Medium & High Power LED Driver Solutions
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Medium & High Power LED Driver Solutions

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Summary:

1. LED Lighting is evolving requiring new solutions that can support the latest generations of LEDs on the market

2. Topology choices are evolving to improve efficiency and reduce overall system cost

3. Intelligent control can enhance energy saving and extend operation lifetime even if more complex drivers are needed to support

4. We have only begun to harness what is possible with Solid State General Lighting

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Medium & High Power LED Driver Solutions Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Medium and High Power Drivers 1
  • 2. Medium/High Power LED Lighting • Broad power range (20 – 400 W) • Replace HID or Fluorescent • Power architecture based on: – End product and application needs – Many LED configurations – 1-3 power conversion stages Large Array LEDs, 2 Independent Drivers 2 • Template • Nov-12 Modular Strips of LEDs Confidential Proprietary
  • 3. Trends in High Power Lighting • Decision to use LEDs is based on total cost of operation – Upfront Purchase Cost – Maintenance Cost – Energy Cost • Controls that allow dimming, reduce energy cost and improve payback time • Drivers + Sensors + Communication = “Intelligent Control” – – – – Occupancy and activity sensors Ambient Light Sensors Constant Light output Autonomous (µC/Sensor) or Networked (wired/wireless) 3 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 4. Example: Intelligent Bi-level Lighting • LEDs are easy to dim in discrete levels of light tied to motion or activity • Typical dimming step can be at 20-30% which give significant energy savings • Many different uses – – – – – – Outdoor Parks Petrol station canopies Parking structures Stairways Refrigerator case lighting Security Lights 4 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 5. High Lumen Lighting Considerations Dimming Control PWM LED Module w/ CCR Power Supply AC PFC Isolated DC-DC DC Output (48-60V) 3 Loss producing stages PFC + DC/DC + LED Driver Overall Efficiency may be 85-88% PWM LED Lamp w/CCR PWM Courtesy: LED Lamp w/CCR • For large area lighting, many LEDs are required (40-100+ 1W LEDs) to get lumen output • New high power LEDs are simplifying drivers by only needed to drive single string CREE XP-G2 Series 450 lumens @ 1.5 A (Vf = 3.1V) 5 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 6. ON has a Broad Range of Power Solutions • Power Factor Correction Controllers • Flyback Controllers and Switchers – Quasi-resonant – Fixed Frequency • Buck Controllers and Switchers • Half Bridge Drivers and Resonant LLC Controllers • Secondary Side Controllers (Linear and Sync Rectification) • Application Specific Products Combos 6 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 7. Wide Range of Topologies Used Isolated Flyback Constant Current Fixed Voltage* Single Stage PFC Non-isolated Buck-boost, Buck or Boost Constant Current Isolated Flyback or LLC Constant Current Fixed Voltage* Non-isolated buck Constant Current PFC (CrM/CCFF/CCM) Multi-Stage * Fixed voltage drivers typically have 24-55 V output and need DC-DC Buck LED Driver like NCL30160/1, NCL30105, or CAT4201 7 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 8. Hi-PF Drivers – Single versus Two Stage Flyback or LLC or Buck • Advantages • Advantages – Direct current drive – Single switch and magnetic – Primary energy storage means low output ripple – Easy to scale in power/size – Easy to provide secondary bias power • Disadvantages – 100 / 120 Hz ripple – Higher MOSFET Stress – Wider Duty Cycle • Disadvantages – Two magnetics, at least 2 power switches – Limited to ~ 100-150 W 8 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 9. 25 W Hi-PF Single Stage Design •NCL30000 Constant On Time CrM Flyback Control – 90 – 305 Vac Input – Efficiency > 87% – Input current THD: <15%/PF > 0.97 – LED power: 25 W (Vf = 36 Vdc) – LED current: 700 mA +/- 4% – Maximum LED voltage: 44 Vdc 230 Vac 50 Hz: 447 mA pk-pk 2 470 uF Caps DN05031 Design Note 9 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 10. NCL30001 100 W Single Stage LED Driver HV Startup Multiplier Input Adjustable Constant Frequency Demo Board • Constant Current Output up to 3 A • > 2:1 VF range from 90-265 Vac • CCM Avg Current Control Flyback • EMI Frequency Jittering 10 • Template • Nov-12 AND8427 App Note Confidential Proprietary
  • 11. NCL300001 Efficiency Versus Pout Iout = 1A 90% Efficiency (%) 88% 86% 84% 120 Vac 230 Vac 82% 80% 20 25 30 35 Pout (W) 11 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary 40 45 50
