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Learntheory Engl

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  • 1. Learning theories, instructional design theories and instructional design models Kai Pata
  • 2. Role of metaphors in design
    • Characteristic of the development of a new type of urban car by Honda were slogans and phrases that were a form of explication of the personal hunches of various people.
    • If the automobile were an organism, how should it evolve ?
    • The phrase described an ideal.
    • As team members argued and discussed what this slogan might mean, they came up with an answer in the form of yet another slogan : “man-maximum, machine-minimum”.
    • This captured the team’s belief that the ideal car should somehow transcend the traditional human-machine relationship.
  • 3. Role of metaphors in design
    • From considering how automobiles (taken as living beings) would evolve emerged the concept of “Tall Boy” (a car that grows higher without becoming otherwise bigger) that provided a background for modern city cars.
    L inguist George Lakoff and philosopher Mark Johnson “ Metaphors We Live By ” : The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.
  • 4. Role of metaphors in design
    • Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) provide examples of the importance of externalization of tacit knowledge for innovation in Japanese firms.
    • Personal hunches must be convertible to explicit knowledge and shared with others to be fruitful.
      • Tacit (or implicit) knowledge: mental models, experiences, stories, rituals and skills residing in the individual and private mind.
      • Explicit knowledge: formal models, processes, rules and procedures which can be communicated externally
    Nonaka I. & Takeuchi H., “The Knowledge-Creating Company”, Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • 5. Role of metaphors in design
  • 6. Role of metaphors in design Implicit metaphors of learning Instructional design theories and models Discussions about what learning is Learning theories
  • 7. Discussing metaphors and proverbs of learning
    • Learning is…..
    • What metaphors have been used for describing learning theories?
    • How are learning metaphors related with instructional designs?
    • Which learning theories are behind your learning metaphors?
  • 8. Some metaphors and proverbs about learning
    • Planting flowers -- A seed is planted in my mind which I nurture with water and sun in the faith that it will sprout and grow.
    • Being a detective -- It's all about uncovering the facts, looking for clues and asking the right questions until the whole mystery makes sense.
    • A quest -- I'm searching for that illusive something and every step I take brings me closer to what I need to know, but I never get there ... it's a continuous journey.
    • Estonian proverbs
    • Ela õppimise tarvis ja õpi elamise tarvis.
    • Kes õpib, see ka teab.
    • Töö õpetab tegijat.
    • Töö õpetab iseennast.
    • Harjutus teeb meistriks.
    • Inimene õpib hällist kunni hauani.
    • Tarkust ei saa kulbiga päha tõsta.
  • 9. Learning theories
    • Learning theory is the set of principles about learning:
      • consisting of the descriptions what initiates learning
      • how learning process proceeds,
      • and what is the result of learning (Driscoll, 1994).
    • Learning theories describe the essence of learning and predict the results of learning.
    • But…
    • Learning theories are general and give few concrete guidelines how to implement these in certain situations.
  • 10. Behavioural learning
  • 11. “ Black box” metaphor Skinner (1950) introduced behavioural learning theory: “A science of behavior must eventually deal with behavior in its relation to certain manipulable variables .
  • 12. “ Response strenghtening”metaphor 1900-1950 Learning as response strenghtening Teacher gives punishment and rewards, student reacts with teacher defined behaviour Drill, tutorial, assessment test centered learning
  • 13. Principles of behaviourism Pavlov dog ‘ conditioning reflex’ Pavlov provided the basis of behaviourism highlighting the importance of stimulus for learning. Neutral Stimulus (NS) => No Response (NR) NS + Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) => Unconditioned Response (UCR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) => Conditioned Response (CR)
  • 14. Principles of behavioural learning Skinner box Skinner, 1950: 1. Behavio u r that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective 2. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") 3. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning                                                                                      
  • 15. General e ducational i mplications of b ehaviorism Emphasis on behavior : students should be active respondents … … p eople are most likely to learn when they actually have a chance to behave . S tudent learning must be evaluated … … only measurable behavio u r changes can confirm that learning has taken place.
