TURF AND WATER
KAREN PANTER
EXTENSION HORTICULTURE SPECIALIST
Department of Plant Sciences
University of Wyoming
LAWNS IN THE U.S.
• Home lawns cover an estimated 21 million
acres
• The average lawn is 1/3 acre
• Cool the landscape
• P...
NOT THIS…..
LOW MAINTENANCE?
Many people already
• Mow sporadically
• Fertilize little
• Irrigate but not regularly
• Little effort=li...
MOWED TOO
CLOSELY
PROPER MOWING
HEIGHT
SHALLOW, FREQUENT
WATERING
DEEP, INFREQUENT
WATERING
Comparison of High, Moderate, and Low Input Lawns
High Input Moderate Input Low Input
Wear tolerance Best Good Limited
App...
Comparative season water requirement (including summer
rainfall and irrigation) for Kentucky Bluegrass, Tall Fescue and
Bu...
KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS NOTES
• Bluegrass cultivars
differ little in their
water use rate
• Drought resistance
comes from the a...
DROUGHT TOLERANT
KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS CULTIVARS
• America
• Apollo
• Baroness
• Brilliant
• Impact
• Mallard
• Midnight
• Mi...
TURF-TYPE TALL FESCUES
• 3rd millenium SRP
• AST 7002, 9001, 9002, 9003
• Biltmore
• Bullseye
• Cezanne
• Compete
• Darlin...
FINE FESCUES
• Chewing
– Ambassador
– Compass
– Intrigue 2
– J-5 (Jamestown 5)
– LaCrosse
– Longfellow II
– SR 5130
– Trea...
FINE FESCUES (CONT.)
• Hard
– Berkshire
– Firefly
– Gotham
– Oxford
– Predator
– Reliant IV
– Scaldis
– Spartan II
– SR 30...
WATER SOURCE AND
QUALITY ARE IMPORTANT
• Municipal
• Well
• Surface
• Gray
• Salts
• Pathogens
• Nutrients
• Bicarbonates
MUNICIPAL WATER
• Typically decent quality
• Dissolved salts may be problematic
WELL WATER
• Depth is important
• Dissolved minerals
• Bicarbonates
SURFACE WATER
• Particulates
• Dissolved salts
• Pathogens
• Other
GRAY WATER
• Typically not viable
• Reuse of water from baths, showers,
washing machines, sinks
• Often contains bacteria ...
GRAY WATER CONTENTS
• If it comes from baths, showers, washing
machines, sinks
– Potential bacteria, other pathogens
– Soa...
GRAY WATER IN WYOMING
• Wyoming Gray Water
• WY allows for aerated irrigation using gray
water
– But must be NO risk of co...
General guidelines for salinity hazard of irrigation water based upon conductivity.
Limitations for use Electrical conduct...
pH: 7.8
pH is High. pH 6 to 7.2 is the preferred pH range for growth of most plants, but most plants tolerate this higher ...
soil beyond existing levels, but rather focus on protecting and replenishing the OM content e.g.by using organic
mulch. Al...
WATER REPORT #1
2013 SAME GROWER
WATER REPORT #2
SAME GROWER
BOTTOM LINE
What do you suppose
we recommended?
Karen Panter, Ph.D.
kpanter@uwyo.edu
307-766-5117
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
Turf and Water
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Turf and Water

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Turf and alternatives are presented, along with specific varieties of some types of turf grasses. Water quality information is also included.

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Turf and Water

  1. 1. TURF AND WATER KAREN PANTER EXTENSION HORTICULTURE SPECIALIST Department of Plant Sciences University of Wyoming
  2. 2. LAWNS IN THE U.S. • Home lawns cover an estimated 21 million acres • The average lawn is 1/3 acre • Cool the landscape • Provide oxygen • Anchor soil against wind and water erosion • Provide safe surface for play and recreation • Offers variety in the landscape
  3. 3. NOT THIS…..
