Physical Science Chapter 8


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Mr. McHugh's Chapter 8 study guide

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Physical Science Chapter 8

  1. 1. States of Matter <ul><li>Matter exists in 4 states: </li></ul><ul><li>SOLID, LIQUID, GAS, PLASMA </li></ul><ul><li>Particles move more </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the matter depends on its temperature. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Kinetic Theory of Matter <ul><li>All matter is made up of tiny particles that are in constant motion. EVEN SOLIDS, except their tiny particles move more slowly than liquids, gases or plasmas. </li></ul>
  3. 3. States of Matter <ul><li>SOLID = Definite shape &volume </li></ul><ul><li>LIQUID = NO definite shape but has definite volume ! </li></ul><ul><li>GAS = NO definite shape or volume </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOLIDS <ul><li>Tiny particles in solids are held very close together, but they still vibrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, solids maintain their shape and volume </li></ul>
  5. 5. LIQUIDS <ul><li>Tiny particles in liquids are held close together, but they can move around one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, liquids can change shape but their volume DOESN’T CHANGE </li></ul>
  6. 6. GASES <ul><li>Tiny particles in gases have enough energy to separate and move around in all directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, gases take the shape of their containers AND can be compressed or expanded. </li></ul>
  7. 7. PLASMA <ul><li>A gas-like mixture of positively and negatively charged particles. </li></ul><ul><li>This state of matter doesn’t occur naturally on earth. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thermal Expansion <ul><li>The characteristic of matter whereby it expands as it gets hotter and contracts as it cools. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: liquid in thermometers </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: guitar strings? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Energy Temp solid liquid melts gas (vaporization) condenses freezes + energy - energy Phase Changes
  10. 10. Heat Needed to Change State <ul><li>Heat of Fusion- amount of energy needed to change solid to liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Heat of Vaporization- Amount of energy needed to change liquid to gas. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Energy Temp solid liquid melts gas (vaporization) Heat of Fusion Heat of Vap.
  12. 12. Solid-Liquid Phase Change Melting- Change of a solid to a liquid. Occurs when a substance absorbs energy (heat). Melting point - Temp. at which a solid changes to a liquid. ex. H 2 O = 0 0 C
  13. 13. Liquid-Solid Phase Change Freezing- Change of a liquid to a solid. Occurs when a liquid loses heat (energy). Freezing Point- The temp. at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid. ex. H 2 O = 0 0 C
  14. 14. Liquid-Gas Phase Change Vaporization- The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas. Occurs when the particles of a liquid absorb energy (heat). Evaporation- When vaporization takes place at the surface of the liquid.
  15. 15. Liquid-Gas Phase Change Boiling- Process in which particles inside a liquid as well as those on the surface of a liquid change to gas. Boiling Point- Temp. at which a substance changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase.
  16. 16. Gas-Liquid Phase Change Condensation- A change from the gas to the liquid phase. Occurs when a substance in the gas phase loses energy (heat).
  17. 17. Solid - Gas Phase Change Sublimation- When the surface particles of a solid escape directly into the gas phase.
  18. 18. The Ideal Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law- The volume of a fixed amount of gas varies inversely with the pressure of a gas. As the pressure increases the volume of the gas decreases and vice-versa. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
  19. 19. The Ideal Gas Laws: Charles’s Law- As the temp. of a gas increases the volume increases. As the temp. of a gas decreases the volume decreases. T 1 V 2 = T 2 V 1
  20. 20. Boyle’ Law With a fixed amount of gas, when the ___________ is increased, the volume ____________. When the ___________ is decreased, the volume ___________. pressure decreases pressure increases
  21. 21. Charle’s Law With a fixed amount of gas, when the _______ is increased the volume ___________. When the _______ is decreased the volume ___________. temp. increases temp. decreases