  • 12. PFC Solutions for 2 Stage Architectures Power Factor Controllers Fixed Frequency Variable Frequency Discontinuous Mode CCFF NCP1605 NCP1611 NCP1612 NCP1615 PFC Handbook Interleaved PFC CrM Continuous Mode Single Stage PFC NCP1631 MC33262 NCP1607 NCP1608 NCP1653/4 NCP1652A NCL30001 “Patent Pending” Current Controlled Frequency Foldback (CCFF) control improves efficiency across line /load. Ideal for Dimmable LED Drivers 12 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 13. How the NCP1611/12 CCFF Approach Works With classic CrM / BCM control – As the load is reduced, the switching frequency increases – At light loads the controller may enter “burst mode” resulting in noise With CCFF control: – As the load is reduced, the switching frequency decreases reducing losses – At light loads the controller’s lower frequency can be clamped above audible frequency band – Skip mode operation at very light load (can be disabled for better THD) Operating in “Skip” 13 • Template • Nov-12 Valley turn on further improves efficiency and reduces EMI Confidential Proprietary
  • 14. NCP1611 Typical Application Schematic Brownout Frequency Foldback/Skip Control Output Feedback Sense  Skip can be easily disabled Two Versions: ZCD and Current sense (CS) are multiplexed onto one pin with low cost 1N4148 diode Loop Compensation A - Startup at 10.5 Vdc (typ) with soft start for auxiliary biased applications B - Higher startup of 17 Vdc (typ) with normal startup for self-biased applications allowing smaller Vcc capacitor 14 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 15. Frequency Fold-back Operation • Current flow from FFcontrol is proportional to the input line current • The voltage on FFcontrol pin determines the operating condition – – – VFF > 2.50 V VFF < 0.65 V Otherwise …. CrM …. Skip mode …. Frequency fold-foldback • RFF selection determines the point where frequency foldback is initiated • Normally, a small capacitor is placed in parallel with RFF to filter noise on the pin but not distort the waveform • See 5 Step Design Application Note for details – – NCP1611EVB – Full load, 115 Vac Input 15 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary AND9062 – NCP1611 AND9065 – NCP1612
  • 16. NCP1611/2 CCFF Comparison • Improved efficiency in light load over traditional CrM PFC as switching frequency is reduced at light load • Significant efficiency gain for wide mains starting at ~ 50% load • Improved reliability and safety without extra components Efficiency vs Load@ 230Vac Efficiency vs Load @ 115Vac 99 98 98 97 97 96 96 95 95 94 94 Efficiency (%) 100 99 Efficiency (%) 100 93 92 91 93 92 91 90 90 CCFF with Skip 88 CCFF with Skip 89 CCFF with Skip Off 89 88 CCFF with Skip Off CRM CRM 87 87 86 86 Vin= 230 Vac, Pout(max) = 160 W Vin= 115 Vac, Pout(max) = 160 W 85 85 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Relative Output Power (%) Relative Output Power (%) By forcing VFF, efficiency gain can be easily evaluated 16 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary 80 90 100
  • 17. Optimizing the FFcontrol Filter for Best THD VFF > 2.50 V …. CrM VFF < 0.65 V …. Skip mode Otherwise …. Frequency fold-foldback 17 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 18. Harmonic Content at Light Load JIS/EN61000-3-2 Class C > 25 W Pout Limits With skip inhibited, even at <20% of full load harmonics and THD are excellent 230 Vac Nominal 100 Vac Nominal Note: For 230 Vac, a 8.2 MΩ between from VCC to FFcontrol ensures that the NCP1611 does not enter skip mode 18 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 19. US Line Voltage Performance THD < 20% across wide load range 115 Vac Nominal, Full Load 115 Vac Nominal, 20% of Full Load 277 Vac Nominal, Full Load 277 Vac Nominal, 16% of Full Load 19 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 20. Other Key Features of NCP1611/12 • Performance – – – – – – Dynamic Response Enhancer for fast line/load transient response Wide Vcc Range to 35 V with Gate Voltage Clamp 20 µA typical startup, 50 µA maximum Vcc startup at 10.5V (A version) or 17 V (B Version) Line Range Detection to adjust optimize loop gain NCP1612 has PFC Okay and Independent bulk monitoring • Safety – – – – Over-current protection for saturated inductor or shorted bypass diode Output over-voltage (soft and fast) and under-voltage protection Input line brownout protection Open feedback disable and open ground fault monitoring 20 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 21. NCP1611/2 Collateral • The following items are available to allow easy evaluation and simplify the design process: – NCP1612GEVB – 160 W Demo Board: • Schematic and BOM • Gerber Files • Evaluation Board Manual – Safety Evaluation App Note – Step-by-Step Design Guide – NCP1612 Excel® based Design Tool < 13 mm height 21 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 22. HV DC/DC Second Stage Resonant Half Bridge Flyback • Single switch architecture, good • Soft switching needed for highest efficiency and lowest EMI generation efficiency, typically < 100 W • ON is a leader in fixed frequency and quasi-resonant control – – – – HV Startup QR Valley locking Robust fault protection Wide range of product offering