  4. 4. LOW MAINTENANCE? Many people already • Mow sporadically • Fertilize little • Irrigate but not regularly • Little effort=little return
  5. 5. MOWED TOO CLOSELY PROPER MOWING HEIGHT
  6. 6. SHALLOW, FREQUENT WATERING DEEP, INFREQUENT WATERING
  7. 7. Comparison of High, Moderate, and Low Input Lawns High Input Moderate Input Low Input Wear tolerance Best Good Limited Appearance Best Good Limited Water High Moderate Limited Exposure Sun Sun to part shade Sun Fertilization Spring and fall Primarily fall Fall Species • Select KY bluegrass (KBG) cultivars • Perennial rye • Turf-type tall fescue • Select KBG cultivars • Turf-type tall fescue • Buffalo grass (lower elevations in WY) • Select KBG cultivars • Blue grama • Buffalo
  8. 8. Comparative season water requirement (including summer rainfall and irrigation) for Kentucky Bluegrass, Tall Fescue and Buffalograss. The typical lawn receives twice the amount of irrigation required for high input KBG.
  9. 9. KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS NOTES • Bluegrass cultivars differ little in their water use rate • Drought resistance comes from the ability to form somewhat deeper roots than the other bluegrasses • Mow at 2-3 inches • Fertilize adequately • Irrigate deeply and less frequently • Cultivate (aerate) to alleviate soil compaction • Water absorbing gels are of no benefit
  10. 10. DROUGHT TOLERANT KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS CULTIVARS • America • Apollo • Baroness • Brilliant • Impact • Mallard • Midnight • Midnight II • Monlight • Rugby II • Showcase • Total Eclipse • Unique
  11. 11. TURF-TYPE TALL FESCUES • 3rd millenium SRP • AST 7002, 9001, 9002, 9003 • Biltmore • Bullseye • Cezanne • Compete • Darlington • Einstein • Escalade • Faith • Firecracker LS • Firenza • Gazelle II • Hudson • Hunter • Justice • Lindbergh • Magellan • Monet • Mustang 4 • Padre • Raptor II • Rembrandt • Renovate • Reunion • Rhambler SRP • Skyline • Speedway • Spyder LS • SR 8650 • Talladega • Tulsa Time • Turbo • Van Goh • Wolfpack II
  12. 12. FINE FESCUES • Chewing – Ambassador – Compass – Intrigue 2 – J-5 (Jamestown 5) – LaCrosse – Longfellow II – SR 5130 – Treasure II – Zodiac • Creeping – Aberdeen – Audubon – Cardinal – Class One – Epic – Fortitude (TL 53) – Garnet – Pathfinder – Shoreline – Wendy Jean
  13. 13. FINE FESCUES (CONT.) • Hard – Berkshire – Firefly – Gotham – Oxford – Predator – Reliant IV – Scaldis – Spartan II – SR 3000 • Sheep – Quatro
  14. 14. WATER SOURCE AND QUALITY ARE IMPORTANT • Municipal • Well • Surface • Gray • Salts • Pathogens • Nutrients • Bicarbonates
  15. 15. MUNICIPAL WATER • Typically decent quality • Dissolved salts may be problematic
  16. 16. WELL WATER • Depth is important • Dissolved minerals • Bicarbonates
  17. 17. SURFACE WATER • Particulates • Dissolved salts • Pathogens • Other
  18. 18. GRAY WATER • Typically not viable • Reuse of water from baths, showers, washing machines, sinks • Often contains bacteria and other potential pathogens • Thus is a public health issue, not a water conservation strategy • May be regulated
  19. 19. GRAY WATER CONTENTS • If it comes from baths, showers, washing machines, sinks – Potential bacteria, other pathogens – Soaps – Shampoos – Conditioners – Bleaches – Fabric softeners – Oils and greases
  20. 20. GRAY WATER IN WYOMING • Wyoming Gray Water • WY allows for aerated irrigation using gray water – But must be NO risk of contact with • Humans • Animals • Edible crops (particularly by spray) • Not to be confused with black water – Toilet discharge
  21. 21. General guidelines for salinity hazard of irrigation water based upon conductivity. Limitations for use Electrical conductivity (dS/m)* None ≤0.75 Some 0.76 – 1.5 Moderate1 1.51-3.00 Severe2 ≥3.00 *dS/m at 25°C = mmhos/cm 1Leaching required at higher range 2Good drainage needed and sensitive plants may have difficulty at germination