  • 16. Drill and practice
    • R epetition of stimulus-response habits strengthens those habits.
    • … P romotes the acquisition of knowledge or skill through repetitive practice.
    • … R efers to small tasks such as the memorization of spelling or vocabulary words, or the practicing of arithmetic facts and may also be found in more complex learning tasks or physical education games and sports.
    • … I nvolves repetition of specific skills .
    • To be meaningful to learners, the skills built through drill-and-practice should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning.
    • Drills are usually repetitive and are used as a reinforcement tool .
  • 17. Advantages of drill programs
    • personalized
    • help learners master materials at their own pace
    • mainly for the beginning learner
    • for students who are experiencing learning problems
    • interactive nature
    • DRILL program ABC
    • recognition of the type of skill being developed
    • use of appropriate strategies to develop competencies
    • use of games to increase motivation
    • provide feedback to students
  • 18. Drill programs
    • Chemistry equations
    Show answer! Check answer! 3 x Show answer => new problem New task Results: solved/correct
  • 19. Drill programs
    • Math 1
    • Math 2
    Choose activity and numbers Check answer Timer correct/wrong answers Interactivity Competition Feedback
  • 20. Drill programs Language learning Check answer Choose topic Feedback Test
  • 21. Drill programs Music Sounds -feedback from program
  • 22. Drill programs Find correct! Feedback Trials and error method Punishing system Game elements Phases: drilling and testing knowledge Biology
  • 23. Behavioural elements in computer games
    • System of tokens in computergames serves as the rewarding element.
    • Rewards and tokens are the source of extrincic motivation.
    • When behaviour is conditioned with tokens the behaviour itself becomes pleasant and can turn into the source of intrincic motivation to play the game.
  • 24. Behavioural elements in computer games Gaining experience to proceed in levels Gaining points to earn money to buy new weapons Warrock
  • 25. Behavioural elements in computer games Decisions give resourse- or environment points and you can make the environment better. When your health points decrease you can see that the environmental conditions get worse. www.honoloko.com
  • 26. Player types
    • Agressive – can do anything to win
    • Ambicious/calculating – is always motivated by victory
    • Kamikaze – does all he can to sabotage the winning chances
    • Cautious – takes minimum risks …
    • Manin et al. 2006
    • What other types could you identify related with tokens and rewards in games that are related with behavioural learning ideas?
  • 27. Cognitive learning
  • 28. “ Information processing” metaphor 1960-1970 learning as information processing (Mayer,1996). Teacher is transmissing knowledge, students are receivers of knowledge Textbooks and other content management systems.
  • 29. “ Knowledge acquisition” metaphor
    • According to the “knowledge-acquisition” metaphor learning is the construction of well-organised knowledge structures that provide students with the means of interacting with the important aspects of the problem situations.
    • Acquiring scientific knowledge takes place through conceptual change where intuitive knowledge is replaced/modified with scientifically correct knowledge.
    • “ Knowledge acquisition” metaphor is based on the idea that our brain is a container and the learning process is filling this container (B ereiter , 2002).
    Anna Sfard 1998
  • 30. “ Brain as the computer” metaphor Computer has information inputs and action outputs similarly as we receive signals from the environment with our sensory organs and react with behavours that emerge in response to the outside signals Information is recorded, decoded and processed both inside the computer and the brain, this processing provides the output behaviours. information reaction
  • 31. Model of cognitive architecture
  • 32. “ Dual-coding” theory
    • Paivio (1986) "Human cognition is unique in that it has become specialized for dealing simultaneously with language and with nonverbal objects and events.
    A dual coding theory of learning from visual and verbal materials. (Mayer, 1993)
  • 33. “ Cognitive load” theory
    • Provides guidelines to assist in the presentation of information in such a way that helps learners to optimize their intellectual performance.
