IAMAS Gainer/Funnel
2009   3   15 16
1
•       10:00 10:30
•           10:30 11:30
•               11:30 12:00
•   1   13:00 14:45
•   2   15:00 16:45
•       ...
2
•   10:00 14:45
•                15:00 16:30
•        Funnel        16:30 17:30
•              17:30 18:00
•
•
•
• 1970
•              1993 2004
  –
  –
  –
• IAMAS 2004
  –
  –
•

•

•
Make        Volume 04
   Sketch
                        2008
Make             Volume 05
Sketch / Prototype
                             2008
Make               Volume 06
Prototyping Lab:
                               2009
GAINER
GainerBook Labo   2007   2008
Making Things Talk
Arduino
Tom Igoe             2008
1/2


Gainer I/O                  1
USB                         1
               SAD-01       1
               SPP-100
   ...
2/2


              AMN11112     1
              GP2Y0A21YK   1
                           1
SoftPot       100mm        1
...
•                          ITP*1    Tom Igoe

•
             1
•

•                               1


    *1   Interactive...
ITP
ITP Winter Show 2008
• ITP                              2
• 12 17          18
• http://itp.nyu.edu/shows/winter2008/
PC
•        ASCII
•         1
Alto (1973)




              http://toastytech.com/guis/
• PC

    –
    – PC
•

           Flash
•
           Nintendo Wii
•
• iPhone
•
•

•
    LED
•
          I/O   PC
•
    ActionScript C C++ Java
•

•
•
•
•
    – Flash
    – Processing
    – Max/MSP
•
    – Gainer
    – Arduino
    – Phidgets
•
•

    –
    –
    –
    –
•
•       UNDO
PIC AVR
  program
                  A
  a0]=ain.o;
  aout.1 = 255;


                  B



                  C



       ...
PC   Arduino Wiring
       program
                                   A
       a0]=ain.o;
       aout.1 = 255;


         ...
Arduino I/O




              SparkFun Electronics
I/O   PC        Gainer Phidgets
                                A



                                B



                ...
Phidgets
Gainer


• I/O
•
  – ActionScript 2/3
  – Processing
  – Max/MSP
Gainer I/O
I/O
I/O
LED
HELLO!!
•     2007.12.22-23
•
•         19
•
•     Processing×Funnel×Gainer I/O
1 Haohao table


•
•
•            3
• NTT InterCommunication Center [ICC]
         2006.6.6-2008.3.11
1 Haohao table




             ICC
1 Haohao table
1 Haohao table
1 Haohao table
2


•
•            1
• NTT InterCommunication Center [ICC]
         2007.4.19-2008.3.9
•                     2008
2
2
2
2
2
2
2




    ICC
2




    ICC
2




    ICC
3              3
•                 11
•
•
•
• IAMAS
   2007.8.24-26
4 Mountain Guitar
•
•
    –
    –
•            I/O            PC
• IAMAS
•    CG
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•


            littleBits coffemaker*2




    *2   http://www.vimeo.com/1389390
•
    –
    –
•
    –
    –
5 Jamming Gear
•       ×
•
    –
    –
•            I/O              PC
• Make: Tokyo Meeting 01-02
  IAMAS Gangu Project
6            ephemeral melody
•          ×          ×        ×
•
• Gainer I/O              3   Max    PC
•     CG


http:/...
1
•
•
•
    –
    –
•
    –
    –
•
    –2
    –    GND
    –    V
•
    –
    –   A
•
    –
    –   Ω
• 1,000        1kΩ
• 1,000,000          1MΩ
• 1,000
    1
              1mA
• 1,000,000
      1
                     50µA
•
•
+5V   GND
LED
•
•
    –
    –
    –
•
•
•
LED
LED


