal as a nation is the creation of hundreds andthousands years of great human efforts and sacrifices. With exemplary courage, bravery, diplomatic skillsand statesmanship our ancestors protected its freedom for centuries even when there were mere dozenplus independent nations in the world. Its economy was much better than now; people were much happierand were in peace and harmony than we are now. Some times in our history we were much better than many (47)other countries that have gained tremendous economic miracles these days.I do not claim that all our history was studded with great achievements, glory and justice. We also had darktimes, but the country was moving for a better future sometimes with success and sometimes with harsherfailures, but never in our history was Nepal so helpless and wretched.It is not a wave of nostalgia I am trying to share with, but describing history with facts with an aim that itmay help us gain courage to shape our future course. Similarly it is not a critical analysis of the activities ofthose who ruled Nepal at yester years but only some positive works and important policies, programs andpublic works they initiated and executed that were vital for the people and country.References(1). Preface in Arthashastra of Kautilya and The Chanakya Sutra : edited by Shri Vachaspati Gairola ,Chowkhambka Vidya Bhawan, Varanasi,1996, page 12.(2). Mahabharata, Sabha Parva Panchamodhaya, 32.)(3) Kautilya, Arthashastra, edited and translated by- L.N. Rangrajan, Penguin Books, 1992, page 72-75. 11
  • (4) Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Sharma : Ancient Indian Democracy – Studies, Research and some modern Myths –Indian Journal of Politics Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Vol. XXXIX, No 3, July- Sep, 2005, and RituKohli : Kautilya‟s Political Theory, Yogakshema – the concept of Welfare State , Deep and Deep Publications,New Delhi, 1995, page viii(5) D.R. Regmi: Ancient Nepal Rupa and Co, 2007, page 243-245(6) Regmi ibid page 270-71(7) Bal Chandra Sharma: Nepal ko Eitihasik Ruprekha, Krishna Kumari Devi, Varanasi,2033, page 127.(8) Dhundi Raj Bhandari : Nepal ko Eitihasik Vivechana, Krishna . . . ., Vanarasi, 2038, page 68-69(9) Baburam Acharya : Prachin Kaal ko Nepal, Shri Krishna Acharya, 2063, page 170-172.(10) D.R. Regmi: Medieval Nepal, Volume I, Rupa and Co, 2007, page 707.(11) Regmi ibid page 708(12) D.R. Regmi: Medieval Nepal, Volume II, Rupa and Co, 2007, page 518(13) Regmi, ibid page 495.(14) Regmi, ibid 523(15) Colonel Kirkpatrick: An Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul, Rupa & Co.2007, page 99.(16) Francis Buchanan Hamilton: An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, Rupa & Co. 2007, page 71(17) Hari Prasad Sharma Acharya : Gorakshaya Shah Bamsa, in Sanskrit with Nepali Translation, page 66-69(18) Hari Prasad Sharma Acharya : Gorakshaya Shah Bamsha, in Sanskrit with Nepali Translation,2022V.S., page 66.(19) See for detailed study Surya Mani Adhikari : Khas Samrajya ko Itihas, Bhundi Puran Prakashan, 2061.(20) Balkrishna Pokhrel: Khas Jati ko Itihis Udatta Anusandhan Addi , Biratnagar , 2055 V.S. page 662-666(21) Shree Panch Prithivinarayan Shah ko Upadesh, Nepal Praudh Sangathan, Central orking Committee,year of publication not mentioned but assumed to be around V.S. 2042/43)(22) Shree Panch Prithivinarayan Shah ko Upadesh ibid page 1-17.(23) Chittaranjan Nepali : General Bhimsen Thapa ra Tatkalin Nepal, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 2060, page133.(24) Gyanmani Nepal: Nepal Nirukta, Royal Nepal Acedemy, 2040 V.S. page 185-187.(25) D.R. Regmi: Modern Nepal- Rise and Growth in the Eighteenth Century Volume I & II,Rupa & Co,2007, page 575 and Chittaranjan Nepali: Shree Panch Rana Bahadur Shah, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 2044 V.S.,page 20-22. 12
  • (26) Ludwig F. Stiller in his book „ The Silent Cry „ Sahayogi Prakashan, Kathmandu,1976, has presented anEnglish translation of Swami Maharaj Rana Bahadur Shah ko B.S. 1862 ko Bandobast, published in Purnima,No.24: 238-67 at the behest of Dinesh Raj Pant.(27) Chittaranjan Nepali : General Bhimsen Thapa ra Tatkalin Nepal, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 2060, page131- 152.(28) Stiller- ibid, page 168-171.(29) Stiller- ibid, page 212-213.(30) Rishikesh Shaha: Modern Nepal, Vol.1, Manohar 2001, page 243.(31) Rishikesh Shah, op. cit.(32) Ludwig F. stiller, S.J. Nepal Growth of a Nation, HRD Research Center, 1993, page 86.(33) Stiller, ibid, page 107.(34) Stiller, ibid, page 127-129.(35) Martha Caddell : Education and Change – A historical Perspective on Schooling, Development and theNepali nation – state, www.oro.open.ac.uk(36) Rishikesh Shaha Modern Nepal Volume II, page 30-31, Dhundi Raj Bhandari ibid 295-96 and BalChandra Sharma ibid. 353-354.(37) The book on „Nepal‟ written by a British journalist Perceval London was first published by Constableand Co Ltd. in two volumes in (1928) had incorporated all these materials. Rupa & Co, India, has publishedthe same book in a single volume with all those materials including the maps in 2007.(38) For detailed description of judicial and social reforms carried by Chandra Shumsher please readPerceval London‟s „Nepal‟ volume II chapter XVI, Rupa & Co, 2007.(39) Ludwig F. Stiller S.J. : Nepal Growth of a Nation, HRD Research Center, 1993, page 138-139(40) Bal Chandra Sharma: Nepal ko Eitihasik Ruprekha, Krishna Kumari Devi, Varanasi, 2033, page 362-363.(41) Dhundi Raj Bhandari : Nepal ko Eitihasik Vivechana, Krishna . . . ., Vanarasi, 2038, page 317-318.(42) Rishikesh Shaha : Modern Nepal Volume II, page 149-156. In a series books “Tyas Bakhat ko Nepal”written by Sardar Bhim Bahadur Pande Part 2 and Part 3 he has given detailed description of Jooddha‟sreform activities.(43) Rishikesh Shaha, ibid page 167.(44) Shaha, ibid page 167-169. 13
  • (45) Full text of the declaration is available in “Tyas Bakhat ko Nepal “ written by Sardar Bhim BahadurPande Part 4- pages 79-84.(46) For full text of the declarations please read “Tyas Bakhat ko Nepal “part 4, page 217-226 and 232-235.(47) Keshav Prasad Bhattarai, The reporter, Weekly, August 1-7, 2011This paper was presented at a national seminar jointly organized by Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES) Nepal and Centrefor Labour and Social Studies (CLASS) Nepal at Kathmandu on August 24, 2011 14