1. Sketching in Hardware 2011 Re-inventions and Improvements on Toolkits and Workshops July 30 2011 at Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Shigeru Kobayshi (International Academy of Media Arts and Sciences [IAMAS]) 1Hi, I’d like to talk about re-inventions and improvements on toolkits and workshops as casestudies.
2. Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 2I worked for Roland, a digital musical instrument company. I’m teaching at a small publicschool of design and media arts, and I developed toolkits such as Gainer and Funnel.Regarding Funnel, I’m really happy. Since Jeff contributed many things and introduced aboutrecent updates to you yesterday.
3. Photo: Shunsuke Takawo Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 3This is an example of Gainer hardware.
4. Photo: NTT InterCommunication Center [ICC] Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 4This is an example of usage with a breadboard, jumper wires and various components.
5. Photo: Kenichi Hagihara Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 5I created a large scale media installation consisting of 200 breadboards and 11,000 wireswith my colleagues.
6. IAMAS Gangu Project - Work in Progress (AXIS Gallery, Tokyo, 2008) 6And our school exhibits regularly at a design gallery to show results as prototypes.
7. Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 7I also write articles about prototyping for MAKE magazine in Japanese regularly.
8. Photo: Yosuke Nakanishi 8And wrote a book about Gainer toolkit
9. Photo: Kenichi Hagihara Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 9and Arduino to introduce the fun and importance of prototyping to students, hobbyists,designers, artists and engineers.
10. FIO/Arduino Fio FIO 4 x 4 (December, 2010) Designed by Shigeru Kobayashi Funnel I/O (July, 2008) Designed by Shigeru Kobayashi FIO (December, 2009) Designed by Shigeru Kobayashi and SparkFun Arduino Fio (March, 2010) Designed by Shigeru Kobayashi and SparkFun Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 10I also designed Arduino Fio with SparkFun Electronics as a open hardware product derivedfrom LilyPad Arduino.
11. Overview 1.Hardware sketching workshops w/ BlinkM & Craft ROBO 2.Small toolkits to ﬁll gaps existing toolkits 3.Collaborative work with Nissha Printing Co., Ltd. 4.Esper Domino (student work) Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 11Today, I’d like to talk about experiences regarding re-inventions and improvements throughthe process of expanding the idea of ‘prototyping’, a case study about a real project andquestions about possibilities of ‘productizing’ open source hardware products.
12. Case Study 1: LED Light Workshop• A workshop to introduce ideas of hardware sketching and personal fabrication• Hold 7 workshop since September 2010Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 12
13. Case Study 1: LED Light Workshop• Design light patterns with BlinkM Sequencer• Design lamp shades with Illustrator or Raven, then ‘fabricate’ with a Craft ROBO• Utilizing smart LEDs as a material and tinkering about both styling and engineering are keys• Asked participants sharing data onlineBlinkM + a battery pack Craft ROBOSketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 13
14. Hardware Sketching 14To compare with ‘idea sketching’, I call as ‘hardware sketching’, but it’s same as ‘sketchingin hardware’
19. 19Nice thing about digital fabrication is making models in multiple sizes is really easy.Participants could compare or combine different size models.
25. 25He found an interesting aspect through tinkering.
31. 31It was a few hours long workshop, and participants presented their interesting ‘sketches’ inthe end.
42. 42I’d like to show short movies from a different workshop.
43. 43The ﬁrst idea was projecting numbers on a wall.
44. 44The second ideas was projecting shadows on a wall.
45. 45This is the last example. He really inspired by a famous lamp, so he fabricated pieces with aCraft ROBO and designed lighting patterns with a BlinkM.
46. Case Study 1: LED Light Workshop• Proposed a way to introduce possibilities of personal fabrication and make derivatives based on others work• A few participants utilized multiple BlinkMs to create rich experiences• Found that for product design students, making by hand was easier than designing with Illustrator and Craft ROBO• I’d like to explore more deeper by combining hand working and machine working such as laser cuttingSketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 46
47. Case Study 2: Domain Speci c Toolkits • Designed toolkits over existing toolkits for workshops • Size and battery operation was important • Since most participants were non-engineers (i.e. marketers and designers) snap ‘n’ connect sensors and actuators were important • Seeed Studio’s Grove looked suitable, but wanted to show possibilities of downsizing [trend?] Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 47Since TinkerKit was not available at that time.