• LED
        20mA
•
•
•
V =I ×R

•V    V
•I   A
•R    Ω
− LED                          ×R
                  = LED

R

                   − LED
      R=
            LED

    5.0V ...
LED
•   +5V
•   GND
•
LED   NG
LED
LED

      7
Gainer I/O

            2
•                     dout 0   1   2
    – LED
    –
•                                        *3...
1            I/O         LED        LED.fla

import gainer.*;

var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gaine...
2        I/O           LED        LED button.fla

import gainer.*;

var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, ...
dout 0   LED
dout 0   LED
3                       LED               LED dout mouse.fla

import gainer.*;

var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostq...
aout 0   LED
aout 0   LED
4      x      LED              LED aout mouse.fla

import gainer.*;

var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000,...
Gainer I/O

        2
•            din 0   1   2
    –
    –
•            ain 0 255   256
    –
    –
din 0
din 0
ain 0
ain 0
ain 0
• SignalScopeApp
•
• ain 1
•
5             0                            pot movie.fla

//
import gainer.*;

// Gainer
var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;l...
6           0                         pot sound.fla

//
import gainer.*;

// Gainer
var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localh...
2
•
•
    –
    –
    –
ain 0
ain 0
ain 0
•
• SignalScopeApp
•
•
Gainer.remap()

                7 Gainer.remap()                       pot movie remap.fla

import gainer.*;
var gio:Gainer...
ain 0
ain 0
ain 0   SoftPot
ain 0   SoftPot
ain 0   SoftPot
•
•
•
ain 0
ain 0
ain 0
• PSD
•

•       PSD movie sound.fla
din 0
• SignalScopeApp
•
•       true   false
•
    –
    –
8                                    NaPiOn movie.fla

var scheduledTime:Number = 0; //
var wasActive:Boolean = false; //
v...
9

          if (!wasActive && isActive && !isPlaying) {
              //        true
              _root.movieClip.gotoAn...
ain
ain
ain
• SignalScopeApp
• x, y, z
  –
  –
•
•
•
• SignalScopeApp
• -1     +1
• sin
10                                  acceleration basic.fla

var xMin:Number = 70; // X
var xMax:Number = 180; // X

gio.onR...
•
•   LPF
•   HPF
11                        MovingAverageFilter.as

class MovingAverageFilter {
    private var _taps:Number; //
    private...
12

        //
        for (i = 0; i < _taps; i++) {
            acc = acc + _values[i];
        }
        acc = acc / _ta...
•
    –   rising edge
    –   falling edge
•
13

var wasPressed:boolean = false; //

gio.onReady = function() {
    gio.beginDigitalInput();

     _root.onEnterFrame =...
•
    –
    –

•
1        2

                          14 1   2   set point.fla

var threshold:Number = 127; //
var hysteresis:Number = 10; ...
1           2

                               15 1   2

     _root.onEnterFrame = function() {
         var state:Number =...
1           2

                           16 1     2

     _root.onEnterFrame = function() {
         var state:Number = l...
17 2                               two switches.fla

if (gio.digitalInput[0] && !gio.digitalInput[1]) {
    //        0    ...
18 2

var val0:Number = gio.analogInput[0];
var val1:Number = gio.analogInput[1];
Gainer I/O

                           19 8

//             8
//
// din 0 ain 4
// din 1 ain 5
// din 2 ain 6
// din 3 ain...
20 3

//
// Sound()                MovieClip
var mc0 = _root.createEmptyMovieClip(quot;sound_mc0quot;,0);
var mc1 = _root....
Funnel
Gainer
•        GUI

•
Funnel


•
•
•
Gainer I/O    Arduino

               Gainer I/O   Arduino Duemilanove
               16           20
        A/D    8 8bi...
Funnel


•
    –
    –
    –
    –
•
Funnel
•
•
•
Funnel   Gainer
• Gainer
  –
  – Gainer I/O 1:1
  –
• Funnel
  –
  – Arduino XBee
  –
Funnel
Sketching User Experiences
Getting the Design Right and the Right Design
Bill Buxton Morgan Kaufmann Pub 2007
Funnel




         Bill Buxton, Sketching User Experiences (2008)
Funnel
• GUI
•
  –                      Convolution
  –                            SetPoint
  –             Scaler
  –    ...
Funnel
Arduino
• Hernando Barrag´n IDII*4
                 a
             Wiring
•

