Nfc kp561997 kv2_kalpakkam

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Nfc kp561997 kv2_kalpakkam

  1. 1. Near Field Communication Done By Krishnaprasad K.A.
  2. 2. What is NFC? NFC is a short range communication technology that allows communications to take place between devices that either touch or momentarily held close to each other. It is based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. It works via magnetic field induction technology and operates on an unlicensed radio frequency band.
  3. 3. Specifications Two major specifications exist for NFC technology: – ISO/IEC 14443: It defines the ID cards used to store information, such as that found in NFC tags. – ISO/IEC 18000-3: It specifies the RFID communication used by NFC devices. Distance: 10 cm or less Operates at rates ranging from 106kBit/s to 424 kBit/s.
  4. 4. USES OF NFC
  5. 5. Uses NFC builds upon RFID systems by allowing two-way communication between endpoints, where earlier systems such as contactless smart cards were one-way only. It has been used in devices such as Google Nexus, powered with Ice Cream Sandwich, named with a feature called "Android Beam" which was first introduced in Google Nexus. Android Beam uses NFC to enable Bluetooth on both devices, instantly pair them, and disable Bluetooth once complete automatically on both devices. This only works between Android devices version Jelly Bean and above. The advantage of using WiFi Direct over Bluetooth is that it is much faster than Bluetooth, having a speed of 300Mbit/s for sharing large files. Since unpowered NFC "tags" can also be read by NFC devices, it is also capable of replacing earlier one-way applications.
  6. 6. Uses in Commerce NFC devices can be used in contactless payment systems, similar to those currently used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards, and allow mobile payment to replace or supplement these systems. For example, Google Wallet allows consumers to store credit card and store loyalty card information in a virtual wallet and then use an NFC-enabled device at terminals that also accept MasterCard PayPass transactions. Germany, Austria, Finland, New Zealand, Italy, Iran and Turkey, have trialed NFC ticketing systems for public transport. Vilnius fully replaced paper tickets for public transportation with ISO/IEC 14443 Type A cards on July 1, 2013. India is implementing NFC based transactions in box offices for ticketing purposes. A partnership of Google and Equity Bank in Kenya has introduced NFC payment systems for public transport in the Capital city Nairobi under the branding "Beba Pay"
  7. 7. Uses in Wifi and BT NFC offers a low-speed connection with extremely simple setup, and can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections. For example, the Android Beam software uses NFC to complete the steps of enabling, pairing and establishing a Bluetooth connection when doing a file transfer. Nokia, BlackBerry and Sony have used NFC technology to pair Bluetooth headsets, media players, and speakers with one tap in its NFC-enabled devices. The same principle can be applied to the configuration of Wi-Fi networks.
  8. 8. Other Uses NFC can be used in social networking situations, such as sharing contacts, photos, videos or files, and entering multiplayer mobile games. In the field of social networking NFC is very useful to exchange contacts and other files. The NFC Forum promotes the potential for NFC-enabled devices to act as electronic identity documents and keycards. As NFC has a short range and supports encryption, it may be more suitable than earlier, less private RFID systems. Smartphones equipped with NFC can be paired with NFC Tags or stickers which can be programmed by NFC apps to automate tasks.These programs can allow for a change of phone settings, a text to be created and sent, an app to be launched, or any number of commands to be executed, limited only by the NFC app and other apps on the smartphone. These applications are perhaps the most practical current uses for NFC since it does not rely on a company or manufacturer but can be utilized immediately by anyone anywhere with an NFC-equipped smartphone and an NFC tag.
  9. 9. Why NFC? Wide Reach & Availability Can be used in Various Situations Very Easy to Use Value Added Services Compatible with existing RFID infrastructure
  10. 10. Comparison Aspect NFC Bluetooth Bluetooth Low Energy RFID Compatible ISO 18000 – 3 Active Active Standardisation body ISO/IEC Bluetooth SIG Bluetooth SIG Network Standard ISO 13157 Network Type Point to Point WPAN WPAN Range Less than 0.2 m ~ 100 m ~ 50 m Frequency 13.56 MHz 2.4-2.5 GHz 2.4-2.5 GHz Bit rate 424 Kbit/s 2.1Mbit/s 1 Mbit/s Set up time Less than 0.1 s Less than 6 s Less than 0.006s IEEE 802.15.1 IEEE 802.15.1
  11. 11. SECURITY ASPECTS
  12. 12. Eavesdropping The RF signal for the wireless data transfer can be picked up with antennas. The distance from which an attacker is able to eavesdrop the RF signal depends on numerous parameters, but is typically a small number of metres. Also, eavesdropping is highly affected by the communication mode. A passive device that doesn't generate its own RF field is much harder to eavesdrop on than an active device. An attacker can typically eavesdrop within 10m and 1m for active devices and passive devices, respectively. With the use of a patch loop antenna it is possible to place a receiver close to the target and disguise it. This is much like ATM skimming in that it needs to be near the location however in this case no contact with the device
  13. 13. Data Modification It is easy to destroy data by using a jammer. There is no way currently to prevent such an attack. However, if NFC devices check the RF field while they are sending, it is possible to detect attacks. It is much more difficult to modify data in such a way that it appears to be valid to users. To modify transmitted data, an intruder has to deal with the single bits of the RF signal. The feasibility of this attack, (i.e., if it is possible to change the value of a bit from 0 to 1 or the other way around), is amongst others subject to the strength of the amplitude modulation. If data is transferred with the modified Miller coding and a modulation of 100%, only certain bits can be modified. A modulation ratio of 100% makes it possible to eliminate a pause of the RF signal, but not to generate a pause where no pause has been. Thus, only a 1 that is followed by another 1 might be changed. Transmitting Manchester-encoded data with a modulation ratio of 10% permits a modification attack on all bits.
  14. 14. Walk Off Lawfully opened access to a secure NFC function or data is protected by time-out closing after a period of inactivity. Attacks may happen despite provisions to shut down access to NFC after the bearer has become inactive. The known concepts described primarily do not address the geometric distance of a fraudulent attacker using a lost communication entity against lawful access from the actual location of the registered bearer. Additional features to cover such an attack scenario dynamically shall make use of a second wireless authentication factor that remains with the bearer in case of the lost NFC communicator. Relevant approaches are described as an electronic leash or its equivalent, a wireless key.
  15. 15. Future Aspects Vehicle Ignition – A NFC enabled vehicle can be unlocked and started just by tapping the User’s NFC device onto the vehicle, thus removing the need of keys. It can also be used to communicate between the device and the vehicle and also find the health of vehicle by using specific apps Unlocking Door – Smart keyless doors can be made by implementing NFC technology into doors, where a single tap of the device onto the door would unlock it eradicating the need of a key to open it.

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