    • Is based on the assumptions of:
      • an effectively unlimited longterm memory and
      • a limited working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986),
    • Aims at designing instructions that do not overburden the learners’ cognitive capabilities.
  • 34. Applications of “information processing” metaphor
    • http://mudelid.5dvision.ee/
  • 35. Constructivist learning
  • 36. “ Knowledge construction” metaphor 1980-1990 learning as knowledge construction (Mayer,1996). Student is constructing knowledge on the basis of earlier knowledge in real situations, teacher is guiding the learning process guided inquiry discussions
  • 37. Steven Weinberg “f ree-floating ” metaphor Constructivism has been illustrated by using the “free floating” metaphor that emphasises that the rules to construct individual knowledge as well as the paths of learning are unpredictable in advance. The “free-floating” idea has recently been used in elearning to describe the knowledge- management: “this is the beast that is combining the e-learning practices with the free-floating knowledge created and shared by learning organisations during their activities (Barron, 2000)”
  • 38.
    • Discovery learning is based on the "Aha!“ method.
    • Dewey wrote: "There is an intimate and necessary relation between the processes of actual experience and education".
    • Bruner believed that students learn best by discovery and that the learner is a problem solver who interacts with the environment testing hypotheses and developing generalizations.
    “ Discovery” metaphor
  • 39. “ Experiental learning” metaphor
    • The foundation of learning is experience.
    • Learning is the transformation of our experiences into knowledge, skills, attitudes, values
    • Reflection helps to transform the experiences.
    • (Kolb)
  • 40. “ Inquiry” metaphor
  • 41. Co-lab
  • 42. “ Anchoring” metaphor
    • Anchored instruction is a major paradigm for technology-based learning that has been developed by the Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV) under the leadership of John Bransford.
    • Learning and teaching activities should be designed around an 'anchor' which should be some sort of case-study or problem situation.
    Adventures of Jasper Woodbury http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/preview/AdvJW.html KNOWLEDGE
  • 43. Rock Cycle game Software http://edu. technion . ac .il/ Faculty / Faculty . asp ?FM= Yaelk
  • 44. Inquiry learning applications http://bio.edu.ee/ BGUILE http:// www . letus .org/ bguile /
  • 45. “ Young Scientist” http://bio.edu.ee/noor/
  • 46. Home water-usage simulaator http:// www . emlab . uow .edu.au/ Lake Illuka
  • 47. Nardoo river PDA for taking water-proofs Algae simulator Investigating highly polluted river http:// learningteam .org/ htmls / nardoo . html
  • 48. Constructivist learning systems
    • Concept-mapping elements
      • Gliffy http://gliffy.com/
    • Brainstorming tools
    Joint construction Belvedere http://lilt.ics.hawaii.edu/belvedere/
  • 49. Social-constructivist learning
  • 50. Roots for “knowledge building” metaphor by Scardamalia and Bereiter (1994)
    • Popper (1972) has emphasized that in addition to physical and material reality (World 1) and the reality that concerns mental states (World 2), there is a third realm (World 3), which includes conceptual entities such as theories and ideas.
    • World 3 is especially important for human beings because they do not operate only in the physical and mental realms, but also understand and develop objects belonging to the third realm. World 3 is dependent on World 2 and World 1, but it is nevertheless rather autonomous.
  • 51. “ Knowledge building” metaphor Scardamalia and Bereiter (1994)
    • Knowledge building refers to collective work for the advancement and elaboration of conceptual artifacts (product plans, business strategies, marketing plans, theories, ideas, and models) (the world of cultural knowledge).
    • An important aspect of Bereiter’s theory is to make a conceptual distinction between learning, which operates in the realm of mental states (Popper’s World 2), and knowledge building , which operates in the realm of theories and ideas (Popper’s World 3).