• IDE      Arduino I/O




  *4   Interaction...
Wiring




         SparkFun Electronics
Arduino Duemilanove




                SparkFun Electronics
Arduino IDE
•
    –
    –
•
LilyPad Arduino




                  SparkFun Electronics
Arduino Pro Mini




                   SparkFun Electronics
Arduino ProtoShield




                 SparkFun Electronics
Arduino XBee Shield




                SparkFun Electronics
XIO: XBee I/O Board v1.0
XIO: XBee I/O Board v1.0
Wi-Fi        Bluetooth   802.15.4 / ZigBee
IEEE       802.11b       802.15.1    802.15.4
             100m           10m  ...
Star
Point to Point




Point to Multi




                                 802.15.4 Coordinator
                         ...
IEEE 802.15.4
•               1
•
Mesh
           Coordinator
           Router
           End Device

ZigBee
ZigBee
•        1
•
•
XBee
• IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee 2          *5

  – XBee 802.15.4
  – XBee ZB ZigBee PRO
•                          3500
•
•


...
FIO (Funnel I/O)

• LilyPad Arduino v1.6
•
• XBee
FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.0
FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.0
FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.3
FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.3
FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.3

                        -   +
FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.3
FIO v1.3 vs Funnel IO Remixed
Funnel
     009
• I2C
  –
  –
  –        LED
• XBee      FIO
•
2006
•
    –
    – 3D
    –
    –
•
•
2008
IAMAS Gainer/Funnel
2009   3   15 16
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
Workshop at AXIS Inc.
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Workshop at AXIS Inc.

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Transcript of "Workshop at AXIS Inc."

