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  • 1. Interpersonal Communication
    An introduction
    Anne D., Regina R., Rose E., Mica H., Linda M., Amber O., Katy P.
  • 2. Brainstorming!
    • Have you ever been misunderstood?
    • 3. Can you think of a time in which you felt misunderstood based upon one of the following factors:
    • 4. Personality types
    • 5. Age and gender
    • 6. Socioeconomic status
    • 7. Culture
    • 8. Nonverbal cues
    • 9. Technology (or the medium of delivery)
  • Dual nature of interpersonal communication
    Content – what is said
    Relational – how it is said
    Factors that influence interpersonal communication
    Personality types
    Age and gender
    Socioeconomic status
    Nonverbal cues
    Technology (or the medium of delivery)
  • 10. Communicating through Technology
    Through technologies communication can be either synchronous or asynchronous
    Synchronous – phones, Skype, chat reference
    Asynchronous – email, text message, twitter, blogs, Google docs, etc.
    Virtual reference can straddle the line, depending on how the service is managed.
  • 11. Relational facilitators in Virtual Reference
    Punctuation and font
    Abbreviations (internet jargon)
    Polite expressions to show deference
    Self-disclosure and humor to build rapport
    Greeting and closing rituals
    Barriers – impatience, jargon
  • 12. Nonverbal Communication
    Communication conveyed through other means other than words.
    Nonverbal communication is defined as “…eye contact, tone of voice, facial expression, posture, gestures, positioning of arms and legs, style of dress, and distance between people.” (Ross and Dewdney, 1998)
    What is this librarian telling you?
  • 13. Negative Nonverbal Communication:
    • Avoiding eye contact and looking away
    • 14. Closing eyes or tightening face muscles
    • 15. Yawning
    • 16. Slumped shoulders, head down, monotone voice
    • 17. Speaking too fast or too slow
    Nonverbal Communication
  • 18. Improving Nonverbal Skills:
    • Maintain eye contact
    • 19. Nod head to communicate you are listening/or agree
    • 20. Smile to show interest
    • 21. Lean forward to show you are interested
    • 22. Use a tone of voice that matches your message
    Nonverbal Communication
  • 23. Intercultural CommunicationCommunication Skills
    Fluency in the “host” language
    Supports and rewards others during communication (head nods, etc.)
    Selects behavior according to circumstances
    Speaks in turn
    Starts and ends a conversation appropriately
    Attentive, responsive, and perceptive
    (Chen, 1990)
  • 24. Intercultural Communication Psychological Adaptation
    Able to adapt with relative ease to a new culture
    High tolerance of ambiguity
    Able to cope with feelings of stress, frustration, and alienation
    (Chen, 1990)
  • 25. Intercultural Communication Cultural Awareness
    Learn about the culture, especially its thinking patterns
    Know the culture’s values, social customs, and social system
    (Chen, 1990)
  • 26. Preexisting knowledge about a certain culture
    small effect
    Expectations and attitudes directed towards the culture
    Actual experience with a person of that culture
    (Manning, Manusov, & Winchatz, 1997)
  • 27. Socioeconomic Status
    People with a low SES who need information may not often be assertive about getting it.
    The information professional may need to take the initiative to approach the user.
  • 28. Age
  • 29. Gender Differences
    Prefer dogmatic, pragmatic, cerebral aspects of communication
    Tendency to interrupt
    Use conversation to convey information
    Greater desire to be social
    Generally talkative
    Like to involve others in conversation
    Use conversation as a tool for facilitating interaction
  • 30. Personality Types
    Everyone is different!
    Frameworks such as the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory can help facilitate understanding
    While not all will be true of all people, there are some things to expect from different types…
  • 31. Personality Types
    Picking up on a patron’s preferences can help you meet their needs and expectations
    Knowing your own preferences can help you set them aside when they interfere with the above
    How might some of these types benefit from a non-traditional reference interview (online, in the stacks, etc…)?