    Knowledge Forum (KF, see www.learn.motion.com )
  • 52. CSILE environment Environment for knowledge building in communities
  • 53. “ Negotiations” metaphor Since 1990… The social-constructive learning has been illustrated with the “negotiations” metaphor (Mayer,1996). According to this metaphor knowledge is always built in the dialogue where the actors create shared knowledge of each others’knowledge, that enables shared activity and supports individual knowledge creation.
  • 54. Community role in learning
    • The development of content alone does not lead to more effective learning and there is the need to structure and foster learning environments to enable communities to develop.
    • Learning happens through mediating artefacts within a framework of activity within a wider socio-cultural context of the rules of the community.
  • 55. “ Participation” metaphor
    • Social-constructivist learning has been illustrated with the participation metaphor (Sfard, 1998) that suggests that all learners are part of communities of practice that have certain common knowledge and skills (Lave ja Wenger).
    • Learning in the communities of practice is directed from the older members of the community towards the new members who as a result of learning move from the peripherial areas of the system towards the core of the community and become themselves the experts who can transfer the community practice.
  • 56. “ Communities of Practice ” Raub, S. (2002). Communities of Practice: A New Challenge for Human Resources Management , Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 10(2), 16-35.
  • 57. Knowledge creation in organisations Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)
  • 58. Fle3 DEMO http://fle3.uiah.fi/demo/ Synergy DEMO http://bscl.fit.fraunhofer.de/pub2/bscl.cgi/0/4 demo/demo Collaborative learning environments
  • 59. WISE http://wise. berkeley . edu kai pata2 tihane Collaborative inquiry learning environment
  • 60. Knowledge is “embedded in practices”
    • Engeström, 1999
    • Human beings do not live in a vacuum but are embedded in their sociocultural context, and that their behavior cannot be understood independently of that context.
    • Human activity is mediated through the conceptual and material cultural artifacts people use.
    • The participants focus on reconceptualizing their own activity system in relation to their shared objects of activity, both the objects and the existing scripts are reconceptualized; the activity system is transformed; and new motives and objects for the activity system are created.
    • Knowledge is always embedded in practices , in contrast to the mentalistic tradition of “knowledge in the head”.
  • 61. Processes within an activity Cole & Engeström, 1993
  • 62. Cultural Historical Activity Theory
    • In its ideal form Engeström’s model of expansive learning in work teams is based on a learning cycle with seven stages:
      • individual participants question and criticize certain existing practices.
      • they analyze the situation; that is, they analyze the historical causes and empirical inner relations of the activity system in question.
      • the participants engage in modeling a new solution to the problematic situation.
      • they examine the new model by experimenting to determine whether it works and what potentialities and limitations it has.
      • they implement the new model to explore practical action and applications.
      • they reflect on and evaluate the process.
      • they engage in consolidating the new practice in its new form.
  • 63. “ Rhizomic” metaphor
    • Rhizomic metaphor describes the endless connections in the structure of knowledge, culture, language, and thinking that is common to social-constructivist learning.
    • Differently from the roots of the tree that serve as the controlling spot for the whole tree, the rhizome has many connection-points, it has no starting- or endingpoint, it is an intermediate being, always in between two spots, describing the alliance, the connection with the idea: ..more..and more..and more…
    Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari: "Rhizome" (1976), “A Thousand Plateaus” (1980)
  • 64. Principles of social-constructivist learning environment
    • Learners build their own mental structures by interacting with the real environment.
    • Learners have access to resources and expertise and they can sequence the learning activity according to their own needs.
    • This enables to develop more engaging and student-centered , active and authentic learning environments.
    • Toolkits and other support systems guide and inform users through a process of activities.
    • (Duffy and Jonassen)
  • 65. Principles of social-constructivist learning environments
    • Learning takes place in communication acts where the information is transmissed, processed, recombinated, contrasted in problem-solving situations .