  1. 1. IAMAS Gainer/Funnel 2009 3 15 16
  2. 2. 1 • 10:00 10:30 • 10:30 11:30 • 11:30 12:00 • 1 13:00 14:45 • 2 15:00 16:45 • 17:00 18:00
  3. 3. 2 • 10:00 14:45 • 15:00 16:30 • Funnel 16:30 17:30 • 17:30 18:00
  4. 4. • • •
  5. 5. • 1970 • 1993 2004 – – – • IAMAS 2004 – –
  6. 6. • • •
  7. 7. Make Volume 04 Sketch 2008
  8. 8. Make Volume 05 Sketch / Prototype 2008
  9. 9. Make Volume 06 Prototyping Lab: 2009
  10. 10. GAINER GainerBook Labo 2007 2008
  11. 11. Making Things Talk Arduino Tom Igoe 2008
  12. 12. 1/2 Gainer I/O 1 USB 1 SAD-01 1 SPP-100 470Ω 1 10kΩ 1 10kΩ B 1 CdS 5mm 1 LED 1 KMX52-1050 1 6mm 1
  13. 13. 2/2 AMN11112 1 GP2Y0A21YK 1 1 SoftPot 100mm 1 FSR FSR #402 1 SoftPot/FSR 1
  14. 14. • ITP*1 Tom Igoe • 1 • • 1 *1 Interactive Telecommunications Program
  15. 15. ITP ITP Winter Show 2008 • ITP 2 • 12 17 18 • http://itp.nyu.edu/shows/winter2008/
  16. 16. PC • ASCII • 1
  17. 17. Alto (1973) http://toastytech.com/guis/
  18. 18. • PC – – PC • Flash
  19. 19. • Nintendo Wii • • iPhone •
  20. 20. • • LED • I/O PC
  21. 21. • ActionScript C C++ Java • •
  22. 22. • •
  23. 23. • – Flash – Processing – Max/MSP • – Gainer – Arduino – Phidgets
  24. 24. • • – – – – • • UNDO
  25. 25. PIC AVR program A a0]=ain.o; aout.1 = 255; B C D
  26. 26. PC Arduino Wiring program A a0]=ain.o; aout.1 = 255; B C D PC program a0]=ain.o; aout.1 = 255;
  27. 27. Arduino I/O SparkFun Electronics
  28. 28. I/O PC Gainer Phidgets A B C D PC program a0]=ain.o; aout.1 = 255;
  29. 29. Phidgets
  30. 30. Gainer • I/O • – ActionScript 2/3 – Processing – Max/MSP
  31. 31. Gainer I/O
  32. 32. I/O
  33. 33. I/O
  34. 34. LED
  35. 35. HELLO!! • 2007.12.22-23 • • 19 • • Processing×Funnel×Gainer I/O
  36. 36. 1 Haohao table • • • 3 • NTT InterCommunication Center [ICC] 2006.6.6-2008.3.11
  37. 37. 1 Haohao table ICC
  38. 38. 1 Haohao table
  39. 39. 1 Haohao table
  40. 40. 1 Haohao table
  41. 41. 2 • • 1 • NTT InterCommunication Center [ICC] 2007.4.19-2008.3.9 • 2008
  42. 42. 2
  43. 43. 2
  44. 44. 2
  45. 45. 2
  46. 46. 2
  47. 47. 2
  48. 48. 2 ICC
  49. 49. 2 ICC
  50. 50. 2 ICC
  51. 51. 3 3 • 11 • • • • IAMAS 2007.8.24-26
  52. 52. 4 Mountain Guitar • • – – • I/O PC • IAMAS • CG
  53. 53. • • • • • •
  54. 54. • • • littleBits coffemaker*2 *2 http://www.vimeo.com/1389390
  55. 55. • – – • – –
  56. 56. 5 Jamming Gear • × • – – • I/O PC • Make: Tokyo Meeting 01-02 IAMAS Gangu Project
  57. 57. 6 ephemeral melody • × × × • • Gainer I/O 3 Max PC • CG http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usou5Xs4IQ0
  58. 58. 1 • • • – – • – –
  59. 59. • –2 – GND – V
  60. 60. • – – A
  61. 61. • – – Ω
  62. 62. • 1,000 1kΩ • 1,000,000 1MΩ • 1,000 1 1mA • 1,000,000 1 50µA
  63. 63. • •
  64. 64. +5V GND
  65. 65. LED
  66. 66. • • – – –
  67. 67. • • •
  68. 68. LED
  69. 69. LED • LED 20mA • • •
  70. 70. V =I ×R •V V •I A •R Ω
  71. 71. − LED ×R = LED R − LED R= LED 5.0V LED 1.8V 10mA 5 − 1.8 3.2 R= = = 0.01 0.01
  72. 72. LED
  73. 73. • +5V • GND •
  74. 74. LED NG
  75. 75. LED
  76. 76. LED 7
  77. 77. Gainer I/O 2 • dout 0 1 2 – LED – • *3 aout 0 255 256 – LED – *3 PWM
  78. 78. 1 I/O LED LED.fla import gainer.*; var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); //IO gio.onReady = function() { // LED sqr.onPress = function() { gio.turnOnLED(); } // LED sqr.onRelease = function() { gio.turnOffLED(); } }
  79. 79. 2 I/O LED LED button.fla import gainer.*; var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); //IO gio.onReady = function() { //I/O gio.onPressed = function() { gio.turnOnLED(); }; //I/O gio.onReleased = function() { gio.turnOffLED(); }; };