down to 6 pin controllers 22 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 23. AC-DC Quasi-Resonant Flyback Controller Evolution 2nd Generation Advance Protection Features Features and Efficiency 1st Generation High Voltage Controllers Industry first QR AC-DC controllers with Direct Connection to High Voltage Line 4th Generation Improved No Load Power Consumption 3rd Generation Major Leap in Light Load Efficiency -Brown Out Protection -Overpower Compensation -Frequency Foldback -NCP1380 Introduces Valley Lockout - Active X2 Discharge - Power Savings Mode NCP1339 <10 mW No Load NCP1336 - HV Startup NCP1385 - No HV NCP1380 NCP1351 (VF) NCP1381 NCP1337 NCP1308 -DSS NCP1338 - OVP on Vcc NCP1207 - Better for Aux SMPS -Dual OCP for peak power -PFC Go To Standby -Fault Timer -Voltage Ref NCP1379 NCP1937 (Combo) - UVLO CrM PFC + QR NCP1382 -Latch Threshold NCP1377 - No DSS NCP1378 - Lower UVLO | 2004 | 23 • Template • Nov-12 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | Confidential Proprietary 2012 | 2013
  • 24. Isolated High Voltage Driver Topology 500 mA + • Single string, no current mis-match • 100 watts example – 20 LED = 60V (30 W) – 60 LED = 180V (90 W) Driver 90-305 Vac Input PFC+Flyback _ 24 • Template • Nov-12 • Constant Current Output • Higher voltage, lower current can improve efficiency – DC-DC Stage Eliminated (+) – Requires UL Class 1 in US >60 V – Increased fixture safety design Confidential Proprietary
  • 25. HV DC/DC Second Stage Resonant Half Bridge Flyback • Single switch architecture, good • Soft switching needed for highest efficiency and lowest EMI generation efficiency • ON is a leader in fixed frequency and quasi-resonant control – – – – HV Startup QR Valley locking Robust fault protection Wide range of product offering down to 6 pin controllers 25 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 26. Benefits of an LLC series resonant converter • Type of serial resonant converter that allows operation in relatively wide input voltage and output load range when compared to the other resonant topologies • Limited number of components: resonant tank elements can be integrated to a single transformer – only one magnetic component needed • Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) condition for the primary switches under all normal load conditions • Zero Current Switching (ZCS) for secondary diodes, no reverse recovery losses Cost effective, highly efficient and EMI friendly solution for high and medium output voltage commonly used in LED Driver topologies 26 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 27. NCP1398 High Performance Resonant Controller Value Proposition An upgraded version of the NCP1397, the NCP1398 offers the same high performance and protection features. In addition it also improves the Rt pin robustness, open/short pin protection and Brown out feature. Unique Features   Built-in drivers Adjustable & accurate minimum frequency  Fast and slow fault detection, Broken FB loop detection Benefits Application Data   Compact design Keeps the converter in the right region & ease the design  Robust and rugged power supply & help to be compliant with safety standards Others Features     Latch input, brownout Adjustable dead-time Adjustable soft start Easy no-Load operation and low standby power due to programmable skip cycle  Enable capability Market & Applications     Flat TVs High power AC adapters Desktop PCs / Servers High Power LED Drivers 27 • Template • Nov-12 Ordering & Package Information   NCP1398ADR2G (SOIC-16) = Auto-recovery NCP1398BDR2G (SOIC-16) = Latch Confidential Proprietary
  • 28. NCP1398 5th Generation LLC Controller • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • High-frequency operation from 50 kHz up to 750 kHz Adjustable minimum switching frequency with 3% accuracy Adjustable dead-time Externally adjustable soft-start Precise and high impedance Brown-out protection Latched input for severe fault conditions, e.g. over temperature or OVP Timer-based auto-recovery over-current protection Latched output short circuit protection Open feedback loop protection for NCP1398B version Disable input for ON/OFF control Skip mode with adjustable hysteresis Vcc operation up to 20 V Common collector opto-coupler connection for easier ORing Internal temperature shutdown 600 V Half-Bridge driver with 1 A / 0.5 A sink / source drive capability 28 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 29. Typical Application Schematic 29 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 30. Resonant Mode Topology is a High Efficiency Solution for LED Drivers Classical Approach NCL30051 Approach • CrM PFC + LLC • CrM PFC + Fixed Frequency Resonant Half Bridge – Ex: NCP1607 + NCP1397 – 8 pin + 16 pin SOIC – Single SOIC16 • Power control is based on changing LLC frequency • Power control is based on changing PFC bulk – Lower frequency = more power – Higher bulk = more power • Very flexible to support wide range of