Behaviorism Learning Theory T.N. EME 2040 November 15, 2011
What is the Behaviorism Theory? Behaviorism is a view that operates on a principle of “stimulus response.” Behaviorism is the prediction and control of human behavior where independent thinking play no essential part of its teaching methods. To a behaviorist, human learning is solely an objective and experimental branch of natural science.
What is the Behaviorism Theory?The learner starts off with aclean slate.Then behavior is shaped withpositive or negativereinforcements.Positive rewards indicate theapplication of a stimulus.Negative rewards indicate thewithholding of a stimulus.Learning is defined as achange in behavior in thelearner.
Three Basic Assumptions1. Learning is manifested by a change in behavior.2. The environment shapes the behavior.3. The principles of proximity and reinforcement are central to explaining the learning process.Learning is the acquisition of new behavior throughconditioning.
Important ContributorsIvan PavlovB.F. SkinnerAlbert Bandura
Ivan PavlovPavlov became famous for hisbehavioral experiments withdogs. He won the Nobel Prizein 1904.Pavlov’s ExperimentHe provided dogs with astimulus (food.) The dogs wouldproduce his desired reflex(salivation.) He would ring abell. Eventually the dogsassociated the bell with foodand they would begin to salivatewhen he rang the bell. Thisprocess is called classicalconditioning. Classical conditioning is the natural reflex that occurs in response to a stimulus.
B.F. SkinnerSkinner conducted experiments with pigeons.He would reward them when he saw thembehaving in a desired manner. He was able toteach them to teach them complex tasks usingthe stimulus-response pattern.He believed people shape their behavior basedon the rewards/positive reinforcement theyreceive. He believed human behavior is basedon stimulus-response theory.Found that reinforcement is a powerfulmotivator.
Albert BanduraBandura believes people acquirebehaviors through the observation ofothers and then they imitate whatthey have observed.He analyzed a person’s personality asan interaction among three things: theenvironment, behavior, and theperson’s psychological processes.
Classroom ImplicationsThe teacher will reward positive behavior. Behaviorsthat are rewarded will increase.The teacher will not reward negative behavior.Behaviors that are not rewarded will decrease.Since students learn without teaching in their naturalenvironments, teachers will arrange specialopportunities to expedite learning.The teacher should: 1. Give the learner immediate feedback. 2. Break down the task into smaller steps. 3. Repeat the directions as many times as possible. 4. Work from the most simple to the most complex tasks. 5. Give positive reinforcement.
What I ThinkI believe students learn from positive and negativereinforcements. A student that receives an award for apositive behavior will be more inclined to repeat thebehavior then the student who did not receive anaward. I will practice this theory in my classroom byreinforcing behaviors that are good, such as turning inhomework and sharing with the other students. I thinkpraise is very important and it is key to the motivationof students.
Works Citedhttp://cie.asu.edu/volume8/number10/index.html#behaviorhttp://21stcenturytechnologyclassroom.blogspot.com/2009/07/behaviorism-in-classroom.htmlIntegrating Technology and Digital Media in theClassroom by Shelly, Gunter, and Gunter.