  80. 80. dout 0 LED
  81. 81. dout 0 LED
  82. 82. 3 LED LED dout mouse.fla import gainer.*; var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); gio.onReady = function() { _root.onEnterFrame = function() { // LED sqr.onPress = function() { gio.setHigh(0); }; // LED sqr.onRelease = function() { gio.setLow(0); }; }; };
  83. 83. aout 0 LED
  84. 84. aout 0 LED
  85. 85. 4 x LED LED aout mouse.fla import gainer.*; var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); gio.onReady = function() { _root.onEnterFrame = function() { // x 0 255 var brightness:Number = Math.round(255 * (_root._xmouse/Stage.width)); trace(brightness); // aout 0 brightness gio.analogOutput(0, brightness); } }
  86. 86. Gainer I/O 2 • din 0 1 2 – – • ain 0 255 256 – –
  87. 87. din 0
  88. 88. din 0
  89. 89. ain 0
  90. 90. ain 0
  91. 91. ain 0 • SignalScopeApp • • ain 1 •
  92. 92. 5 0 pot movie.fla // import gainer.*; // Gainer var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); // I/O gio.onReady = function() { // gio.beginAnalogInput(); // _root.onEnterFrame = function() { // _root.movieClip.gotoAndStop(gio.analogInput[0] + 1); }; };
  93. 93. 6 0 pot sound.fla // import gainer.*; // Gainer var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); // I/O gio.onReady = function() { // gio.beginAnalogInput(); // _root.onEnterFrame = function() { // _root.soundClip.setVolume(gio.analogInput[0] / 255 * 100); }; };
  94. 94. 2 • • – – –
  95. 95. ain 0
  96. 96. ain 0
  97. 97. ain 0 • • SignalScopeApp • •
  98. 98. Gainer.remap() 7 Gainer.remap() pot movie remap.fla import gainer.*; var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); gio.onReady = function() { gio.beginAnalogInput(); _root.onEnterFrame = function() { var val:Number; var frames:Number = movieClip._totalframes; //ain 0 0-255 val = Math.round(Gainer.remap(gio.analogInput[0], 0, 255, 1, frames)); _root.movieClip.gotoAndStop(val); }; };
  99. 99. ain 0
  100. 100. ain 0
  101. 101. ain 0 SoftPot
  102. 102. ain 0 SoftPot
  103. 103. ain 0 SoftPot • • •
  104. 104. ain 0
  105. 105. ain 0
  106. 106. ain 0 • PSD • • PSD movie sound.fla
  107. 107. din 0
  108. 108. • SignalScopeApp •
  109. 109. • true false • – –
  110. 110. 8 NaPiOn movie.fla var scheduledTime:Number = 0; // var wasActive:Boolean = false; // var isPlaying:Boolean = false; // var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE1, true); gio.onReady = function() { // gio.beginDigitalInput(); // _root.onEnterFrame = function() { // var now:Number = getTimer(); // var isActive:Boolean = gio.digitalInput[0];
  111. 111. 9 if (!wasActive && isActive && !isPlaying) { // true _root.movieClip.gotoAndPlay(1); isPlaying = true; } else if (wasActive && !isActive) { // true false 3 scheduledTime = now + 3000; } if (isPlaying && (now >= scheduledTime)) { // false _root.movieClip.stop(); isPlaying = false; } wasActive = isActive; }; };
  112. 112. ain
  113. 113. ain
  114. 114. ain • SignalScopeApp • x, y, z – –
  115. 115. • •
  116. 116. • • SignalScopeApp • -1 +1 • sin
  117. 117. 10 acceleration basic.fla var xMin:Number = 70; // X var xMax:Number = 180; // X gio.onReady = function() { this.beginAnalogInput(); // gio loop() _root.onEnterFrame = mx.utils.Delegate.create(this, loop); } function loop():Void { // -1 1 var xSinTheta:Number = Gainer.remap(this.analogInput[0], xMin, xMax, -1, 1); // var xInDegree:Number = Math.asin(xSinTheta) / Math.PI * 180; }
  118. 118. • • LPF • HPF