    • The cognition is always distributed , this leads to the construction of shared knowledge between individuals and the surrounded information-rich environment of resources and relationships.
  • 66. “ Ubiquitous learning” metaphor Ubiquity is the ability to be present everywhere or at several places at once. The term is derived from Latin ubique which means everywhere . Mobile learning has u biquitous ( "anytime, anywhere“ ) nature . Wikipedia
  • 67. Possibilities for ubiquitous learning (Patten et al., 2006)
  • 68. Possibilities for ubiquitous learning (Patten et al., 2006)
  • 69. Possibilities for ubiquitous learning (Patten et al., 2006)
  • 70. “ Innovative learning”
    • Innovative learning and knowledge advancement are characterized as cyclical and iterative processes , which have several implications.
    • Knowledge creation often requires sustained periods of time and is not correctly described by traditional narratives of heroic individuals making ingenious discoveries through sudden moments of insight.
    • Moreover, knowledge creation is not linear (Engeström, 1987) but a process of ambiguity and “creative chaos” (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995), involving the sense of progress.
    • Knowledge creation does not start from scratch but is a process of transforming and developing — sometimes in a radical way— existing ideas and practices .
    Hakkarainen et al., 2004
  • 71. What learning theories are behind your metaphors?
    • Learning is…..
    • Rethinking, which learning theories are behind your metaphors?
  • 72. Task 1
    • Which metaphors are behind these learning environments? Explain and illustrate with arguments!
      • FLE3 http://fle3.uiah.fi/demo/
      • Honoloko www.honoloko.com
      • “ Young Scientist” http://bio.edu.ee/noor
      • Miksike LEFO http://lefo.net/
      • Belvedere http:// lilt.ics.hawaii.edu /belvedere/
    • Discussion and comparison of arguments.
  • 73. Complexity of thinking operations Teaching paradigm transmissing constructing Situativity Basic skills knowledge Complex skills and intergrated knowledge contextualised decontextualised e-content, drill program or tutorial assesment test Cases and problems shared knoweledge construction and expertise inquiry and decision-making Behavioural learning Cognitive learning Social-constructivist learning conditioning
  • 74. Instructional-design theories
    • In his book Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of Instructional Theory (1999), C. Reigeluth conceptualizes the meaning of Instructional-Design Theory as the design-oriented approach towards teaching , which focuses on the means of attaining given goals for learning or development by offering explicit guidance on how to better help people to learn and develop.
  • 75. Instructional-design theories
    • Snelbecker (1999) has assumed that it is important, both conceptually and practically, that the instructional-design theory was the primary interest of the study , rather than instructional methods were designed as by-product of the theory construction obtained from other scientists.
    • This increases the likelihood that the important aspects of the instruction have been focused in formulating ideas, rather than on trying to force instructional processes and outcomes to fit a theory from some other area.
  • 76.
    • While the definition of Instructional-Design Theory by Reigeluth (1999) is ‘decision-oriented’ by nature, the ‘conclusion-oriented’ aspects of the design research have been emphasised by several authors (Cobb, 2001; Edelson, 2002; Sweller, 2004).
    • Cobb (2001) focuses on the role of design as a strategy for testing theories in educational research.
    • The strength of theories developed through design research originates from their explanatory power and their grounding in specific experiences (Cobb, 2001).
    • Discovering that some instructional designs are superior to others can also provide insights into human cognitive architecture that may otherwise be difficult to achieve (Sweller, 2004) .
    Instructional-design theories
  • 77. Edelson (2000) design research paradigm
    • T he design research paradigm is a strategy for developing and refining three types of theories :
      • ‘ domain theories’ that characterise the challenges and opportunities in specific teaching and learning context, describe the models how pupils learn in this context and the desired outcomes of learning;
      • ‘ design frameworks’ that provide knowledge of the properties of successful design solution; and
      • ‘ design methodologies’ which provide guidelines for successful design procedure.