  22. 22. pH: 7.8 pH is High. pH 6 to 7.2 is the preferred pH range for growth of most plants, but most plants tolerate this higher pH with little problem. Electrical Conductivity or Salts: 3.0 Slightly saline (E.C. = 2 to 4): salt sensitive plants can be affected. (e.g. carrot, green bean, onion, pea, radish, raspberry, strawberry). Avoid adding manure or animal-based compost since these often contain high levels of salt and will make the salinity problem worse. Leaching is the only practical way to remove excess salts. Add 6 inches of high-quality water (low in salts) to leach about 1/2 of the salt and lower soil E.C. to less than 2.0. Lime: Very High Very High: Lime is greater than 5%. Plants can still grow quite well in soil with this lime content. Texture Estimate: Sandy Clay Loam This soil may drain at a low to very low rate. Watering schedules may have to be increased to allow for better water infiltration into the soil profile. Sodium Absorption Ratio: 3.8 Low: Sodium is not a problem. Organic Material: 5.6 Organic Matter is High; no additional OM e.g. compost is needed. You don't need to build up the OM content of this soil beyond existing levels, but rather focus on protecting and replenishing the OM content e.g.by using organic mulch. Also consider a fall-planted cover crop to be used as a green manure. Nitrate: 21 N is low: Apply 0.2 lb N/100 sq ft to the soil. For each 0.1 lb of N needed, apply about 1/4 lb urea, or 1/2 lb ammonium sulfate, or 3/4 lb bloodmeal, or 1 lb corn gluten meal, or 5 lb alfalfa meal pellets per 100 sq.ft. Other mmhos/cm ppm Plant Type: Vegetable Garden State: WY Zip: 82070 Email Address: sheilabirdfarms@gmail.com Client Type: Homeowner Date Rcvd: 5/10/2013 Test Performed By: JS TD TCP Current Plant Type: Vegetable Garden Proposed Plant Type: Vegetable Garden County: Albany Current Irrigation: irrigation water Current Amendments: - Date Tested: 5/20/2013 % SOIL TEST 2013 VEGETABLE GROWER WYOMING
  23. 23. soil beyond existing levels, but rather focus on protecting and replenishing the OM content e.g.by using organic mulch. Also consider a fall-planted cover crop to be used as a green manure. Nitrate: 21 N is low: Apply 0.2 lb N/100 sq ft to the soil. For each 0.1 lb of N needed, apply about 1/4 lb urea, or 1/2 lb ammonium sulfate, or 3/4 lb bloodmeal, or 1 lb corn gluten meal, or 5 lb alfalfa meal pellets per 100 sq.ft. Other fertilizers can be used as well. Check with your local garden center or home improvement store to determine what ppm fertilizers are available in your area. When calculating fertilizer rates take the amount of N needed and divide by the % N in the fertilizer. For example, if your fertilizer contains 30% N, take 0.20 lbs (N needed) divided by 0.30 (N in the fertilizer) to get 0.7 lb of the 30% N fertilizer that is needed to apply per 100 sq.ft. For rates per 1000 sq. ft multiply the quantities by 10. Phosphorus: 56 Phosphorus is High; No additional Phosphorus is needed. Potassium: 818.5 Potassium is High; No additional K20 is needed. Zinc: 3.1 Zinc is Adequate; No additional Zn is needed. Iron: 3.4 Iron is Low; Add 4 oz. of Iron (Fe) per 1000 sq.ft. as iron chelate. Manganese: 2.1 Manganese is Adequate; No additional Mn is needed. Copper: 1.1 Copper is Adequate; No additional Cu is needed. Boron: 0.22 Boron is High. No additional boron is needed. Additional Comments: More information on landscaping and gardening can be found at www.ext.colostate.edu Be sure to check out our website at www.soiltestinglab.colostate.edu for a list of garden centers where you can find a variety of fertilizers and soil amendments. ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Gypsum is NOT Needed. Gypsum:
  24. 24. WATER REPORT #1 2013 SAME GROWER
  25. 25. WATER REPORT #2 SAME GROWER
  26. 26. BOTTOM LINE What do you suppose we recommended?
  27. 27. Karen Panter, Ph.D. kpanter@uwyo.edu 307-766-5117
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