  119. 119. 11 MovingAverageFilter.as class MovingAverageFilter { private var _taps:Number; // private var _values:Array; // function MovingAverageFilter(taps:Number) { _taps = taps; _values = new Array(_taps); } function processSample(sample:Number):Number { var acc:Number = 0; var i:Number = 0; // _values[0] = sample;
  120. 120. 12 // for (i = 0; i < _taps; i++) { acc = acc + _values[i]; } acc = acc / _taps; // 1 // [A][B][C][D][E] ... // [A][A][B][C][D] ... for (i = _taps - 1; i > 0; i--) { _values[i] = _values[i - 1]; } return acc; } }
  121. 121. • – rising edge – falling edge •
  122. 122. 13 var wasPressed:boolean = false; // gio.onReady = function() { gio.beginDigitalInput(); _root.onEnterFrame = function() { var isPressed:boolean = gio.digitalInput[0]; // if (!wasPressed && isPressed) { // 0 1 } else if (wasPressed && !isPressed) { // 1 0 } wasPressed = isPressed; // }; };
  123. 123. • – – •
  124. 124. 1 2 14 1 2 set point.fla var threshold:Number = 127; // var hysteresis:Number = 10; // var lastState:Number = -1; // gio.onReady = function() { gio.beginAnalogInput();
  125. 125. 1 2 15 1 2 _root.onEnterFrame = function() { var state:Number = lastState; var val:Number = gio.analogInput[0]; if (val < threshold) { state = 0; } else { state = 1; } if (lastState != state) { // } lastState = state; }; };
  126. 126. 1 2 16 1 2 _root.onEnterFrame = function() { var state:Number = lastState; var val:Number = gio.analogInput[0]; if (val < (threshold - hysteresis)) { state = 0; } else if (val > (threshold + hysteresis)) { state = 1; } if (lastState != state) { // } lastState = state; }; };
  127. 127. 17 2 two switches.fla if (gio.digitalInput[0] && !gio.digitalInput[1]) { // 0 1 } else if (!gio.digitalInput[0] && gio.digitalInput[1]) { // 0 1 } else if (gio.digitalInput[0] && gio.digitalInput[1]) { // 01 } else { // 01 }
  128. 128. 18 2 var val0:Number = gio.analogInput[0]; var val1:Number = gio.analogInput[1];
  129. 129. Gainer I/O 19 8 // 8 // // din 0 ain 4 // din 1 ain 5 // din 2 ain 6 // din 3 ain 7 var gio:Gainer = new Gainer(quot;localhostquot;, 2000, Gainer.MODE2, true); // ain 7 var val:Number = gio.analogInput[7];
  130. 130. 20 3 // // Sound() MovieClip var mc0 = _root.createEmptyMovieClip(quot;sound_mc0quot;,0); var mc1 = _root.createEmptyMovieClip(quot;sound_mc1quot;,1); var mc2 = _root.createEmptyMovieClip(quot;sound_mc2quot;,2); var soundClip0 = new Sound(mc0); var soundClip1 = new Sound(mc1); var soundClip2 = new Sound(mc2); soundClip0.setVolume(100); soundClip1.setVolume(50); soundClip2.setVolume(0);
  131. 131. Funnel Gainer • GUI •
  132. 132. Funnel • • •
  133. 133. Gainer I/O Arduino Gainer I/O Arduino Duemilanove 16 20 A/D 8 8bit 6 10bit PWM 8 8bit 6 8bit 1 0 LED 1 1 D13 Yes Yes No Yes
  134. 134. Funnel • – – – – •
  135. 135. Funnel • • •
  136. 136. Funnel Gainer • Gainer – – Gainer I/O 1:1 – • Funnel – – Arduino XBee –
  137. 137. Funnel Sketching User Experiences Getting the Design Right and the Right Design Bill Buxton Morgan Kaufmann Pub 2007
  138. 138. Funnel Bill Buxton, Sketching User Experiences (2008)
  139. 139. Funnel • GUI • – Convolution – SetPoint – Scaler – Osc • I/O
  140. 140. Funnel
  141. 141. Arduino • Hernando Barrag´n IDII*4 a Wiring • • IDE Arduino I/O *4 Interaction Design Institute Ivrea
  142. 142. Wiring SparkFun Electronics
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  162. 162. FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.3
  163. 163. FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.3 - +
  164. 164. FIO (Funnel I/O) v1.3
  165. 165. FIO v1.3 vs Funnel IO Remixed
  166. 166. Funnel 009 • I2C – – – LED • XBee FIO •
  167. 167. 2006
  168. 168. • – – 3D – – • •
  169. 169. 2008
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