  • 78. Aims of the instructional design research
    • Cronbach and Suppes (1969) distinguish between two types of inquiry:
      • ‘ conclusion-oriented’ that describes the reality and
      • ‘ decision-oriented’ that aims to change the reality.
    • First type guides the theorists (e.g. researchers) who identify and give meaning to the cause-and-effect mechanisms or flows of events in the learning domain.
    • The latter type is common to the practitioners (e.g. teachers) who need to develop applications that consider these theories and principles in various teaching situations.
  • 79. Aims of the instructional design research
    • The research related to the ‘decision- and conclusion-oriented’ instructional designs follow the opposite sequences
  • 80. ‘ C onclusion-oriented’ instructional design
    • Cobb (2001) has introduced the four-step strategy for testing theories that :
      • starts from the development of the theory,
      • continues with the derivation of the design principles from the theory and
      • translating these into concrete designs and
      • ending with the evaluation of the designs in relation to the theory.
  • 81. ’ D ecision-oriented’ instructional design research
    • The process of instructional-design aims to develop better practises for increasing certain outcomes of learning .
    • By Reigeluth (1999), any instructional-design theory identifies methods of instruction up to the detailed components, providing educators with the means how to effectively support and facilitate learning in certain situations.
  • 82.
    • The development of instructional-design framework is a continuous process of testing various methods, explaining the results of testing in the light of theory and, if necessary, complementing the methods on the basis of findings and theoretical interpretations (Reigeluth, 1999).
    • Following the main ideas brought out by Reigeluth (1999), any instructional-design framework has to provide guidance on the following points:
    ’ D ecision-oriented’ instructional design research
  • 83.
    • Identifying the circumstances under which learning has to take place.
    • Identifying the desired outcomes of learning.
    • Identifying the sound theoretical background for instructional-designs under certain circumstances.
    • Identifying the best theory driven instructional-design methods for scaffolding the learning process.
    • Identifying appropriate learning-tools for applying certain instructional-design methods and scaffolding.
    • Identifying the group of learners to whom the instructional design methods are applicable effectively.
    ’ D ecision-oriented’ instructional design research
  • 84. Iterative nature of instructional design research
    • Edelson (2002) has suggested that from the aspect of theory construction, the practical process of applying a theory to construct a design naturally exposes inconsistencies in theory and is more effective than analytical research.
    • T he important characteristic of design research is that it is not sequential but iterative movement between the states of problem analysis and design solution during which the boundary between ‘decision-oriented’ design and the ‘conclusion-oriented’ research will be eliminated.
  • 85. Instructional design models
    • Instructional design models may be defined as the visualized representations of an instructional design process, showing the main elements or phases, and their relationships.
    • The selection of instructional design model depends of the selection of the learning theory:
      • Jonassen points out that the difference :
        • * behavioral or cognitive instructional design s ha ve a predetermined outcome and intervene in the learning process to map a pre-determined concept of reality into the learner's mind
        • * constructivist learning outcomes are not always predictable, instruction should foster, not control , learning
  • 86. Instructional design models
    • Behavioural and linear design models are:
      • ADDIE is a general purpose model, most useful for creating instructional products, but also applicable for program design.
      • Dick & Carey model exemplifies the systematic approach to curriculum and program design.
      • Kemp's model is most useful for large-scale programs involving groups of people and multiple resources.
    • Social constructivist design models are spiral
      • R2D2 involves the participants into spiral design
  • 87. Instructional design models
    • Behaviorism and cognitivism both support the practice of analyzing a task and breaking it down into manageable chunks, establishing objectives, and measuring performance based on those objectives.
    • Constructivism, on the other hand, promotes a more open-ended learning experience where the methods and results of learning are not easily measured and may not be the same for each learner.
  • 88. The systems approach developed out of the 1950s and 1960s focus on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia presentations and the use of the computer in instruction.
  • 89. ADDIE The principal example of Instructional Systems Design is represented by the ADDIE model.