48. Case Study 2: Domain Speci c Toolkits 1/2• Utilized BlinkMuino to make BlinkMs as tiny Arduino boards and developed simple PCBs • BlinkMuino Shield • Twig for BlinkM• Begin with writing sketches with normal Arduino boards with serial monitoring, then switch to BlinkMuino to build small prototypes• Battery powered operation made it possible to embed into small dirty models made from cardboards or StyrofoamSketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 48
49. Case Study 2: Domain Speci c Toolkits 1/2Twig for BlinkM BlinkMuino ShieldSketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 49
50. Case Study 2: Domain Speci c Toolkits 1/2 Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 50It’s a kind of collaboration between ThingM’s BlinkM and Seeed Studio’s Grove.
51. Case Study 2: Domain Speci c Toolkits 2/2• Designed a Stem for Arduino Fio to mate with Twigs to make it possible to support rechargeable battery operation and wireless connection• By externalizing resource consuming algorithms such as Bayesian networks to a PC side, make it possible to implement rich experiences in a short timeSketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 51
52. Case Study 2: Domain Speci c Toolkits 2/2 Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 52It’s a kind of collaboration between SparkFun’s Arduino Fio and Seeed Studio’s Grove. In thenear future, it’s possible to design bridges like this for TinkerKit etc.
53. Case Study 3: Nissha Printing Co., Ltd.• Started a collaborative study with Nissha Printing Co., Ltd. since April 2010, the theme was ‘new feels and sensing for touch panels’• Nissha started as a printing company, then expanded their business to decorative printings for various products and touch panels• They wanted to explore new ideas or applications of touch panelsSketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 53
54. Case Study 3: Nissha Printing Co., Ltd.• We developed 3 prototypes for two sub-themes• First sub-theme was seals. Since seals are still the most trusted way of certiﬁcation in Japan. So we tried to propose a novel way of interaction for touch panels.Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 54
55. Case Study 3: Nissha Printing Co., Ltd. Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 55As you see, the user can put stamps on the iPad with a device. Actually, we didn’t modify theiPad. We just developed the devices and the application for iPad.
56. Case Study 3: Nissha Printing Co., Ltd.• The second sub-theme was new interfaces for page ﬂipping• Various eBook readers, such as Amazon’s Kindle and Apple’s iPad, have been proposed, but the interfaces are still work in progress• Flipping a page by a button press, a touch or a swipe gesture is OK for reading page by page, but not comfortable to ‘browse pages’ with paper magazines• So we proposed two interfaces as prototypesSketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 56
57. Case Study 3: Nissha Printing Co., Ltd. Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 57We call the ﬁrst one as ‘force sensor’. With very thin force sensor attached on each side of theframe, the user can ﬂip pages at various speeds without disturbing contents in the displaypanel.
58. Case Study 3: Nissha Printing Co., Ltd. Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 58The second one is ‘ﬂip sensor’. By ﬂipping PET ﬁlm based thin sensors on each side, the usercan ﬂip pages. If ﬂip a sensor, ﬂip a page. If ﬂip multiple sensors at once, ﬂip multiple pagesaccordingly.
59. Case Study 3: Nissha Printing Co., Ltd. • We had to develop these three prototypes in two months • To realize, we utilized various open source products • Arduino Fio based PCB: an Arduino clone with a on- board battery charger in a small form factor • SoftModem: for communication between an iPad and a board via a headphone jack as audio signals • Leaves: an open source framework for eBooks • We continue collaborative studies to explore more applications Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 59The soft modem board is also available at SparkFun as ‘Audio Jack Modem for iPhone andAndroid’.
60. Case Study 4: Esper Domino • Designer: Yasuyuki ‘Jarashi’ Suki • Visualize invisible networks physically with electronic devices like dominoes • Award-winning piece at 14th Japan Media Arts Festival etc. Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 60The last case study is a student project. Esper Domino is designed by Yasuyuki Suki. It’s anelectronic domino to visualize invisible networks physically. Please watch a short movie.
61. Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 61It’s a set of dominoes. But unlike normal dominoes, falls without touching each other. Theuser can change IDs by shaking to create sequences. By conﬁguring a sequence, orcombining with normal dominoes, a player can enjoy in various ways.
62. Case Study 4: Esper Domino The idea sketch Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 62This is the idea sketch of Esper Domino. From a product design viewpoint, it’s just arectangular parallelepiped. So physical interaction was the key. Frankly speaking, I felt thattoo straightforward when I heard his idea at ﬁrst time.
63. Case Study 4: Esper Domino The ﬁrst prototype Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 63But he realized in very short time with utilizing a 3d printer and existing modules.
64. Case Study 4: Esper Domino The shell of the 1st prototype (built with 3d printing) Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 64This is the outside of the ﬁrst prototype. Since he had no time for ﬁnishing, the pieces werejust printed by the 3d printer.
65. Case Study 4: Esper Domino Miga NanoMuscle purchased from SparkFun The PCB of the 1st prototype Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 65This is the inside of the ﬁrst prototype. Key components are a XBee RF modem and a metalmuscle actuator purchased from SparkFun. By combining existing modules, he could developa prototype in a short while.
66. Case Study 4: Esper Domino Comparison between prototypes from 1st (right) to 4th (left) and oﬃcial domino piece Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 66This is the changes about prototypes. The rightmost one is the ﬁrst. The leftmost one is anormal domino to compare with. As you see, the fourth prototype is mostly same as normaldomino. The ﬁrst prototype requires a PC to demonstrate and runs only one or two hours, soexhibiting for a whole day was a big hassle since he had to change batteries several times pera day. The ﬁnal prototype is stand alone, and runs over eight hours. So much improved incomparison to the ﬁrst prototype.
67. Case Study 4: Esper Domino a derivative a derivative LilyPad Arduino Arduino Fio Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 67This is the inside of the fourth prototype. He derived the third and fourth prototype fromArduino Fio. This is really interesting for me, since we derived Arduino Fio from LilyPadArduino. So these prototypes were derivatives of LilyPad Arduino even though looks reallydifferent. Regarding Esper Domino, I just gave him a few suggestions, but by utilizing openhardware and 3d printing technology, he created ﬁne prototypes through iteration processes.
68. Question 1 How many people have an iPhone 4? 68In the end of my presentation, I’d like to ask you a couple of questions.
69. Question 2 How many people using with a case or bumper? 69Thank you very much. I’d like to explain why I asked these questions.
70. http://www.hacoa.com/ http://inter-culture.jp/ 70This is an iPhone 4 cover made by Hacoa and Inter Culture. The former is a Japanesecompany who are a small manufacturer dedicated for wood products, and the latter is a 3dprinting fab. They manufacture high quality cases with user customize options. When Ilooked their products, for me, iPhone 4 began to seem not ‘A product’ anymore but ‘Acomponent’. I mean, iPhone 4 is A component and accomplished in a user’s hands. This isjust my personal interpretation, but I was really inspired by this experience to think aboutpossibilities of non mass production utilizing ‘made by hand’ and novel fabricationtechnologies such as 3d printing. Since there are no big differences between ‘prototypes’ and‘products’ in these domains.
71. ‘Mountain Guitar’ by Junichi Kanebako (Sketching 2007) ‘Jamming Gear’ by So Kanno and Kenichiro Saigo (Sketching 2008) ‘Esper Domino’ by Yasuyuki ‘Jarashi’ Suki (Sketching 2011) 71In the past Sketching meetings, I introduced student projects. Actually, none of them wereproductized. It’s true that we focused on exploring possibilities of electronic toys rather thanaiming at commercialization at big toy companies. But we’d like to ‘productize’ items like thisas open hardware products. I’ll start the project real soon now.
72. What’s Next? • How to ‘productize’ prototypes without using traditional mass fabrication technologies such as molds that requires huge investments? • Combining handcraft and new fabrication technologies such as 3d printing and utilizing open software and hardware will be the key • Let’s try to productize casually and provide as case studies • Of course, will be open hardware products Sketching in Hardware 2011 | Shigeru Kobayashi 72Start to have discussions with graduated students and colleagues.
73. Thank you very much for listeningand please give me suggestions! 73