Vin and Vout • Limitation is dynamic range of bulk voltage • Regulates out 100/120 Hz ripple • Great to simplify Fixed Voltage LED Driver Designs 30 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 31. NCL30051 – Resonant Controller with integrated Fixed On-Time CRM PFC Value Proposition NCL30051 is a combination of a PFC and half bridge resonant controller which has all functionality to implement a high efficiency driver in a small low form factor. Regulation is achieved by varying PFC bulk voltage Unique Features Benefits Block Diagram  Half bridge driver with 600  No need for external level shifter or transformer V high side gate drive  Resonant controller with  Increases efficiency at light load. Reduces EMI fixed frequency and soft-skip  PFC with constant on-time  Excellent PF at mains with low ripple controller & error amp Others Features     Disable Input to half bridge 50 ns max rise and fall time on the high and low side gate drive 500 ns min fixed crossover dead time between drives No electrolytic outputs needed for output filtering Market & Applications   Ordering & Package Information LED Drivers and Supplies Applications include Wall packs, street lights, outdoor area lights, low and high bay lighting 31 • Template • Nov-12  NCL30051DR2G: SOIC-16 Confidential Proprietary Pb
  • 32. Simplified Application Schematic PFC Stage C Resonant Half Bridge A High Voltage Startup simplifies biasing B Simple fixed frequency resonant half bridge step down operation: • As output voltage varies at A •Feedback signal is generated at B • PFC voltage at point C changes to regulate output 32 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary Half Bridge can be disabled for PWM dimming
  • 33. NCL30051LEDGEVB Available 95 • Pout Maximum • Power Factor • CC Iout Range 90 – 265 Vac 94 >90% Efficient 35 - 45 W (Iout = 1A) 93 60 W (board limited to 120 W) but the NCL30051 is capable of power up to 250 W PF > 0.9 (50-100% of load with dimming) and IEC61000-3-2 class C compliance 92 Efficiency (%) • Universal Input 91 90 89 0.7 - 1.5 A (3 A with component changes) 120 Vac 88 230 Vac • Vout Range 35 - 50 V 87 86 • Protection Features • Output Open and Short Circuit Protection • Over Temperature • Over Current Protection - auto recovery • Over Voltage Protection – input (OVP bulk voltage) 85 34 38 42 46 LED Forward Voltage (Vdc) • Dimming • Two-step bi-level analog • PWM dimming Dimming range > 20:1 • 1-10 V analog voltage input PWM or Analog Dimming Interface 33 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary 50
  • 34. Example: Advanced Lighting Application NCP1607 NCL30105 Buck LED Driver IR Control (2x) …Two strings to implement white LED color control MCU for Dimming and Control 34 • Template • Nov-12 Whole Room Light 40-80 W 80 lm/W Confidential Proprietary
  • 35. Summary • LED Lighting is evolving requiring new solutions that can support the latest generations of LEDs on the market • Topology choices are evolving to improve efficiency and reduce overall system cost • Intelligent control can enhance energy saving and extend operation lifetime even if more complex drivers are needed to support • We have only begun to harness what is possible with Solid State General Lighting 35 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 36. Appendix 36 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary
  • 37. CCFF PFC Feature Comparison to NCP1608 Protection and Control Features NCP1608 NCP1611 NCP1612 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Soft Start A Version A Version Reduced component stress at startup High Vcc Startup Threshold/Low Icc B Version B Version Reduces Vcc capacitor size & startup time o o o o o o Fast Overvoltage Protection (F-OVP) Undervoltage Protection Soft OVP Bulk Sensing Dynamic Response Enhancer Bulk Undervoltage Protection (BUV) Independent Sensing of FOVP & BUV Cycle-by-cycle Over Current Protection Current Sense o Shorted Boost or Bypass Diode Saturated Inductor Detection Vcc - UVLO UVLO Gate Driver Pulldown Monitoring o o Line Range Gain Selection AC Line Brownout FB o CS/ZCD Open Pin Protection GND o o o o o o o o o o FOVP/BUV Disable Control Skip Mode Disable Thermal Shutdown o PFC Okay Latch Input 37 • Template • Nov-12 Confidential Proprietary Benefit Protects supply under abnormal operation Improved transient response when load is reduced Dramatically improved transient response Informs downstream controller when Bulk is too low Enhanced Fault Protection Fault Protection System Robustness, Safety Testing Fault Protection Ensures proper operation of controller Ensures FET is off during turn on and turn off Optimizes control loop for wide mains applications Improves system robustness to line faults Simplifies safety testing Simplifies PFC ON/OFF Sequencing Eliminates audible noise, improves THD & PF at light load Enhanced Fault Protection Sequencing control for downstream converter Enhanced fault control, easy to implement thermal latchoff