  • 90. Dick and Carey model
    • The Dick and Carey model prescribes a methodology for designing instruction by breaking it down into smaller components.
    • Instruction is specifically targeted on the skills and knowledge to be taught and supplies the appropriate conditions for the learning of these outcomes.
  • 91. Kemp Instructional Design Plan
  • 92. Kemp Instructional Design Plan
    • The oval shape of the model (as depicted in the "original" diagram) gives the designer the sense that the design and development process is a continuous cycle
      • Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.
      • Examine learner characteristics that should receieve attention during planning.
      • Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
      • State instructional objectives for the learner.
      • Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning
      • Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
      • Plan the instructional message and delivery.
      • Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
      • Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.
  • 93. Kemp Instructional Design Plan
    • Revision encircles all nine elements of model.
    • The two outer ovals illustrate the feedback geature, which allows the designer to make changes in the content or treatment of elements at any time during the development cycle.
    • The idea is to improve any weak parts of the program as they are discovered to better insure learners will be able to accomplish the instructional objectives at a satisfactory level.
  • 94. The Recursive, Reflective Design and Development (R2D2) model
    • was introduced in a journal article by Willis in 1995.
    • R2D2 has four overarching principles: (1) recursion, (2) reflection, (3) non-linearity, and (4) participatory design.
      • makes the design process a spiral
      • emphasizes the need for the designer to thoughtfully seek and consider feedback and ideas from many sources
      • suggests a set of focal points that need not be approached in any particular predetermined order
      • users should be involved extensively in all phases of the design and development process
  • 95. Objective-Rational Instructional Design (ID) Model
    • The process is sequential and linear
    • Planning is top down and "systematic"
    • Objectives guide development
    • Experts, who have special knowledge, are considered critical and central to ID work
    • Careful sequencing and the teaching of subskills are important
    • The goal is delivery of preselected knowledge
    • Summative evaluation is critical
    • Objective data are critical
    Willis (1995)
  • 96. I mplications of constructivism for instructional design
    • D. J onassen lists the following implications of constructivism for instructional design:
      • "...purposeful knowledge construction may be facilitated by learning environments which:
      • Provide multiple representations of reality - avoid oversimplification of instruction by by representing the natural complexity of the world
      • Present authentic tasks - contextualize
      • Provide real-world, case-based learning environments, rather than pre-determined instructional sequences
      • Foster reflective practice
      • Enable context- and content-dependent knowledge construction
      • Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation, not competition among learners for recognition
  • 97. Linking learning theories with instructional design
    • Oliver´s framework:
      • Individual – Where the individual is the focus of learning.
      • Social – learning is explained through interaction with others (such as a tutor or fellow students), through discourse and collaboration and the wider social context within which the learning takes place.
      • Reflection – Where conscious reflection on experience is the basis by which experience is transformed into learning.
      • Non-reflection – Where learning is explained with reference to processes such as conditioning, preconscious learning, skills learning and memorisation (Jarvis, Holford, & Griffin, 1998).
      • Information – Where an external body of information such as text, artefacts and bodies of knowledge form the basis of experience and the raw material for learning.
      • Experience – Where learning arises through direct experience, activity and practical application.
  • 98. Linking learning theories with instructional design Oliver´s framework: The representation emphasises the relationships between the ends of the spectrum in the form of an octahedron: • Individual – Social. • Reflection – Non-reflection. • Information – Experience. The representation is useful in terms of helping to identify learning pathways
  • 99.  
  • 100.  
  • 101.  
  • 102. Learning activities in instructional design
  • 103. Task 2
    • Form a list of activities what were present in one of your investigated learning system
    • Evaluate activities with the instructional design model in the 3 dimensions:
      • Individual – Social
      • Reflection – Non-reflection
      • Information – Experience
    • Decide what learning theories might be supported by this learning environment
    • Compare the results of your previous arguments from Task 1.